Effective Traffic Lights Recognition Method for Real Time Driving Assistance Systemin the Daytime
This paper presents an effective traffic lights
recognition method at the daytime. First, Potential Traffic Lights
Detector (PTLD) use whole color source of YCbCr channel image and
make each binary image of green and red traffic lights. After PTLD
step, Shape Filter (SF) use to remove noise such as traffic sign, street
tree, vehicle, and building. At this time, noise removal properties
consist of information of blobs of binary image; length, area, area of
boundary box, etc. Finally, after an intermediate association step witch
goal is to define relevant candidates region from the previously
detected traffic lights, Adaptive Multi-class Classifier (AMC) is
executed. The classification method uses Haar-like feature and
Adaboost algorithm. For simulation, we are implemented through Intel
Core CPU with 2.80 GHz and 4 GB RAM and tested in the urban and
rural roads. Through the test, we are compared with our method and
standard object-recognition learning processes and proved that it
reached up to 94 % of detection rate which is better than the results
achieved with cascade classifiers. Computation time of our proposed
method is 15 ms.
A Novel Tracking Method Using Filtering and Geometry
Image target detection and tracking methods based on
target information such as intensity, shape model, histogram and
target dynamics have been proven to be robust to target model
variations and background clutters as shown by recent researches.
However, no definitive answer has been given to occluded target by
counter measure or limited field of view(FOV). In this paper, we
will present a novel tracking method using filtering and computational
geometry. This paper has two central goals: 1) to deal with vulnerable
target measurements; and 2) to maintain target tracking out of FOV
using non-target-originated information. The experimental results,
obtained with airborne images, show a robust tracking ability with
respect to the existing approaches. In exploring the questions of target
tracking, this paper will be limited to consideration of airborne image.
Experimental Evaluation of Mobility Anchor Point Selection Scheme in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6
Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) was designed to
support IP micro-mobility management in the Next Generation
Networks (NGN) framework. The main design behind this protocol is
the usage of Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) located at any level router
of network to support hierarchical mobility management. However,
the distance MAP selection in HMIPv6 causes MAP overloaded and
increase frequent binding update as the network grows. Therefore, to
address the issue in designing MAP selection scheme, we propose a
dynamic load control mechanism integrates with a speed detection
mechanism (DMS-DLC). From the experimental results we obtain
that the proposed scheme gives better distribution in MAP load and
increase handover speed.
Implementation and Simulation of Half-Bridge Series Resonant Inverter in Zero Voltage Switching
In switch mode power inverters, small sized inverters
can be obtained by increasing the switching frequency. Switching
frequency increment causes high driver losses. Also, high dt
produced by the switching action creates high Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In this
paper, a series half bridge series resonant inverter circuit is simulated
and evaluated practically to demonstrate the turn-on and turn-off
conditions during zero or close to zero voltage switching. Also, the
reverse recovery current effects of the body diode of the MOSFETs
were investigated by operating above and below resonant frequency.
Dispersed Error Control based on Error Filter Design for Improving Halftone Image Quality
The error diffusion method generates worm artifacts,
and weakens the edge of the halftone image when the continuous gray
scale image is reproduced by a binary image. First, to enhance the
edges, we propose the edge-enhancing filter by considering the
quantization error information and gradient of the neighboring pixels.
Furthermore, to remove worm artifacts often appearing in a halftone
image, we add adaptively random noise into the weights of an error
An Improved Lattice Reduction Aided Detection Scheme for MIMO-OFDM System
This paper proposes an efficient lattice-reduction-aided
detection (LRD) scheme to improve the detection performance of
MIMO-OFDM system. In this proposed scheme, V candidate symbols
are considered at the first layer, and V probable streams are
detected with LRD scheme according to the first detected V candidate
symbols. Then, the most probable stream is selected through a ML
test. Since the proposed scheme can more accurately detect initial
symbol and can reduce transmission of error to rest symbols, the
proposed scheme shows more improved performance than conventional
LRD with very low complexity.
