Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of 22 kVXLPE Cable for Distribution System Applications in Thailand
This paper presents the experimental results on
artificial ageing test of 22 kV XLPE cable for distribution system
application in Thailand. XLPE insulating material of 22 kV cable
was sliced to 60-70 μm in thick and was subjected to ac high voltage
C and 75
C. Testing voltage was constantly applied to
the specimen until breakdown. Breakdown voltage and time to
breakdown were used to evaluate life time of insulating material.
Furthermore, the physical model by J. P. Crine for predicts life time
of XLPE insulating material was adopted as life time model and was
calculated in order to compare the experimental results. Acceptable
life time results were obtained from Crine-s model comparing with
the experimental result. In addition, fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical analysis and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) for physical analysis were conducted on tested
One-Class Support Vector Machines for Aerial Images Segmentation
Interpretation of aerial images is an important task in
various applications. Image segmentation can be viewed as the essential
step for extracting information from aerial images. Among many
developed segmentation methods, the technique of clustering has been
extensively investigated and used. However, determining the number
of clusters in an image is inherently a difficult problem, especially
when a priori information on the aerial image is unavailable. This
study proposes a support vector machine approach for clustering
aerial images. Three cluster validity indices, distance-based index,
Davies-Bouldin index, and Xie-Beni index, are utilized as quantitative
measures of the quality of clustering results. Comparisons on the
effectiveness of these indices and various parameters settings on the
proposed methods are conducted. Experimental results are provided
to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
MPPT Operation for PV Grid-connected System using RBFNN and Fuzzy Classification
This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW Photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated RBFNN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology, comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and non-linear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network.
A Simple Constellation Precoding Technique over MIMO-OFDM Systems
This paper studies the design of a simple constellation
precoding for a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system over Rayleigh fading
channels where OFDM is used to keep the diversity replicas orthogonal
and reduce ISI effects. A multi-user environment with K synchronous
co-channel users is considered. The proposed scheme provides
a bandwidth efficient transmission for individual users by increasing
the system throughput. In comparison with the existing coded
MIMO-OFDM schemes, the precoding technique is designed under
the consideration of its low implementation complexity while providing
a comparable error performance to the existing schemes.
Analytic and simulation results have been presented to show the distinguished
2D Image Processing for DSO Astrophotography
The new concept of two–dimensional (2D) image
processing implementation for auto-guiding system is shown in this
paper. It is dedicated to astrophotography and operates with
astronomy CCD guide cameras or with self-guided dual-detector
CCD cameras and ST4 compatible equatorial mounts. This idea was
verified by MATLAB model, which was used to test all procedures
and data conversions. Next the circuit prototype was implemented at
Altera MAX II CPLD device and tested for real astronomical object
images. The digital processing speed of CPLD prototype board was
sufficient for correct equatorial mount guiding in real-time system.
Absorption Center of Photophoresis with in Micro-Sized and Spheroidal Particles in a Gaseous Medium
The present study is concerned with the absorption
center of photophoresis within a micro-sized and spheroidal particle in
a gaseous medium. A particle subjected to an intense light beam can
absorb electromagnetic energy within the particle unevenly, which
results in photophoretic force to drive the particle in motion. By
evaluating the energy distribution systematically at various conditions,
the study focuses on the effects of governing parameters, such as
particle aspect ratio, size parameter, refractivity, and absorptivity, on
the heat source function within the particle and their potential
influences to the photophoresis.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improvement of EMCCD Cameras
Over the past years, the EMCCD has had a profound
influence on photon starved imaging applications relying on its unique
multiplication register based on the impact ionization effect in the
silicon. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) means high image quality.
Thus, SNR improvement is important for the EMCCD. This work
analyzes the SNR performance of an EMCCD with gain off and on. In
each mode, simplified SNR models are established for different
integration times. The SNR curves are divided into readout noise (or
CIC) region and shot noise region by integration time. Theoretical
SNR values comparing long frame integration and frame adding in
each region are presented and discussed to figure out which method is
more effective. In order to further improve the SNR performance,
pixel binning is introduced into the EMCCD. The results show that
pixel binning does obviously improve the SNR performance, but at the
expensive of the spatial resolution.
