Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 25

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 25
    Regional Analysis of Streamflow Drought: A Case Study for Southwestern Iran
    Droughts are complex, natural hazards that, to a varying degree, affect some parts of the world every year. The range of drought impacts is related to drought occurring in different stages of the hydrological cycle and usually different types of droughts, such as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomical are distinguished. Streamflow drought was analyzed by the method of truncation level (at 70% level) on daily discharges measured in 54 hydrometric stations in southwestern Iran. Frequency analysis was carried out for annual maximum series (AMS) of drought deficit volume and duration series. Some factors including physiographic, climatic, geologic, and vegetation cover were studied as influential factors in the regional analysis. According to the results of factor analysis, six most effective factors were identified as area, rainfall from December to February, the percent of area with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
    A Family of Affine Projection Adaptive Filtering Algorithms With Selective Regressors
    In this paper we present a general formalism for the establishment of the family of selective regressor affine projection algorithms (SR-APA). The SR-APA, the SR regularized APA (SR-RAPA), the SR partial rank algorithm (SR-PRA), the SR binormalized data reusing least mean squares (SR-BNDR-LMS), and the SR normalized LMS with orthogonal correction factors (SR-NLMS-OCF) algorithms are established by this general formalism. We demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithms through simulations in acoustic echo cancellation scenario.
    Modeling and Simulation of Position Estimation of Switched Reluctance Motor with Artificial Neural Networks

    In the present study, position estimation of switched reluctance motor (SRM) has been achieved on the basis of the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs can estimate the rotor position without using an extra rotor position sensor by measuring the phase flux linkages and phase currents. Flux linkage-phase current-rotor position data set and supervised backpropagation learning algorithm are used in training of the ANN based position estimator. A 4-phase SRM have been used to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed position estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed position estimator gives precise and accurate position estimations for both under the low and high level reference speeds of the SRM

