Robust Detection of R-Wave Using Wavelet Technique
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the
backbone of cardiology. ECG is composed of P, QRS & T waves and
information related to cardiac diseases can be extracted from the
intervals and amplitudes of these waves. The first step in extracting
ECG features starts from the accurate detection of R peaks in the
QRS complex. We have developed a robust R wave detector using
wavelets. The wavelets used for detection are Daubechies and
Symmetric. The method does not require any preprocessing therefore,
only needs the ECG correct recordings while implementing the
detection. The database has been collected from MIT-BIH arrhythmia
database and the signals from Lead-II have been analyzed. MatLab
7.0 has been used to develop the algorithm. The ECG signal under
test has been decomposed to the required level using the selected
wavelet and the selection of detail coefficient d4 has been done based
on energy, frequency and cross-correlation analysis of decomposition
structure of ECG signal. The robustness of the method is apparent
from the obtained results.
Inter-frame Collusion Attack in SS-N Video Watermarking System
Video watermarking is usually considered as watermarking of a set of still images. In frame-by-frame watermarking approach, each video frame is seen as a single watermarked image, so collusion attack is more critical in video watermarking. If the same or redundant watermark is used for embedding in every frame of video, the watermark can be estimated and then removed by watermark estimate remodolulation (WER) attack. Also if uncorrelated watermarks are used for every frame, these watermarks can be washed out with frame temporal filtering (FTF). Switching watermark system or so-called SS-N system has better performance against WER and FTF attacks. In this system, for each frame, the watermark is randomly picked up from a finite pool of watermark patterns. At first SS-N system will be surveyed and then a new collusion attack for SS-N system will be proposed using a new algorithm for separating video frame based on watermark pattern. So N sets will be built in which every set contains frames carrying the same watermark. After that, using WER attack in every set, N different watermark patterns will be estimated and removed later.
Interactive Compromise Approach with Particle Swarm Optimization for Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch
In this paper, an Interactive Compromise Approach
with Particle Swarm Optimization(ICA-PSO) is presented to solve the
Economic Emission Dispatch(EED) problem. The cost function and
emission function are modeled as the nonsmooth functions,
respectively. The bi-objective including both the minimization of cost
and emission is formulated in this paper. ICA-PSO is proposed to
solve EED problem for finding a better compromise solution. The
solution methodology can offer a global or near-global solution for
decision-making requirements. The effectiveness and efficiency of
ICA-PSO are demonstrated by a sample test system. Test results can
be shown that the proposed method provide a practical and flexible
framework for power dispatch.
Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid Wind/PV Plant Considering Reliability Indices
The utilization of renewable energy sources in electric
power systems is increasing quickly because of public apprehensions
for unpleasant environmental impacts and increase in the energy
costs involved with the use of conventional energy sources. Despite
the application of these energy sources can considerably diminish the
system fuel costs, they can also have significant influence on the
system reliability. Therefore an appropriate combination of the
system reliability indices level and capital investment costs of system
is vital. This paper presents a hybrid wind/photovoltaic plant, with
the aim of supplying IEEE reliability test system load pattern while
the plant capital investment costs is minimized by applying a hybrid
particle swarm optimization (PSO) / harmony search (HS) approach,
and the system fulfills the appropriate level of reliability.
Posture Recognition using Combined Statistical and Geometrical Feature Vectors based on SVM
It is hard to percept the interaction process with machines when visual information is not available. In this paper, we have addressed this issue to provide interaction through visual techniques. Posture recognition is done for American Sign Language to recognize static alphabets and numbers. 3D information is exploited to obtain segmentation of hands and face using normal Gaussian distribution and depth information. Features for posture recognition are computed using statistical and geometrical properties which are translation, rotation and scale invariant. Hu-Moment as statistical features and; circularity and rectangularity as geometrical features are incorporated to build the feature vectors. These feature vectors are used to train SVM for classification that recognizes static alphabets and numbers. For the alphabets, curvature analysis is carried out to reduce the misclassifications. The experimental results show that proposed system recognizes posture symbols by achieving recognition rate of 98.65% and 98.6% for ASL alphabets and numbers respectively.