Assessment of Performance Measures of Large-Scale Power Systems
In a recent major industry-supported research and development study, a novel framework was developed and applied for assessment of reliability and quality performance levels in reallife power systems with practical large-scale sizes. The new assessment methodology is based on three metaphors (dimensions) representing the relationship between available generation capacities and required demand levels. The paper shares the results of the successfully completed stud and describes the implementation of the new methodology on practical zones in the Saudi electricity system.
A Novel Transmission Scheme for Reliable Cooperative Communication
Cooperative communication scheme can be substituted
for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique when it may
not be able to support multiple antennas due to size, cost or
hardware limitations. In other words, cooperative communication
scheme is an efficient method to achieve spatial diversity without
multiple antennas. For satisfaction of rising QoS, we propose a
reliable cooperative communication scheme with M-QAM based Dual
Carrier Modulation (M-DCM), which can increase diversity gain.
Although our proposed scheme is very simple method, it gives us
frequency and spatial diversity. Simulation result shows our proposed
scheme obtains diversity gain more than the conventional cooperative
An Effective Traffic Control for both Real-time Bursts and Reliable Bursts in OBS Networks
Optical burst switching(OBS) is considered as one of
preferable network technologies for the next generation Internet. The
Internet has two traffic classes, i.e. real-time bursts and reliable bursts.
It is an important subject for OBS to achieve cooperated operation of
real-time bursts and reliable bursts. In this paper, we proposes a new
effective traffic control method named Separate TB+LB (Token
Bucket + Leaky Bucket : TB+LB) method. The proposed method
presents a new Token Bucket scheme for real-time bursts called as
RBO-TB (Real-time Bursts Oriented Token Bucket). The method also
applies the LB method to reliable bursts for obtaining better
performance. This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Separate
TB+LB method through the performance evaluation.
Coherent PON for NG-PON2: 40Gbps Downstream Transmission with 40dB Power Margin using Commercial DFB Lasers and no Optical Amplification
We demonstrate a 40Gbps downstream PON
transmission based on PM-QPSK modulation using commercial DFB
lasers without optical amplifier in the ODN, obtaining 40dB power
budget. We discuss this solution within NG-PON2 architectures.
An Improved STBC Structure and Transmission Scheme for High Rate and Reliability in OFDMA Cooperative Communication
Space-time block code(STBC) has been studied to get
full diversity and full rate in multiple input multiple output(MIMO)
system. Achieving full rate is difficult in cooperative communications
due to the each user consumes the time slots for transmitting
information in cooperation phase. So combining MIMO systems
with cooperative communications has been researched for full diversity
and full rate. In orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA) system, it is an alternative way that each user shares their
allocated subchannels instead of using the MIMO system to improve
the transmission rate. In this paper, a Decode-and-forward (DF)
based cooperative communication scheme is proposed. The proposed
scheme has improved transmission rate and reliability in multi-path
fading channel of the OFDMA up-link condition by modified STBC
structure and subchannel sharing.
Experimental Parametric Investigation of Temperature Effects on 60W-QCW Diode Laser
Nowadays, quasi-continuous wave diode lasers are
used in a widespread variety of applications. Temperature effects in
these lasers can strongly influence their performance. In this paper,
the effects of temperature have been experimentally investigated on
different features of a 60W-QCW diode laser. The obtained results
indicate that the conversion efficiency and operation voltage of diode
laser decrease with the augmentation of the working temperature
associated with a redshift in the laser peak wavelength. Experimental
results show the emission peak wavelength of laser shifts 0.26 nm
and the conversion efficiency decreases 1.76 % with the increase of
temperature from 40 to 50 ̊C. Present study also shows the slope
efficiency decreases gradually at low temperatures and rapidly at
higher temperatures. Regarding the close dependence of the
mentioned parameters to the operating temperature, it is of great
importance to carefully control the working temperature of diode
laser, particularly for medical applications.
Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources
The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.