    Improving the Shunt Active Power Filter Performance Using Synchronous Reference Frame PI Based Controller with Anti-Windup Scheme
    In this paper the reference current for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) of the Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) is generated using Synchronous Reference Frame method, incorporating the PI controller with anti-windup scheme. The proposed method improves the harmonic filtering by compensating the winding up phenomenon caused by the integral term of the PI controller. Using Reference Frame Transformation, the current is transformed from om a - b - c stationery frame to rotating 0 - d - q frame. Using the PI controller, the current in the 0 - d - q frame is controlled to get the desired reference signal. A controller with integral action combined with an actuator that becomes saturated can give some undesirable effects. If the control error is so large that the integrator saturates the actuator, the feedback path becomes ineffective because the actuator will remain saturated even if the process output changes. The integrator being an unstable system may then integrate to a very large value, the phenomenon known as integrator windup. Implementing the integrator anti-windup circuit turns off the integrator action when the actuator saturates, hence improving the performance of the SAPF and dynamically compensating harmonics in the power network. In this paper the system performance is examined with Shunt Active Power Filter simulation model.
    Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Batch Arrivals Using Modeling and Functions Akin to the Modified Bessel Functions
    The paper considers a single-server queue with fixedsize batch Poisson arrivals and exponential service times, a model that is useful for a buffer that accepts messages arriving as fixed size batches of packets and releases them one packet at time. Transient performance measures for queues have long been recognized as being complementary to the steady-state analysis. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. The paper exploits practical modelling to obtain a solution to the integral equation encountered in the analysis. Results obtained indicate that under heavy load conditions, there is significant disparity in the statistics between the transient and steady state values.
    Analysis of Event-related Response in Human Visual Cortex with fMRI
    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that measures the hemodynamic response related to neural activity in the human brain. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (efMRI) is a form of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in which a series of fMRI images are time-locked to a stimulus presentation and averaged together over many trials. Again an event related potential (ERP) is a measured brain response that is directly the result of a thought or perception. Here the neuronal response of human visual cortex in normal healthy patients have been studied. The patients were asked to perform a visual three choice reaction task; from the relative response of each patient corresponding neuronal activity in visual cortex was imaged. The average number of neurons in the adult human primary visual cortex, in each hemisphere has been estimated at around 140 million. Statistical analysis of this experiment was done with SPM5(Statistical Parametric Mapping version 5) software. The result shows a robust design of imaging the neuronal activity of human visual cortex.
    Artificial Neural Networks Application to Improve Shunt Active Power Filter
    Active Power Filters (APFs) are today the most widely used systems to eliminate harmonics compensate power factor and correct unbalanced problems in industrial power plants. We propose to improve the performances of conventional APFs by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for harmonics estimation. This new method combines both the strategies for extracting the three-phase reference currents for active power filters and DC link voltage control method. The ANNs learning capabilities to adaptively choose the power system parameters for both to compute the reference currents and to recharge the capacitor value requested by VDC voltage in order to ensure suitable transit of powers to supply the inverter. To investigate the performance of this identification method, the study has been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox. The simulation study results of the new (SAPF) identification technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability.
    Content-based Indoor/Outdoor Video Classification System for a Mobile Platform
    Organization of video databases is becoming difficult task as the amount of video content increases. Video classification based on the content of videos can significantly increase the speed of tasks such as browsing and searching for a particular video in a database. In this paper, a content-based videos classification system for the classes indoor and outdoor is presented. The system is intended to be used on a mobile platform with modest resources. The algorithm makes use of the temporal redundancy in videos, which allows using an uncomplicated classification model while still achieving reasonable accuracy. The training and evaluation was done on a video database of 443 videos downloaded from a video sharing service. A total accuracy of 87.36% was achieved.
    An Analytical Electron Mobility Model based on Particle Swarm Computation for Siliconbased Devices
    The study of the transport coefficients in electronic devices is currently carried out by analytical and empirical models. This study requires several simplifying assumptions, generally necessary to lead to analytical expressions in order to study the different characteristics of the electronic silicon-based devices. Further progress in the development, design and optimization of Silicon-based devices necessarily requires new theory and modeling tools. In our study, we use the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) technique as a computational tool to develop analytical approaches in order to study the transport phenomenon of the electron in crystalline silicon as function of temperature and doping concentration. Good agreement between our results and measured data has been found. The optimized analytical models can also be incorporated into the circuits simulators to study Si-based devices without impact on the computational time and data storage.
    Hand Written Digit Recognition by Multiple Classifier Fusion based on Decision Templates Approach
    Classifier fusion may generate more accurate classification than each of the basic classifiers. Fusion is often based on fixed combination rules like the product, average etc. This paper presents decision templates as classifier fusion method for the recognition of the handwritten English and Farsi numerals (1-9). The process involves extracting a feature vector on well-known image databases. The extracted feature vector is fed to multiple classifier fusion. A set of experiments were conducted to compare decision templates (DTs) with some combination rules. Results from decision templates conclude 97.99% and 97.28% for Farsi and English handwritten digits.
    Analysis of CNT Bundle and its Comparison with Copper for FPGAs Interconnects