Hardware Approach to Solving Password Exposure Problem through Keyboard Sniff
This paper introduces a hardware solution to password
exposure problem caused by direct accesses to the keyboard hardware
interfaces through which a possible attacker is able to grab user-s
password even where existing countermeasures are deployed. Several
researches have proposed reasonable software based solutions to the
problem for years. However, recently introduced hardware
vulnerability problems have neutralized the software approaches and
yet proposed any effective software solution to the vulnerability.
Hardware approach in this paper is expected as the only solution to the
FleGSens – Secure Area Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks
In the project FleGSens, a wireless sensor network
(WSN) for the surveillance of critical areas and properties is currently developed which incorporates mechanisms to ensure information
security. The intended prototype consists of 200 sensor nodes for
monitoring a 500m long land strip. The system is focused on ensuring
integrity and authenticity of generated alarms and availability in the
presence of an attacker who may even compromise a limited number
of sensor nodes. In this paper, two of the main protocols developed
in the project are presented, a tracking protocol to provide secure
detection of trespasses within the monitored area and a protocol for secure detection of node failures. Simulation results of networks
containing 200 and 2000 nodes as well as the results of the first prototype comprising a network of 16 nodes are presented. The focus of the simulations and prototype are functional testing of the protocols
and particularly demonstrating the impact and cost of several attacks.
XPM Response of Multiple Quantum Well chirped DFB-SOA All Optical Flip-Flop Switching
In this paper, based on the coupled-mode and carrier rate equations, derivation of a dynamic model and numerically analysis of a MQW chirped DFB-SOA all-optical flip-flop is done precisely. We have analyzed the effects of strains of QW and MQW and cross phase modulation (XPM) on the dynamic response, and rise and fall times of the DFB-SOA all optical flip flop. We have shown that strained MQW active region in under an optimized condition into a DFB-SOA with chirped grating can improve the switching ON speed limitation in such a of the device, significantly while the fall time is increased. The values of the rise times for such an all optical flip-flop, are obtained in an optimized condition, areas tr=255ps.
Harmonic Analysis of 240 V AC Power Supply using TMS320C6713 DSK
The presence of harmonic in power system is a major
concerned to power engineers for many years. With the increasing
usage of nonlinear loads in power systems, the harmonic pollution
becomes more serious. One of the widely used computation
algorithm for harmonic analysis is fast Fourier transform (FFT). In
this paper, a harmonic analyzer using FFT was implemented on
TMS320C6713 DSK. The supply voltage of 240 V 59 Hz is stepped
down to 5V using a voltage divider in order to match the power
rating of the DSK input. The output from the DSK was displayed on
oscilloscope and Code Composer Studio™ software. This work has
demonstrated the possibility of analyzing the 240V power supply
harmonic content using the DSK board.
Automatic Voice Classification System Based on Traditional Korean Medicine
This paper introduces an automatic voice classification
system for the diagnosis of individual constitution based on Sasang
Constitutional Medicine (SCM) in Traditional Korean Medicine
(TKM). For the developing of this algorithm, we used the voices of
309 female speakers and extracted a total of 134 speech features from
the voice data consisting of 5 sustained vowels and one sentence. The
classification system, based on a rule-based algorithm that is derived
from a non parametric statistical method, presents 3 types of decisions:
reserved, positive and negative decisions. In conclusion, 71.5% of the
voice data were diagnosed by this system, of which 47.7% were
correct positive decisions and 69.7% were correct negative decisions.
A New Approach to Image Segmentation via Fuzzification of Rènyi Entropy of Generalized Distributions
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for image
segmentation via fuzzification of Rènyi Entropy of Generalized
Distributions (REGD). The fuzzy REGD is used to precisely measure
the structural information of image and to locate the optimal
threshold desired by segmentation. The proposed approach draws
upon the postulation that the optimal threshold concurs with
maximum information content of the distribution. The contributions
in the paper are as follow: Initially, the fuzzy REGD as a measure of
the spatial structure of image is introduced. Then, we propose an
efficient entropic segmentation approach using fuzzy REGD.
