Quantitative Quality Assessment of Microscopic Image Mosaicing
The mosaicing technique has been employed in more and more application fields, from entertainment to scientific ones. In the latter case, often the final evaluation is still left to human beings, that assess visually the quality of the mosaic. Many times, a lack of objective measurements in microscopic mosaicing may prevent the mosaic from being used as a starting image for further analysis. In this work we analyze three different metrics and indexes, in the domain of signal analysis, image analysis and visual quality, to measure the quality of different aspects of the mosaicing procedure, such as registration errors and visual quality. As the case study we consider the mosaicing algorithm we developed. The experiments have been carried out by considering mosaics with very different features: histological samples, that are made of detailed and contrasted images, and live stem cells, that show a very low contrast and low detail levels.
Annual Power Load Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Machines: A Study on Guangdong Province of China 1985-2008
Load forecasting has always been the essential part of
an efficient power system operation and planning. A novel approach
based on support vector machines is proposed in this paper for annual
power load forecasting. Different kernel functions are selected to
construct a combinatorial algorithm. The performance of the new
model is evaluated with a real-world dataset, and compared with two
neural networks and some traditional forecasting techniques. The
results show that the proposed method exhibits superior performance.
Developing a Simple and an Accurate Formula for the Conduction Angle of a Single Phase Rectifier with RL Load
The paper presents a simple and an accurate formula
that has been developed for the conduction angle (δ) of a single
phase half-wave or full-wave controlled rectifier with RL load. This
formula can be also used for calculating the conduction angle (δ) in
case of A.C. voltage regulator with inductive load under
discontinuous current mode. The simulation results shows that the
conduction angle calculated from the developed formula agree very
well with that obtained from the exact solution arrived from the
iterative method. Applying the developed formula can reduce the
computational time and reduce the time for manual classroom
calculation. In addition, the proposed formula is attractive for real
High Perfomance Communication Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
In order to monitor for traffic traversal, sensors can be
deployed to perform collaborative target detection. Such a sensor
network achieves a certain level of detection performance with the
associated costs of deployment and routing protocol. This paper
addresses these two points of sensor deployment and routing algorithm
in the situation where the absolute quantity of sensors or total energy
becomes insufficient. This discussion on the best deployment system
concluded that two kinds of deployments; Normal and Power law
distributions, show 6 and 3 times longer than Random distribution in
the duration of coverage, respectively. The other discussion on routing
algorithm to achieve good performance in each deployment system
was also addressed. This discussion concluded that, in place of the
traditional algorithm, a new algorithm can extend the time of coverage
duration by 4 times in a Normal distribution, and in the circumstance
where every deployed sensor operates as a binary model.
Mechanical Buckling of Engesser-Timoshenko Beams with a Pair of Piezoelectric Layers
This paper presents the elastic buckling of
homogeneous beams with a pair of piezoelectric layers surface
bonded on both sides of the beams. The displacement field of beam is
assumed based on the Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory.
Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is
established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless
geometrical parameter and piezoelectric thickness on the critical
buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of
the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known
Semi-automatic Background Detection in Microscopic Images
The last years have seen an increasing use of image analysis techniques in the field of biomedical imaging, in particular in microscopic imaging. The basic step for most of the image analysis techniques relies on a background image free of objects of interest, whether they are cells or histological samples, to perform further analysis, such as segmentation or mosaicing. Commonly, this image consists of an empty field acquired in advance. However, many times achieving an empty field could not be feasible. Or else, this could be different from the background region of the sample really being studied, because of the interaction with the organic matter. At last, it could be expensive, for instance in case of live cell analyses. We propose a non parametric and general purpose approach where the background is built automatically stemming from a sequence of images containing even objects of interest. The amount of area, in each image, free of objects just affects the overall speed to obtain the background. Experiments with different kinds of microscopic images prove the effectiveness of our approach.
Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Electro-Thermal Analysis in HV Generator
High voltage generators are being subject to higher
voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions.
Stator windings are the main component of generators in which
Electrical, magnetically and thermal stresses remain major failures
for insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of
generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation
deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the
asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic
causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss,
stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro
thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of
stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation
thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are
major design consideration. A very powerful method available to
analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method
(FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil
and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system
to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the
power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes
the process used to perform classical design and improvement
analysis of stator slot-s insulation.
Stability of Functionally Graded Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory
Stability of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends is studied in this paper. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.
Photovoltaic Array Sizing for PV-Electrolyzer
Hydrogen that used as fuel in fuel cell vehicles can be
produced from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and hydro
technologies. PV-electrolyzer is one of the promising methods to
produce hydrogen with zero pollution emission. Hydrogen
production from a PV-electrolyzer system depends on the efficiency
of the electrolyzer and photovoltaic array, and sun irradiance at that
site. In this study, the amount of hydrogen is obtained using
mathematical equations for difference driving distance and sun peak
hours. The results show that the minimum of 99 PV modules are used
to generate 1.75 kgH2 per day for two vehicles.