Reconfigurable Autonomous Mini Robot Design using CPLD's
This paper explains a project based learning method where autonomous mini-robots are developed for research, education and entertainment purposes. In case of remote systems wireless sensors are developed in critical areas, which would collect data at specific time intervals, send the data to the central wireless node based on certain preferred information would make decisions to turn on or off a switch or control unit. Such information transfers hardly sums up to a few bytes and hence low data rates would suffice for such implementations. As a robot is a multidisciplinary platform, the interfacing issues involved are discussed in this paper. The paper is mainly focused on power supply, grounding and decoupling issues.
Variable Guard Channels for Efficient Traffic Management
Guard channels improve the probability of successful
handoffs by reserving a number of channels exclusively for handoffs.
This concept has the risk of underutilization of radio spectrum due to
the fact that fewer channels are granted to originating calls even if
these guard channels are not always used, when originating calls are
starving for the want of channels. The penalty is the reduction of
total carried traffic. The optimum number of guard channels can help
reduce this problem. This paper presents fuzzy logic based guard
channel scheme wherein guard channels are reorganized on the basis
of traffic density, so that guard channels are provided on need basis.
This will help in incorporating more originating calls and hence high
throughput of the radio spectrum
The Effect of Tmax in Energy Consumption in 0IEEE 802.16e with Traffic Load
Energy consumption is an important design issue for
Mobile Subscriber Station (MSS) in the standard IEEE 802.16e.
Because mobility of MSS implies that energy saving becomes an
issue so that lifetime of MSS can be extended before re-charging.
Also, the mechanism in efficiently managing the limited energy is
becoming very significant since a MSS is generally energized by
battery. For these, sleep mode operation is recently specified in the
MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol. In order to reduce the
energy consumption, we focus on the sleep-mode and wake-mode of
the MAC layer, which are included in the IEEE 802.16 standards [1-
Performance Comparison of Single and Multi-Path Routing Protocol in MANET with Selfish Behaviors
Mobile Ad Hoc network is an infrastructure less
network which operates with the coordination of each node. Each node
believes to help another node, by forwarding its data to/from another
node. Unlike a wired network, nodes in an ad hoc network are resource
(i.e. battery, bandwidth computational capability and so on)
constrained. Such dependability of one node to another and limited
resources of nodes can result in non cooperation by any node to
accumulate its resources. Such non cooperation is known as selfish
This paper discusses the performance analysis of very well known
MANET single-path (i.e. AODV) and multi-path (i.e. AOMDV)
routing protocol, in the presence of selfish behaviors. Along with
existing selfish behaviors, a new variation is also studied. Extensive
simulations were carried out using ns-2 and the study concluded that
the multi-path protocol (i.e. AOMDV) with link disjoint configuration
outperforms the other two configurations.
Mobile Qibla and Prayer Time Finder using PDA and External Digital Compass
These days people love to travel around the world.
Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still
need to perform their prayers. Normally for travelers, they need to
bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla
pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to determine the Qibla
direction and to know the time for each prayer. As the technology
grows, many PDA equip with maps and GPS to locate their location.
In this paper we present a new electronic device called Mobile Qibla
and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to
determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location using
PDA. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital
compass where it will communicate with PDA using Bluetooth
technology and display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time
automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable and
accurate in determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.
Depressing Turbine-Generator Supersynchronous Torsional Torques by Using Virtual Inertia
Single-pole switching scheme is widely used in the
Extra High Voltage system. However, the substantial negativesequence
current injected to the turbine-generators imposes the
electromagnetic (E/M) torque of double system- frequency
components during the dead time (between single-pole clearing and
line reclosing). This would induce supersynchronous resonance
(SPSR) torque amplifications on low pressure turbine generator
blades and even lead to fatigue damage. This paper proposes the
design of a mechanical filter (MF) with natural frequency close to
double-system frequency. From the simulation results, it is found that
such a filter not only successfully damps the resonant effect, but also
has the characteristics of feasibility and compact.