However the proposed approach belongs to entropic segmentation
approaches (i.e. these approaches are commonly applied to grayscale
images), it is adapted to be viable for segmenting color images.
Lastly, diverse experiments on real images that show the superior
performance of the proposed method are carried out.
Fuzzy Controller Design for Ball and Beam System with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization
In this paper, an improved ant colony optimization
(ACO) algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance of global
optimum search. The strategy of the proposed algorithm has the
capability of fuzzy pheromone updating, adaptive parameter tuning,
and mechanism resetting. The proposed method is utilized to tune the
parameters of the fuzzy controller for a real beam and ball system.
Simulation and experimental results indicate that better performance
can be achieved compared to the conventional ACO algorithms in the
aspect of convergence speed and accuracy.
Application of HSA and GA in Optimal Placement of FACTS Devices Considering Voltage Stability and Losses
Voltage collapse is instability of heavily loaded electric
power systems that cause to declining voltages and blackout. Power
systems are predicated to become more heavily loaded in the future
decade as the demand for electric power rises while economic and
environmental concerns limit the construction of new transmission
and generation capacity. Heavily loaded power systems are closer to
their stability limits and voltage collapse blackouts will occur if
suitable monitoring and control measures are not taken. To control
transmission lines, it can be used from FACTS devices.
In this paper Harmony search algorithm (HSA) and Genetic
Algorithm (GA) have applied to determine optimal location of
FACTS devices in a power system to improve power system stability.
Three types of FACTS devices (TCPAT, UPFS, and SVC) have been
introduced. Bus under voltage has been solved by controlling reactive
power of shunt compensator. Also a combined series-shunt
compensators has been also used to control transmission power flow
and bus voltage simultaneously.
Different scenarios have been considered. First TCPAT, UPFS, and
SVC are placed solely in transmission lines and indices have been
calculated. Then two types of above controller try to improve
parameters randomly. The last scenario tries to make better voltage
stability index and losses by implementation of three types controller
simultaneously. These scenarios are executed on typical 34-bus test
system and yields efficiency in improvement of voltage profile and
reduction of power losses; it also may permit an increase in power
transfer capacity, maximum loading, and voltage stability margin.
Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS
A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with
negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is
demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and
optical coherence are not affected on this filter.
Electrical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Unit with Non-Uniform Inlet Flow and High Fuel Utilization
This study investigates the electrical performance of a
planar solid oxide fuel cell unit with cross-flow configuration when the fuel utilization gets higher and the fuel inlet flow are non-uniform.
A software package in this study solves two-dimensional,
simultaneous, partial differential equations of mass, energy, and
electro-chemistry, without considering stack direction variation. The
results show that the fuel utilization increases with a decrease in the molar flow rate, and the average current density decreases when the
molar flow rate drops. In addition, non-uniform Pattern A will induce more severe happening of non-reaction area in the corner of the fuel
exit and the air inlet. This non-reaction area deteriorates the average
current density and then deteriorates the electrical performance to –7%.
Resonant DC Link in PWM AC Chopper
This paper proposes a resonant dc link in PWM ac
chopper. This can solve the spike problems and also reduce the
switching loss. The configuration and PWM pattern of the proposed
technique are presented. The simulation results are used to confirm
Motion Detection Techniques Using Optical Flow
Motion detection is very important in image
processing. One way of detecting motion is using optical flow.
Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent
measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while
the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed.
The method used for finding the optical flow in this project is
assuming that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies
smoothly almost everywhere in the image. This technique is later
used in developing software for motion detection which has the
capability to carry out four types of motion detection. The motion
detection software presented in this project also can highlight motion
region, count motion level as well as counting object numbers. Many
objects such as vehicles and human from video streams can be
recognized by applying optical flow technique.