    Each new semiconductor technology node brings smaller transistors and wires. Although this makes transistors faster, wires get slower. In nano-scale regime, the standard copper (Cu) interconnect will become a major hurdle for FPGA interconnect due to their high resistivity and electromigration. This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation of mixed CNT bundle interconnects and investigates their prospects as energy efficient and high speed interconnect for future FPGA routing architecture. All HSPICE simulations are carried out at operating frequency of 1GHz and it is found that mixed CNT bundle implemented in FPGAs as interconnect can potentially provide a substantial delay and energy reduction over traditional interconnects at 32nm process technology.
    Testing the Accuracy of ML-ANN for Harmonic Estimation in Balanced Industrial Distribution Power System
    In this paper, we analyze and test a scheme for the estimation of electrical fundamental frequency signals from the harmonic load current and voltage signals. The scheme was based on using two different Multi Layer Artificial Neural Networks (ML-ANN) one for the current and the other for the voltage. This study also analyzes and tests the effect of choosing the optimum artificial neural networks- sizes which determine the quality and accuracy of the estimation of electrical fundamental frequency signals. The simulink tool box of the Matlab program for the simulation of the test system and the test of the neural networks has been used.
    Apply Super-SVA to SAR Imaging with Both Aperture Gaps and Bandwidth Gaps
    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging usually requires echo data collected continuously pulse by pulse with certain bandwidth. However in real situation, data collection or part of signal spectrum can be interrupted due to various reasons, i.e. there will be gaps in spatial spectrum. In this case we need to find ways to fill out the resulted gaps and get image with defined resolution. In this paper we introduce our work on how to apply iterative spatially variant apodization (Super-SVA) technique to extrapolate the spatial spectrum in both azimuthal and range directions so as to fill out the gaps and get correct radar image.
    Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System
    In this paper, a wavelet based method is proposed to identify the constant coefficients of a second order linear system and is compared with the least squares method. The proposed method shows improved accuracy of parameter estimation as compared to the least squares method. Additionally, it has the advantage of smaller data requirement and storage requirement as compared to the least squares method.
    3D Anisotropic Diffusion for Liver Segmentation
    Liver segmentation is the first significant process for liver diagnosis of the Computed Tomography. It segments the liver structure from other abdominal organs. Sophisticated filtering techniques are indispensable for a proper segmentation. In this paper, we employ a 3D anisotropic diffusion as a preprocessing step. While removing image noise, this technique preserve the significant parts of the image, typically edges, lines or other details that are important for the interpretation of the image. The segmentation task is done by using thresholding with automatic threshold values selection and finally the false liver region is eliminated using 3D connected component. The result shows that by employing the 3D anisotropic filtering, better liver segmentation results could be achieved eventhough simple segmentation technique is used.
    A New Method for Image Classification Based on Multi-level Neural Networks
    In this paper, we propose a supervised method for color image classification based on a multilevel sigmoidal neural network (MSNN) model. In this method, images are classified into five categories, i.e., “Car", “Building", “Mountain", “Farm" and “Coast". This classification is performed without any segmentation processes. To verify the learning capabilities of the proposed method, we compare our MSNN model with the traditional Sigmoidal Neural Network (SNN) model. Results of comparison have shown that the MSNN model performs better than the traditional SNN model in the context of training run time and classification rate. Both color moments and multi-level wavelets decomposition technique are used to extract features from images. The proposed method has been tested on a variety of real and synthetic images.
    Efficient Hardware Realization of Truncated Multipliers using FPGA
    Truncated multiplier is a good candidate for digital signal processing (DSP) applications including finite impulse response (FIR) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Through truncated multiplier a significant reduction in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) resources can be achieved. This paper presents for the first time a comparison of resource utilization of Spartan-3AN and Virtex-5 implementation of standard and truncated multipliers using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The Virtex-5 FPGA shows significant improvement as compared to Spartan-3AN FPGA device. The Virtex-5 FPGA device shows better performance with a percentage ratio of number of occupied slices for standard to truncated multipliers is increased from 40% to 73.86% as compared to Spartan- 3AN is decreased from 68.75% to 58.78%. Results show that the anomaly in Spartan-3AN FPGA device average connection and maximum pin delay have been efficiently reduced in Virtex-5 FPGA device.
    An Assessment of the Small Hydropower Potential of Sisakht Region of Yasuj
    Energy generated by the force of water in hydropower can provide a more sustainable, non-polluting alternative to fossil fuels, along with other renewable sources of energy, such as wind, solar and tidal power, bio energy and geothermal energy. Small scale hydroelectricity in Iran is well suited for “off-grid" rural electricity applications, while other renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and biomass, can be beneficially used as fuel for pumping groundwater for drinking and small scale irrigation in remote rural areas or small villages. Small Hydro Power plants in Iran have very low operating and maintenance costs because they consume no fossil or nuclear fuel and do not involve high temperature processes. The equipment is relatively simple to operate and maintain. Hydropower equipment can adjust rapidly to load changes. The extended equipment life provides significant economic advantages. Some hydroelectric plants installed 100 years ago still operate reliably. The Polkolo river is located on Karun basin at southwest of Iran. Situation and conditions of Polkolo river are evaluated for construction of small hydropower in this article. The topographical conditions and the existence of permanent water from springs provide the suitability to install hydroelectric power plants on the river Polkolo. The cascade plant consists of 9 power plants connected with each other and is having the total head as 1100m and discharge about 2.5cubic meter per second. The annual production of energy is 105.5 million kwh.
    Combining Diverse Neural Classifiers for Complex Problem Solving: An ECOC Approach
    Combining classifiers is a useful method for solving complex problems in machine learning. The ECOC (Error Correcting Output Codes) method has been widely used for designing combining classifiers with an emphasis on the diversity of classifiers. In this paper, in contrast to the standard ECOC approach in which individual classifiers are chosen homogeneously, classifiers are selected according to the complexity of the corresponding binary problem. We use SATIMAGE database (containing 6 classes) for our experiments. The recognition error rate in our proposed method is %10.37 which indicates a considerable improvement in comparison with the conventional ECOC and stack generalization methods.
    Reduction of Linear Time-Invariant Systems Using Routh-Approximation and PSO