Observer Design for Chaos Synchronization of Time-delayed Power Systems
The global chaos synchronization for a class of time-delayed power systems is investigated via observer-based approach. By employing the concepts of quadratic stability theory and generalized system model, a new sufficient criterion for constructing an observer is deduced. In contrast to the previous works, this paper proposes a theoretical and systematic design procedure to realize chaos synchronization for master-slave power systems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the applicability of the obtained scheme.
Low Power Low Voltage Current Mode Pipelined A/D Converters
This paper presents two prototypes of low power low voltage current mode 9 bit pipelined a/d converters. The first and the second converters are configured of 1.5 bit and 2.5 bit stages, respectively. The a/d converter structures are composed of current mode building blocks and final comparator block which converts the analog current signal into digital voltage signal. All building blocks have been designed in CMOS AMS 0.35μm technology, then simulated to verify proposed concept. The performances of both converters are compared to performances of known current mode and voltage mode switched capacitance converter structures. Low power consumption and small chip area are advantages of the proposed converters.
Energy Consumption and Carbon Calculations of Microalgae Biodiesel
At present, the severe oil crisis and greenhouse effect are booming, which is a growing worry for China. Over a long period of study, choosing the development of biological diesel is a feasible way in the desertification region in China. With considering the adaptability of Micro-algae in desertification region and analyzing energy consumption and carbon calculations of Micro-algae biodiesel produced by JJ company , this paper, make the microalgae our optimal choice to develop biological diesel in china's desertification region.
A Bayesian Network Reliability Modeling for FlexRay Systems
The increasing importance of FlexRay systems in
automotive domain inspires unceasingly relative researches. One
primary issue among researches is to verify the reliability of FlexRay
systems either from protocol aspect or from system design aspect.
However, research rarely discusses the effect of network topology on
the system reliability. In this paper, we will illustrate how to model
the reliability of FlexRay systems with various network topologies by
a well-known probabilistic reasoning technology, Bayesian Network.
In this illustration, we especially investigate the effectiveness of error
containment built in star topology and fault-tolerant midpoint
synchronization algorithm adopted in FlexRay communication
protocol. Through a FlexRay steer-by-wire case study, the influence
of different topologies on the failure probability of the FlexRay steerby-
wire system is demonstrated. The notable value of this research is
to show that the Bayesian Network inference is a powerful and
feasible method for the reliability assessment of FlexRay systems.
Fractal Patterns for Power Quality Detection Using Color Relational Analysis Based Classifier
This paper proposes fractal patterns for power quality
(PQ) detection using color relational analysis (CRA) based classifier.
Iterated function system (IFS) uses the non-linear interpolation in the
map and uses similarity maps to construct various fractal patterns of
power quality disturbances, including harmonics, voltage sag, voltage
swell, voltage sag involving harmonics, voltage swell involving
harmonics, and voltage interruption. The non-linear interpolation
functions (NIFs) with fractal dimension (FD) make fractal patterns
more distinguishing between normal and abnormal voltage signals.
The classifier based on CRA discriminates the disturbance events in a
power system. Compared with the wavelet neural networks, the test
results will show accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster
processing time for detecting disturbing events.
Image Enhancement of Medical Images using Gabor Filter Bank on Hexagonal Sampled Grids
For about two decades scientists have been
developing techniques for enhancing the quality of medical images
using Fourier transform, DWT (Discrete wavelet transform),PDE
model etc., Gabor wavelet on hexagonal sampled grid of the images
is proposed in this work. This method has optimal approximation
theoretic performances, for a good quality image. The computational
cost is considerably low when compared to similar processing in the
rectangular domain. As X-ray images contain light scattered pixels,
instead of unique sigma, the parameter sigma of 0.5 to 3 is found to
satisfy most of the image interpolation requirements in terms of high
Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) , lower Mean Squared Error
(MSE) and better image quality by adopting windowing technique.
Chaos-based Secure Communication via Continuous Variable Structure Control
The design of chaos-based secure communication
via synchronized modified Chua-s systems is investigated in
this paper. A continuous control law is proposed to ensure
synchronization of the master and slave modified Chua-s
systems by using the variable structure control technique.