Analysis of the Effect of HV Transmission Lines on the Control Room and its Proposed Shielding
Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, impact of high voltage lines on the surrounding environment especially on the control room has been investigated, then to reduce electromagnetic radiation, various methods of shielding are provided and shielding effectiveness of them has been compared. It should be expressed that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).
Real-Time Digital Oscilloscope Implementation in 90nm CMOS Technology FPGA
This paper describes the design of a real-time audiorange
digital oscilloscope and its implementation in 90nm CMOS
FPGA platform. The design consists of sample and hold circuits,
A/D conversion, audio and video processing, on-chip RAM, clock
generation and control logic. The design of internal blocks and
modules in 90nm devices in an FPGA is elaborated. Also the key
features and their implementation algorithms are presented.
Finally, the timing waveforms and simulation results are put
On-line Image Mosaicing of Live Stem Cells
Image mosaicing is a technique that permits to enlarge the field of view of a camera. For instance, it is employed to achieve panoramas with common cameras or even in scientific applications, to achieve the image of a whole culture in microscopical imaging. Usually, a mosaic of cell cultures is achieved through using automated microscopes. However, this is often performed in batch, through CPU intensive minimization algorithms. In addition, live stem cells are studied in phase contrast, showing a low contrast that cannot be improved further. We present a method to study the flat field from live stem cells images even in case of 100% confluence, this permitting to build accurate mosaics on-line using high performance algorithms.
A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology
This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter
circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is
designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of
MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation
region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current,
low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity
from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE.
The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis
and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.
Energy Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
The wireless link can be unreliable in realistic wireless
sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficient and reliable data
forwarding is important because each node has limited resources.
Therefore, we must suggest an optimal solution that considers using
the information of the node-s characteristics. Previous routing
protocols were unsuited to realistic asymmetric WSNs. In this paper,
we propose a Protocol that considers Both sides of Link-quality and
Energy (PBLE), an optimal routing protocol that balances modified
link-quality, distance and energy. Additionally, we propose a node
scheduling method. PBLE achieves a longer lifetime than previous
routing protocols and is more energy-efficient. PBLE uses energy,
local information and both sides of PRR in a 1-hop distance. We
explain how to send data packets to the destination node using the
node's information. Simulation shows PBLE improves delivery rate
and network lifetime compared to previous schemes. Moreover, we
show the improvement in various WSN environments.
Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network is a network of mobile nodes
without any notion of centralized administration. In such a network,
each mobile node behaves not only as a host which runs applications
but also as a router to forward packets on behalf of others. Clustering
has been applied to routing protocols to achieve efficient
communications. A CH network expresses the connected relationship
among cluster-heads. This paper discusses the methods for
constructing a CH network, and produces the following results: (1)
The required running costs of 3 traditional methods for constructing a
CH network are not so different from each other in the static
circumstance, or in the dynamic circumstance. Their running costs in
the static circumstance do not differ from their costs in the dynamic
circumstance. Meanwhile, although the routing costs required for the
above 3 methods are not so different in the static circumstance, the
costs are considerably different from each other in the dynamic
circumstance. Their routing costs in the static circumstance are also
very different from their costs in the dynamic circumstance, and the
former is one tenths of the latter. The routing cost in the dynamic
circumstance is mostly the cost for re-routing. (2) On the strength of
the above results, we discuss new 2 methods regarding whether they
are tolerable or not in the dynamic circumstance, that is, whether the
times of re-routing are small or not. These new methods are revised
methods that are based on the traditional methods. We recommended
the method which produces the smallest routing cost in the dynamic
circumstance, therefore producing the smallest total cost.
Analysis of the Shielding Effectiveness of Several Magnetic Shields
Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, a source of alternating current (50 Hz) and a clear victim in a certain distance from the source is placed. With this simple model, the effects of electromagnetic radiation from the source to the victim will be investigated and several methods to reduce these effects have been presented. Therefore passive and active shields have been used. In some steps, shielding effectiveness of proposed shields will be compared. . It should be noted that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).
Multichannel Image Mosaicing of Stem Cells
Image mosaicing techniques are usually employed to offer researchers a wider field of view of microscopic image of biological samples. a mosaic is commonly achieved using automated microscopes and often with one “color" channel, whether it refers to natural or fluorescent analysis. In this work we present a method to achieve three subsequent mosaics of the same part of a stem cell culture analyzed in phase contrast and in fluorescence, with a common non-automated inverted microscope. The mosaics obtained are then merged together to mark, in the original contrast phase images, nuclei and cytoplasm of the cells referring to a mosaic of the culture, rather than to single images. The experiments carried out prove the effectiveness of our approach with cultures of cells stained with calcein (green/cytoplasm and nuclei) and hoechst (blue/nuclei) probes.
Multihop Cooperative Transmissions for Asymmetric Traffic Accommodation in CDMA/FDD Cellular Networks
The asymmetric trafc between uplink and downlink
over recent mobile communication systems has been conspicuous because
of providing new communication services. This paper proposes
an asymmetric trafc accommodation scheme adopting a multihop
cooperative transmission technique for CDMA/FDD cellular networks.