An Improved Fast Video Clip Search Algorithm for Copy Detection using Histogram-based Features
In this paper, we present an improved fast and robust
search algorithm for copy detection using histogram-based features for
short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two
types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The
first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization
(APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face
recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature
vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal histogram feature
which is robust to color distortion. Furthermore, by Combining with a
temporal division method, the spatial and temporal features of the
video sequence are integrated to realize fast and robust video search
for copy detection. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm
can detect the similar video clip more accurately and robust than
conventional fast video search algorithm.
Approximation Approach to Linear Filtering Problem with Correlated Noise
The (sub)-optimal soolution of linear filtering problem
with correlated noises is considered. The special recursive form of
the class of filters and criteria for selecting the best estimator are
the essential elements of the design method. The properties of the
proposed filter are studied. In particular, for Markovian observation
noise, the approximate filter becomes an optimal Gevers-Kailath filter
subject to a special choice of the parameter in the class of given linear
Using Finite Element Method for Determination of Poles Number in Optimal Design of Linear Motor
One of Effective parameters on the performance of linear induction motors is number of poles which must be selected and optimized to increase power efficiency and motor performance significantly. In this paper a double-sided linear induction motor with different poles number by using MAXWELL3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. Then for dynamic simulation, linear motor by using MATLAB software is simulated. The results show that by adding poles number, system time response is increased and motor after more time reaches to steady state. Also propulsion force of motor is increased.
Data-driven ASIC for Multichannel Sensors
An approach and its implementation in 0.18 m CMOS process of the multichannel ASIC for capacitive (up to 30 pF) sensors are described in the paper. The main design aim was to study an analog data-driven architecture. The design was done for an analog derandomizing function of the 128 to 16 structure. That means that the ASIC structure should provide a parallel front-end readout of 128 input analog sensor signals and after the corresponding fast commutation with appropriate arbitration logic their processing by means of 16 output chains, including analog-to-digital conversion. The principal feature of the ASIC is a low power consumption within 2 mW/channel (including a 9-bit 20Ms/s ADC) at a maximum average channel hit rate not less than 150 kHz.
A Study of DSRC Radio Testbed under Heavy Channel Load
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a
key enabling technology for the next generation of
communication-based safety applications. One of the important
problems for DSRC deployment is maintaining high performance
under heavy channel load. Many studies focus on congestion control
mechanisms for simulating hundreds of physical radios deployed on
vehicles. The U.S. department of transportation-s (DOT) Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) division has a plan to chosen prototype
on-board devices capable of transmitting basic “Here I am" safety
messages to other vehicles. The devices will be used in an IntelliDrive
safety pilot deployment of up to 3,000 vehicles. It is hard to log the
information of 3,000 vehicles. In this paper we present the designs and
issues related to the DSRC Radio Testbed under heavy channel load.
The details not only include the architecture of DSRC Radio Testbed,
but also describe how the Radio Interfere System is used to help for
emulating the congestion radio environment.
TSM: A Design Pattern to Make Ad-hoc BPMs Easy and Inexpensive in Workflow-aware MISs
Despite so many years- development, the mainstream of workflow solutions from IT industries has not made ad-hoc workflow-support easy or inexpensive in MIS. Moreover, most of academic approaches tend to make their resulted BPM (Business Process Management) more complex and clumsy since they used to necessitate modeling workflow. To cope well with various ad-hoc or casual requirements on workflows while still keeping things simple and inexpensive, the author puts forth first the TSM design pattern that can provide a flexible workflow control while minimizing demand of predefinitions and modeling workflow, which introduces a generic approach for building BPM in workflow-aware MISs (Management Information Systems) with low development and running expenses.
Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters
Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.
Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology
With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology,
its practical utilization is becoming an important challange.
This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project,
and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying
it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can
be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless
sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and
challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues
future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.
