High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications
In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].
Safety Compliance of Substation Earthing Design
As new challenges emerge in power electrical
workplace safety, it is the responsibility of the systems designer to
seek out new approaches and solutions that address them. Design
decisions made today will impact cost, safety and serviceability of
the installed systems for 40 or 50 years during the useful life for the
owner. Studies have shown that this cost is an order of magnitude of
7 to 10 times the installed cost of the power distribution equipment.
This paper reviews some aspects of earthing system design in power
substation surrounded by residential houses. The electrical potential
rise and split factors are discussed and a few recommendations are
provided to achieve a safety voltage in the area beyond the boundary
of the substation.
IIR Filter design with Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
This paper demonstrates the application of craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) technique for designing the 8th order low pass Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. CRPSO, the much improved version of PSO, is a population based global heuristic search algorithm which finds near optimal solution in terms of a set of filter coefficients. Effectiveness of this algorithm is justified with a comparative study of some well established algorithms, namely, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation results affirm that the proposed algorithm CRPSO, outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output i.e. sharpness at cut-off, pass band ripple, stop band ripple, and stop band attenuation but also in convergence speed with assured stability.
Design of a Cost Effective Off-Grid Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in an Island of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a developing country with large
population. Demand of electrical energy is increasing day by day
because of increasing population and industrialization. But due to
limited resources, people here are suffering from power crisis
problem which is considered as a major obstacle to the economic
development. In most of the cases, it is extremely difficult to extend
high tension transmission lines to some of the places that are
separated from the mainland. Renewable energy is considered to be
the right choice for providing clean energy to these remote
settlements. This paper proposes a cost effective design of off-grid
wind-diesel hybrid power system using combined heat and power
(CHP) technology in a grid isolated island, Sandwip, Bangladesh.
Design and simulation of the wind-diesel hybrid power system is
performed considering different factors for the island Sandwip.
Detailed economic analysis and comparison with solar PV system
clearly reveals that wind-diesel hybrid power system can be a cost
effective solution for the isolated island like Sandwip.
A Failure Analysis Tool for HDD Analysis
The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.
A Novel Design for Hybrid Space-Time Block Codes and Spatial Multiplexing Scheme
Space-time block codes (STBC) and spatial multiplexing
(SM) are promising techniques that effectively exploit multipleinput
multiple-output (MIMO) transmission to achieve more reliable
communication and a higher multiplexing rate, respectively. In this
paper, we study a practical design for hybrid scheme with multi-input
multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMOOFDM)
systems to flexibly maximize the tradeoff between diversity
and multiplexing gains. Unlike the existing STBC and SM designs
which are suitable for the integer multiplexing rate, the proposed
design can achieve arbitrary number of multiplexing rate.
Mathematical Model and Control Strategy on DQ Frame for Shunt Active Power Filters
This paper presents the mathematical model and
control strategy on DQ frame of shunt active power filter. The
structure of the shunt active power filter is the voltage source inverter
(VSI). The pulse width modulation (PWM) with PI controller is used
in the paper. The concept of DQ frame to apply with the shunt active
power filter is described. Moreover, the detail of the PI controller
design for two current loops and one voltage loop are fully explained.
The DQ axis with Fourier (DQF) method is applied to calculate the
reference currents on DQ frame. The simulation results show that the
control strategy and the design method presented in the paper can
provide the good performance of the shunt active power filter.
Moreover, the %THD of the source currents after compensation can
follow the IEEE Std.519-1992.
The Application of Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm and Averaging Model to the Optimal Controller Design of Buck Converters
The paper presents the applications of artificial
intelligence technique called adaptive tabu search to design the
controller of a buck converter. The averaging model derived from the
DQ and generalized state-space averaging methods is applied to
simulate the system during a searching process. The simulations
using such averaging model require the faster computational time
compared with that of the full topology model from the software
packages. The reported model is suitable for the work in the paper in
which the repeating calculation is needed for searching the best
solution. The results will show that the proposed design technique
can provide the better output waveforms compared with those
designed from the classical method.
A Literature Survey of Neural Network Applications for Shunt Active Power Filters
This paper aims to present the reviews of the
application of neural network in shunt active power filter (SAPF).
From the review, three out of four components of SAPF structure,
which are harmonic detection component, compensating current
control, and DC bus voltage control, have been adopted some of
neural network architecture as part of its component or even
substitution. The objectives of most papers in using neural network in
SAPF are to increase the efficiency, stability, accuracy, robustness,
tracking ability of the systems of each component. Moreover,
minimizing unneeded signal due to the distortion is the ultimate goal
in applying neural network to the SAPF. The most famous
architecture of neural network in SAPF applications are ADALINE
and Backpropagation (BP).
Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital
communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In
the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier
interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.