    Order reduction of linear-time invariant systems employing two methods; one using the advantages of Routh approximation and other by an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In Routh approximation method the denominator of the reduced order model is obtained using Routh approximation while the numerator of the reduced order model is determined using the indirect approach of retaining the time moments and/or Markov parameters of original system. By this method the reduced order model guarantees stability if the original high order model is stable. In the second method Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical examples.

    Nonlinear Acoustic Echo Cancellation Using Volterra Filtering with a Variable Step-Size GS-PAP Algorithm
    In this paper, a nonlinear acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) system is proposed, whereby 3rd order Volterra filtering is utilized along with a variable step-size Gauss-Seidel pseudo affine projection (VSSGS-PAP) algorithm. In particular, the proposed nonlinear AEC system is developed by considering a double-talk situation with near-end signal variation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach yields better nonlinear AEC performance than conventional approaches.
    Comparison of Frequency Estimation Methods for Reflected Signals in Mobile Platforms

    Precise frequency estimation methods for pulseshaped echoes are a prerequisite to determine the relative velocity between sensor and reflector. Signal frequencies are analysed using three different methods: Fourier Transform, Chirp ZTransform and the MUSIC algorithm. Simulations of echoes are performed varying both the noise level and the number of reflecting points. The superposition of echoes with a random initial phase is found to influence the precision of frequency estimation severely for FFT and MUSIC. The standard deviation of the frequency using FFT is larger than for MUSIC. However, MUSIC is more noise-sensitive. The distorting effect of superpositions is less pronounced in experimental data.

    Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform
    This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.
    Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery
    Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.
    Hydrophobic Characteristics of EPDM Composite Insulators in Simulated Arid Desert Environment
    Overhead electrical insulators form an important link in an electric power system. Along with the traditional insulators (i.e. glass and porcelain, etc) presently the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters such temperature, environmental pollution, UV-radiations, etc. which seriously effect their electrical, chemical and hydrophobic properties. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the IEC standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. Commonly used suspension type of composite EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) insulator was subjected to accelerated stress aging as per modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid deserts atmospheric condition and also as per IEC-61109 standard. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that EPDM insulator loses it hydrophobic properties proportional to the intensity of UV irradiations and its rate of recovery is also very low as compared to Silicone Rubber insulator.KeywordsEPDM, composite insulators, accelerated aging, hydrophobicity, contact angle.