An Effective Method for Audio Translation between IAX and RSW Protocols
Nowadays, Multimedia Communication has been developed and improved rapidly in order to enable users to communicate between each other over the Internet. In general, the multimedia communication consists of audio and video communication. However, this paper focuses on audio streams. The audio translation between protocols is a very critical issue due to solving the communication problems between any two protocols, as well as it enables people around the world to talk with each other at anywhere and anytime even they use different protocols. In this paper, a proposed method for an audio translation module between two protocols has been presented. These two protocols are InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX) and Real Time Switching Control Protocol (RSW), which they are widely used to provide two ways audio transfer feature. The result of this work is to introduce possibility of interworking together.
Two Different Solutions for Gigabit Ethernet Transmission over POF
Two completely different approaches for a Gigabit
Ethernet compliant stream transmission over 50m of 1mm PMMA SI-POF have been experimentally demonstrated and are compared in this paper. The first solution is based on a commercial RC-LED
transmission and a careful optimization of the physical layer architecture, realized during the POF-PLUS EU Project. The second solution exploits the performance of an edge-emitting laser at the
transmitter side in order to avoid any sort of electrical equalization at the receiver side.
Reliability Modeling and Data Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Subject to Random Shocks
The electrical substation components are often subject to degradation due to over-voltage or over-current, caused by a short circuit or a lightning. A particular interest is given to the circuit breaker, regarding the importance of its function and its dangerous failure. This component degrades gradually due to the use, and it is also subject to the shock process resulted from the stress of isolating the fault when a short circuit occurs in the system. In this paper, based on failure mechanisms developments, the wear out of the circuit breaker contacts is modeled. The aim of this work is to evaluate its reliability and consequently its residual lifetime. The shock process is based on two random variables such as: the arrival of shocks and their magnitudes. The arrival of shocks was modeled using homogeneous Poisson process (HPP). By simulation, the dates of short-circuit arrivals were generated accompanied with their magnitudes. The same principle of simulation is applied to the amount of cumulative wear out contacts. The objective reached is to find the formulation of the wear function depending on the number of solicitations of the circuit breaker.
Fast 2.5D Model Reconstruction of Assembled Parts with High Occlusion for Completeness Inspection
In this work a dual laser triangulation system is presented for fast building of 2.5D textured models of objects within a production line. This scanner is designed to produce data suitable for 3D completeness inspection algorithms. For this purpose two laser projectors have been used in order to considerably reduce the problem of occlusions in the camera movement direction. Results of reconstruction of electronic boards are presented, together with a comparison with a commercial system.
Multifunctional Electrical Outlet based on Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Nowadays, new home appliances and office appliances
have been developed that communicate with users through the
Internet, for remote monitor and remote control. However, developments
and sales of these new appliances are just started, then,
many products in our houses and offices do not have these useful
functions. In few years, we add these new functions to the outlet,
it means multifunctional electrical power socket plug adapter. The
outlet measure power consumption of connecting appliances, and it
can switch power supply to connecting appliances, too. Using this
outlet, power supply of old appliances can be control and monitor.
And we developed the interface system using web browser to operate
it from users. But, this system need to set up LAN cables between
outlets and so on. It is not convenience that cables around rooms. In
this paper, we develop the system that use wireless mobile ad hoc
network instead of wired LAN to communicate with the outlets.
Navigation and Self Alignment of Inertial Systems using Nonlinear H∞ Filters
Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) play a vital
role along with global positioning devices in navigation of
autonomous vehicles .These sensors are low cost ,easily available but
depict colored noises and unpredictable discontinuities .Conventional
filters like Kalman filters and Sigma point filters are not able to cope
with nonwhite noises. This research has utilized H∞ filter in nonlinear
frame work both with Kalman filter and Unscented filter for
navigation and self alignment of an airborne vehicle. The system is
simulated for colored noises and discontinuities and results are
compared with not robust nonlinear filters. The results are found
40%-70% more robust against colored noises and discontinuities.
Effective Security Method for Wireless LAN using Life-Cycle of Wireless Access Point
There are many expand of Wi-Fi zones provided
mobile careers and usage of wireless access point at home as increase
of usage of wireless internet caused by the use of smart phone. This
paper shows wireless local area network status, security threats of
WLAN and functionality of major wireless access point in Korea. We
propose security countermeasures concerned with life cycle of access
point from manufacturing to installation, using and finally disposal.