The proposed scheme employs the cooperative transmission
technique in the already proposed downlink multihop transmissions
for the accommodation of the asymmetric trafc, which utilizes
the vacant uplink band for the downlink relay transmissions. The
proposed scheme reduces the transmission power at the downlink
relay transmissions and then suppresses the interference to the uplink
communications, and thus, improves the uplink performance. The
proposed scheme is evaluated by computer simulation and the results
show that it can achieve better throughput performance.
Sliding-Mode Control of a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertainty Estimation
In this paper, the application of sliding-mode control to a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The control design is based on a generic mathematical model of the motor. Some dynamics of the motor and of the power amplification stage remain unmodelled. This model uncertainty is estimated in realtime. The estimation is based on the differentiation of measured signals using the ideas of robust exact differentiator (RED). The control law is implemented on an industrial servo drive. Simulations and experimental results are presented and compared to the same control strategy without uncertainty estimation. It turns out that the proposed concept is superior to the same control strategy without uncertainty estimation especially in the case of non-smooth reference signals.
A Survey on Voice over IP over Wireless LANs
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a form of voice
communication that uses audio data to transmit voice signals to the
end user. VoIP is one of the most important technologies in the
World of communication. Around, 20 years of research on VoIP,
some problems of VoIP are still remaining. During the past decade
and with growing of wireless technologies, we have seen that many
papers turn their concentration from Wired-LAN to Wireless-LAN.
VoIP over Wireless LAN (WLAN) faces many challenges due to the
loose nature of wireless network. Issues like providing Quality of
Service (QoS) at a good level, dedicating capacity for calls and
having secure calls is more difficult rather than wired LAN.
Therefore VoIP over WLAN (VoWLAN) remains a challenging
research topic. In this paper we consolidate and address major
VoWLAN issues. This research is helpful for those researchers wants
to do research in Voice over IP technology over WLAN network.
Electricity Power Planning: the Role of Wind Energy
Combining energy efficiency with renewable energy
sources constitutes a key strategy for a sustainable future. The wind
power sector stands out as a fundamental element for the
achievement of the European renewable objectives and Portugal is no
exception to the increase of the wind energy for the electricity
generation. This work proposes an optimization model for the long
range electricity power planning in a system similar to the
Portuguese one, where the expected impacts of the increasing
installed wind power on the operating performance of thermal power
plants are taken into account. The main results indicate that the
increasing penetration of wind power in the electricity system will
have significant effects on the combined cycle gas power plants
operation and on the theoretically expected cost reduction and
environmental gains. This research demonstrated the need to address
the impact that energy sources with variable output may have, not
only on the short-term operational planning, but especially on the
medium to long range planning activities, in order to meet the
strategic objectives for the energy sector.
A Low-Voltage Tunable Channel Selection Filter for WiMAX Applications
This paper proposes a low-voltage and low-power
fully integrated digitally tuned continuous-time channel selection
filter for WiMAX applications. A 5th-order elliptic low-pass filter is
realized in a Gm-C topology. The bandwidth of the fully differential
filter is reconfigurable from 2.5MHz to 20MHz (8x) for different
requirements in WiMAX applications. The filter is simulated in a
standard 90nm CMOS process. Simulation results show the THD
(@Vout =100mVpp) is less than -66dB. The in-band ripple of the
filter is about 0.15dB. The filter consumes 1.5mW from a supply
voltage of 0.9V.
Power Frequency Magnetic Field Survey in Indoor Power Distribution Substation in Egypt
In our modern society electricity is vital to our health,
safety, comfort and well-being. While our daily use of electricity is
often taken for granted, public concern has arisen about potential
adverse health effects from electric and magnetic – electromagnetic –
fields (EMFs) produced by our use of electricity.
This paper aims to compare between the measured magnetic field
values and the simulated models for the indoor medium to low
voltage (MV/LV) distribution substations.
To calculate the magnetic flux density in the substations,
interactive software SUBCALC is used which is based on closed
form solution of the Biot-Savart law with 3D conductor model.
The comparison between the measured values and the simulated
models was acceptable. However there were some discrepancies, as
expected, may be due to the current variation during measurements.
Compatibility of Integrated Satellite Systems with Another Satellite System Operating in Adjacent Beam
This paper addresses the analysis of the interference between complementary ground component (CGC) base station and mobile earth station (MES). In the frequency sharing scenario between CGC base station and MES, the interference from the adjacent beams must be considered. In this paper, we estimated the interference to MES of an integrated satellite system and the result is presented as the carrier to interference ratio(C/I) with respect to the number of CGC base station in the adjacent beam and the ratio of satellite beam center radius to the total beam radius (R1/R). By using these results, we can determine the minimum separation distance between the CGC base stations of adjacent beam and MES for compatibility. This result can be applied to the CGC base station of an integrated satellite system for the effective frequency sharing.