Elimination Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold
Due to some reasons, observed images are degraded which are mainly caused by noise. Recently image denoising using the wavelet transform has been attracting much attention. Waveletbased approach provides a particularly useful method for image denoising when the preservation of edges in the scene is of importance because the local adaptivity is based explicitly on the values of the wavelet detail coefficients. In this paper, we propose several methods of noise removal from degraded images with Gaussian noise by using adaptive wavelet threshold (Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink and Normal Shrink). The proposed thresholds are simple and adaptive to each subband because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholds remove noise significantly and preserve the edges in the scene.
A new Adaptive Approach for Histogram based Mouth Segmentation
The segmentation of mouth and lips is a fundamental
problem in facial image analyisis. In this paper we propose a method
for lip segmentation based on rg-color histogram. Statistical analysis
shows, using the rg-color-space is optimal for this purpose of a pure
color based segmentation. Initially a rough adaptive threshold selects
a histogram region, that assures that all pixels in that region are
skin pixels. Based on that pixels we build a gaussian model which
represents the skin pixels distribution and is utilized to obtain a
refined, optimal threshold. We are not incorporating shape or edge
information. In experiments we show the performance of our lip pixel
segmentation method compared to the ground truth of our dataset and
a conventional watershed algorithm.
Trust Based Energy Aware Reliable Reactive Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Trust and Energy consumption is the most challenging
issue in routing protocol design for Mobile ad hoc networks
(MANETs), since mobile nodes are battery powered and nodes
behaviour are unpredictable. Furthermore replacing and recharging
batteries and making nodes co-operative is often impossible in
critical environments like military applications. In this paper, we
propose a trust based energy aware routing model in MANET.
During route discovery, node with more trust and maximum energy
capacity is selected as a router based on a parameter called
'Reliability'. Route request from the source is accepted by a node
only if its reliability is high. Otherwise, the route request is
discarded. This approach forms a reliable route from source to
destination thus increasing network life time, improving energy
utilization and decreasing number of packet loss during transmission.
Effective Image and Video Error Concealment using RST-Invariant Partial Patch Matching Model and Exemplar-based Inpainting
An effective visual error concealment method has been presented by employing a robust rotation, scale, and translation (RST) invariant partial patch matching model (RSTI-PPMM) and
exemplar-based inpainting. While the proposed robust and inherently
feature-enhanced texture synthesis approach ensures the generation
of excellent and perceptually plausible visual error concealment results, the outlier pruning property guarantees the significant quality improvements, both quantitatively and qualitatively. No intermediate
user-interaction is required for the pre-segmented media and the
presented method follows a bootstrapping approach for an automatic
visual loss recovery and the image and video error concealment.
A Method for Iris Recognition Based on 1D Coiflet Wavelet
There have been numerous implementations of
security system using biometric, especially for identification and
verification cases. An example of pattern used in biometric is the iris
pattern in human eye. The iris pattern is considered unique for each
person. The use of iris pattern poses problems in encoding the human
In this research, an efficient iris recognition method is proposed.
In the proposed method the iris segmentation is based on the
observation that the pupil has lower intensity than the iris, and the
iris has lower intensity than the sclera. By detecting the boundary
between the pupil and the iris and the boundary between the iris and
the sclera, the iris area can be separated from pupil and sclera. A step
is taken to reduce the effect of eyelashes and specular reflection of
pupil. Then the four levels Coiflet wavelet transform is applied to the
extracted iris image. The modified Hamming distance is employed to
measure the similarity between two irises.
This research yields the identification success rate of 84.25% for
the CASIA version 1.0 database. The method gives an accuracy of
77.78% for the left eyes of MMU 1 database and 86.67% for the
right eyes. The time required for the encoding process, from the
segmentation until the iris code is generated, is 0.7096 seconds.
These results show that the accuracy and speed of the method is
better than many other methods.
Application of l1-Norm Minimization Technique to Image Retrieval
Image retrieval is a topic where scientific interest is currently high. The important steps associated with image retrieval system are the extraction of discriminative features and a feasible similarity metric for retrieving the database images that are similar in content with the search image. Gabor filtering is a widely adopted technique for feature extraction from the texture images. The recently proposed sparsity promoting l1-norm minimization technique finds the sparsest solution of an under-determined system of linear equations. In the present paper, the l1-norm minimization technique as a similarity metric is used in image retrieval. It is demonstrated through simulation results that the l1-norm minimization technique provides a promising alternative to existing similarity metrics. In particular, the cases where the l1-norm minimization technique works better than the Euclidean distance metric are singled out.