Particularly, the concept of extended systems is introduced
such that a continuous control input is obtained to avoid
chattering phenomenon. Then, it becomes possible to ensure
that the message signal embedded in the transmitter can be
recovered in the receiver.
A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees
the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each
sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The
scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the
residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration.
Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed
acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to
the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so
as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows,
the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of
data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust
its battery energy before a specified duration.
Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Compact Short Backfire Antenna
In this research paper, a slotted coaxial line fed cross
dipole excitation structure for short backfire antenna is proposed and
developed to achieve reconfigurable circular polarization. The cross
dipole, which is fed by the slotted coaxial line, consists of two
orthogonal dipoles. The dipoles are mounted on the outer conductor
of the coaxial line. A unique technique is developed to generate
reconfigurable circular polarization using cross dipole configuration.
The sub-reflector is supported by the feed line, thus requiring no
extra support. The antenna is developed on elliptical ground plane
with dielectric rim making antenna compact. It is demonstrated that
cross dipole excited short backfire antenna can achieve voltage
standing wave ratio (VSWR) bandwidth of 14.28% for 2:1 VSWR,
axial ratio of 0.2 dB with axial ratio (≤ 3dB) bandwidth of 2.14% and
a gain of more than 12 dBi. The experimental results for the designed
antenna structure are in close agreement with computer simulations.
Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge by Using Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP
This paper presents the effectiveness of artificial
intelligent technique to apply for pattern recognition and
classification of Partial Discharge (PD). Characteristics of PD signal
for pattern recognition and classification are computed from the
relation of the voltage phase angle, the discharge magnitude and the
repeated existing of partial discharges by using statistical and fractal
methods. The simplified fuzzy ARTMAP (SFAM) is used for pattern
recognition and classification as artificial intelligent technique. PDs
quantities, 13 parameters from statistical method and fractal method
results, are inputted to Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP to train system
for pattern recognition and classification. The results confirm the
effectiveness of purpose technique.
Space-Vector PWM Inverter Feeding a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
The paper presents a space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter feeding a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The SVPWM inverter enables to feed the motor with a higher voltage with low harmonic distortions than the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The control strategy of the inverter is the voltage / frequency control method, which is based on the space-vector modulation technique. The proposed PMSM drive system involving the field-oriented control scheme not only decouples the torque and flux which provides faster response but also makes the control task easy. The performance of the proposed drive is simulated. The advantages of the proposed drive are confirmed by the simulation results.
A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell
To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.
A Grey-Fuzzy Controller for Optimization Technique in Wireless Networks
In wireless and mobile communications, this progress
provides opportunities for introducing new standards and improving
existing services. Supporting multimedia traffic with wireless networks
quality of service (QoS). In this paper, a grey-fuzzy controller for radio
resource management (GF-RRM) is presented to maximize the number
of the served calls and QoS provision in wireless networks. In a
wireless network, the call arrival rate, the call duration and the
communication overhead between the base stations and the control
center are vague and uncertain. In this paper, we develop a method to
predict the cell load and to solve the RRM problem based on the
GF-RRM, and support the present facility has been built on the
application-level of the wireless networks. The GF-RRM exhibits the
better adaptability, fault-tolerant capability and performance than other
algorithms. Through simulations, we evaluate the blocking rate, update
overhead, and channel acquisition delay time of the proposed method.
The results demonstrate our algorithm has the lower blocking rate, less
updated overhead, and shorter channel acquisition delay.
Denial of Service (DOS) Attack and Its Possible Solutions in VANET
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is taking more
attention in automotive industry due to the safety concern of human
lives on roads. Security is one of the safety aspects in VANET. To be
secure, network availability must be obtained at all times since
availability of the network is critically needed when a node sends any
life critical information to other nodes. However, it can be expected
that security attacks are likely to increase in the coming future due to
more and more wireless applications being developed and deployed
onto the well-known expose nature of the wireless medium. In this
respect, the network availability is exposed to many types of attacks.
In this paper, Denial of Service (DOS) attack on network availability
is presented and its severity level in VANET environment is
elaborated. A model to secure the VANET from the DOS attacks has
been developed and some possible solutions to overcome the attacks
have been discussed.