There needed to releasing with configured secure at access point.
Because, it is most cost effective resolution than stage of installation or
other life cycle of access point.
Improved Posterized Color Images based on Color Quantization and Contrast Enhancement
A conventional image posterization method
occasionally fails to preserve the shape and color of objects due to the
uneffective color reduction. This paper proposes a new image
posterizartion method by using modified color quantization for
preserving the shape and color of objects and color contrast
enhancement for improving lightness contrast and saturation.
Experiment results show that our proposed method can provide
visually more satisfactory posterization result than that of the
Concurrent Testing of ADC for Embedded System
Compaction testing methods allow at-speed detecting
of errors while possessing low cost of implementation. Owing to this
distinctive feature, compaction methods have been widely used for
built-in testing, as well as external testing. In the latter case, the
bandwidth requirements to the automated test equipment employed
are relaxed which reduces the overall cost of testing. Concurrent
compaction testing methods use operational signals to detect
misbehavior of the device under test and do not require input test
stimuli. These methods have been employed for digital systems only.
In the present work, we extend the use of compaction methods for
concurrent testing of analog-to-digital converters. We estimate
tolerance bounds for the result of compaction and evaluate the
MAS Simulations of Optical Antenna Structures
A semi-analytic boundary discretization method, the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is used to analyze Optical Antennas consisting of metallic parts. In addition to standard dipoletype antennas, consisting of two pieces of metal, a new structure consisting of a single metal piece with a tiny groove in the center is analyzed. It is demonstrated that difficult numerical problems are caused because optical antennas exhibit strong material dispersion, loss, and plasmon-polariton effects that require a very accurate numerical simulation. This structure takes advantage of the Channel Plasmon-Polariton (CPP) effect and exhibits a strong enhancement of the electric field in the groove. Also primitive 3D antenna model with spherical nano particles is analyzed.
Bipolar Square Wave Pulses for Liquid Food Sterilization using Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
This paper presents the generation of bipolar square
wave pulses with characteristics that are suitable for liquid food
sterilization using a Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter (CHMI).
Bipolar square waves pulses have been reported as stable for a
longer time during the sterilization process with minimum heat
emission and increased efficiency. The CHMI allows the system to
produce bipolar square wave pulses and yielding high output voltage
without using a transformer while fulfilling the pulse requirements
for effective liquid food sterilization. This in turn can reduce power
consumption and cost of the overall liquid food sterilization system.
The simulation results have shown that pulses with peak output
voltage of 2.4 kV, pulse width of between 1 2s and 1 ms at
frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz can be generated by a 7-level
CHMI. Results from the experimental set-up based on a 5-level
CHMI has indicated the potential of the proposed circuit in
producing bipolar square wave output pulses with peak values that
depends on the DC source level supplied to the CHMI modules,
pulse width of between 12.5 2s and 1 ms at frequencies of 50 Hz
and 100 Hz.
Study on Radio Link Availability in Millimeter Wave Range
In this paper, the link quality in SHF and EHF ranges
are studied. In order to achieve high data rate higher frequencies must
be used – centimeter waves (SHF), millimeter waves (EHF) or optical
range. However, there are significant problem when a radio link work
in that diapason – rain attenuation and attenuation in earth-s
atmosphere. Based on statistical rain rates data for Bulgaria, the link
availability can be determined, depending on the working frequency,
the path length and the Power Budget of the link. For the calculations
of rain attenuation and atmosphere-s attenuation the ITU
recommendations are used.