A Reliable Secure Multicast Key Distribution Scheme for Mobile Adhoc Networks
Reliable secure multicast communication in mobile
adhoc networks is challenging due to its inherent characteristics of
infrastructure-less architecture with lack of central authority, high
packet loss rates and limited resources such as bandwidth, time and
power. Many emerging commercial and military applications require
secure multicast communication in adhoc environments. Hence key
management is the fundamental challenge in achieving reliable
secure communication using multicast key distribution for mobile
adhoc networks. Thus in designing a reliable multicast key
distribution scheme, reliability and congestion control over
throughput are essential components. This paper proposes and
evaluates the performance of an enhanced optimized multicast cluster
tree algorithm with destination sequenced distance vector routing
protocol to provide reliable multicast key distribution. Simulation
results in NS2 accurately predict the performance of proposed
scheme in terms of key delivery ratio and packet loss rate under
varying network conditions. This proposed scheme achieves
reliability, while exhibiting low packet loss rate with high key
delivery ratio compared with the existing scheme.
Intelligent Caching in on-demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks
An on-demand routing protocol for wireless ad hoc
networks is one that searches for and attempts to discover a route to
some destination node only when a sending node originates a data
packet addressed to that node. In order to avoid the need for such a
route discovery to be performed before each data packet is sent, such
routing protocols must cache routes previously discovered. This
paper presents an analysis of the effect of intelligent caching in a non
clustered network, using on-demand routing protocols in wireless ad
hoc networks. The analysis carried out is based on the Dynamic
Source Routing protocol (DSR), which operates entirely on-demand.
DSR uses the cache in every node to save the paths that are learnt
during route discovery procedure. In this implementation, caching
these paths only at intermediate nodes and using the paths from these
caches when required is tried. This technique helps in storing more
number of routes that are learnt without erasing the entries in the
cache, to store a new route that is learnt.
The simulation results on DSR have shown that this technique
drastically increases the available memory for caching the routes
discovered without affecting the performance of the DSR routing
protocol in any way, except for a small increase in end to end delay.
A Codebook-based Redundancy Suppression Mechanism with Lifetime Prediction in Cluster-based WSN
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of sensor
nodes which are designed to sense the environment, transmit sensed
data back to the base station via multi-hop routing to reconstruct
physical phenomena. Since physical phenomena exists significant
overlaps between temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy, it is
necessary to use Redundancy Suppression Algorithms (RSA) for sensor
node to lower energy consumption by reducing the transmission
of redundancy. A conventional algorithm of RSAs is threshold-based
RSA, which sets threshold to suppress redundant data. Although
many temporal and spatial RSAs are proposed, temporal-spatial RSA
are seldom to be proposed because it is difficult to determine when
to utilize temporal or spatial RSAs. In this paper, we proposed a
novel temporal-spatial redundancy suppression algorithm, Codebookbase
Redundancy Suppression Mechanism (CRSM). CRSM adopts
vector quantization to generate a codebook, which is easily used to
implement temporal-spatial RSA. CRSM not only achieves power
saving and reliability for WSN, but also provides the predictability
of network lifetime. Simulation result shows that the network lifetime
of CRSM outperforms at least 23% of that of other RSAs.
Radio over Fiber as a Cost Effective Technology for Transmission of WiMAX Signals
In this paper, an overview of the radio over fiber (RoF) technology is provided. Obstacles for reducing the capital and operational expenses in the existing systems are discussed in various perspectives. Some possible RoF deployment scenarios for WiMAX
data transmission are proposed as a means for capital and operational
expenses reduction. IEEE 802.16a standard based end-to-end physical layer model is simulated including intensity modulated direct detection RoF technology. Finally the feasibility of RoF
technology to carry WiMAX signals between the base station and the
remote antenna units is demonstrated using the simulation results.