Next Generation IP Address Transition Mechanism for Web Application System
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address is decreasing and a rapid transition method to the next generation IP address (IPv6) should be established. This study aims to evaluate and select the best performance of the IPv6 address network transitionmechanisms, such as IPv4/IPv6 dual stack, transport Relay Translation (TRT) and Reverse Proxy with additional features. It is also aim to prove that faster access can be done while ensuring optimal usage of available resources used during the test and actual implementation. This study used two test methods such asInternet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)ping and ApacheBenchmark (AB) methodsto evaluate the performance.Performance metrics for this study include aspects ofaverageaccessin one second,time takenfor singleaccess,thedata transfer speed and the costof additional requirements.Reverse Proxy with Caching featureis the most efficientmechanism because of it simpler configurationandthe best performerfrom the test conducted.
Security Threat and Countermeasure on 3G Network
Recent communications environment significantly
expands the mobile environment. The popularization of smartphones
with various mobile services has emerged, and smartphone users are
rapidly increasing. Because of these symptoms, existing wired
environment in a variety of mobile traffic entering to mobile network
has threatened the stability of the mobile network. Unlike traditional
wired infrastructure, mobile networks has limited radio resources and
signaling procedures for complex radio resource management. So
these traffic is not a problem in wired networks but mobile networks, it
can be a threat. In this paper, we analyze the security threats in mobile
networks and provide direction to solve it.
Improved Tropical Wood Species Recognition System based on Multi-feature Extractor and Classifier
An automated wood recognition system is designed to
classify tropical wood species.The wood features are extracted based
on two feature extractors: Basic Grey Level Aura Matrix (BGLAM)
technique and statistical properties of pores distribution (SPPD)
technique. Due to the nonlinearity of the tropical wood species
separation boundaries, a pre classification stage is proposed which
consists ofKmeans clusteringand kernel discriminant analysis (KDA).
Finally, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier and KNearest
Neighbour (KNN) are implemented for comparison purposes.
The study involves comparison of the system with and without pre
classification using KNN classifier and LDA classifier.The results
show that the inclusion of the pre classification stage has improved
the accuracy of both the LDA and KNN classifiers by more than
Comparative Study of Three DGS Unit Shapes and Compact Microstrip Low-Pass and Band-Pass Filters Designs
In this paper, three types of defected ground structure
(DGS) units which are triangular-head (TH), rectangular-head (RH)
and U-shape (US) are investigated. They are further used to low-pass
and band-pass filters designs (LPF and BPF) and the obtained
performances are examined. The LPF employing RH-DGS geometry
presents the advantages of compact size, low-insertion loss and wide
stopband compared to the other filters. It provides cutoff frequency of
2.5 GHz, largest rejection band width of 20 dB from 2.98 to 8.76
GHz, smallest transition region and smallest sharpness of the cutoff
frequency. The BPF based on RH-DGS has the highest bandwidth
(BW) of about 0.74 GHz and the lowest center frequency of 3.24
GHz, whereas the other BPFs have BWs less than 0.7 GHz.
Optimal Supplementary Damping Controller Design for TCSC Employing RCGA
Optimal supplementary damping controller design for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is presented in this paper. For the proposed controller design, a multi-objective fitness function consisting of both damping factors and real part of system electromachanical eigenvalue is used and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed for the optimal supplementary controller parameters. The performance of the designed supplementary TCSC-based damping controller is tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions with parameter variations. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and also with the TCSC-based supplementary controller when the controller parameters are not optimized to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances.
Using Exponential Lévy Models to Study Implied Volatility patterns for Electricity Options
German electricity European options on futures using
Lévy processes for the underlying asset are examined. Implied
volatility evolution, under each of the considered models, is
discussed after calibrating for the Merton jump diffusion (MJD),
variance gamma (VG), normal inverse Gaussian (NIG), Carr, Geman,
Madan and Yor (CGMY) and the Black and Scholes (B&S) model.
Implied volatility is examined for the entire sample period, revealing
some curious features about market evolution, where data fitting
performances of the five models are compared. It is shown that
variance gamma processes provide relatively better results and that
implied volatility shows significant differences through time, having
increasingly evolved. Volatility changes for changed uncertainty, or
else, increasing futures prices and there is evidence for the need to
account for seasonality when modelling both electricity spot/futures
prices and volatility.