Study of Characteristics of Multi-Layer Piezoelectric Transformers by using 3-D Finite Element Method
Piezoelectric transformers are electronic devices made
from piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric transformers as the
name implied are used for changing voltage signals from one level to another. Electrical energy carried with signals is transferred by means of mechanical vibration. Characterizing in both electrical and
mechanical properties leads to extensively use and efficiency enhancement of piezoelectric transformers in various applications. In
this paper, study and analysis of electrical and mechanical properties of multi-layer piezoelectric transformers in forms of potential and
displacement distribution throughout the volume, respectively. This
paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of electromechanical
coupling for piezoelectric transformer by using a set of
partial differential equations. Computer-based simulation utilizing the three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited
as a tool for visualizing potentials and displacements distribution
within the multi-layer piezoelectric transformer. This simulation was
conducted by varying a number of layers. In this paper 3, 5 and 7 of
the circular ring type were used. The computer simulation based on
the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.
Effect of Applied Voltage Frequency on Electrical Treeing in 22 kV Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Cable
This paper presents the experimental results on effect of applied voltage stress frequency to the occurrence of electrical treeing in 22 kV cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable.Hallow disk of XLPE insulating material with thickness 5 mm taken from unused high voltage cable was used as the specimen in this study. Stainless steel needle was inserted gradually into the specimen to give a tip to earth plane electrode separation of 2.50.2 mm at elevated temperature 105-110°C. The specimen was then annealed for 5 minute to minimize any mechanical stress build up around the needle-plane region before it was cooled down to room temperature. Each specimen were subjected to the same applied voltage stress level at 8 kV AC rms, with various frequency, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. Initiation time, propagation speed and pattern of electrical treeing were examined in order to study the effect of applied voltage stress frequency. By the experimental results, initial time of visible treeing decreases with increasing in applied voltage frequency. Also, obviously, propagation speed of electrical treeing increases with increasing in applied voltage frequency.Furthermore, two types of electrical treeing, bush-like and branch-like treeing were observed.The experimental results confirmed the effect of voltage stress frequency as well.
Investigation of I/Q Imbalance in Coherent Optical OFDM System
The inphase/quadrature (I/Q) amplitude and phase
imbalance effects are studied in coherent optical orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. An analytical
model for the I/Q imbalance is developed and supported by
simulation results. The results indicate that the I/Q imbalance degrades the BER performance considerably.
A Low Power High Frequency CMOS RF Four Quadrant Analog Mixer
This paper describes a CMOS four-quadrant
multiplier intended for use in the front-end receiver by utilizing the
square-law characteristic of the MOS transistor in the saturation
region. The circuit is based on 0.35 um CMOS technology simulated
using HSPICE software. The mixer has a third-order inter the power
consumption is 271uW from a single 1.2V power supply. One of the
features of the proposed design is using two MOS transistors
limitation to reduce the supply voltage, which leads to reduce the
power consumption. This technique provides a GHz bandwidth
response and low power consumption.
Modeling and Simulation of Switched Reluctance Motor with Three-Phase and Four- Phase Configurations
The reluctance motor is an electric motor in which
torque is produced by the tendency of its moveable part to move to a
position where the inductance of the excited winding is maximized.
In this paper switched reluctance motors (SRMs) with two different
configurations(3-phase SRM with 4rotor poles and 6 stator poles, 4-
phase SRM with 6rotor poles and 8 stator poles) is designed by
RMxprt, and performance of them is analyzed. Efficiency and torque
of SRM for different configurations in full-load condition have been
presented. The results indicate that with correct choosing of motor
applications, maximum efficiency can be found.
Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise
This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation
scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The
modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and
a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise
while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined
with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase
voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The
experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC
power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC
input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation
from 0 to 600 W.
Dynamic Model of a Buck Converter with a Sliding Mode Control
This paper presents the averaging model of a buck
converter derived from the generalized state-space averaging method.
The sliding mode control is used to regulate the output voltage of the
converter and taken into account in the model. The proposed model
requires the fast computational time compared with those of the full
topology model. The intensive time-domain simulations via the exact
topology model are used as the comparable model. The results show
that a good agreement between the proposed model and the switching
model is achieved in both transient and steady-state responses. The
reported model is suitable for the optimal controller design by using
the artificial intelligence techniques.
Analysis of Current Mirror in 32nm MOSFET and CNTFET Technologies
There is need to explore emerging technologies based on carbon nanotube electronics as the MOS technology is approaching its limits. As MOS devices scale to the nano ranges, increased short channel effects and process variations considerably effect device and circuit designs. As a promising new transistor, the Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor(CNTFET) avoids most of the fundamental limitations of the Traditional MOSFET devices. In this paper we present the analysis and comparision of a Carbon Nanotube FET(CNTFET) based 10(A current mirror with MOSFET for 32nm technology node. The comparision shows the superiority of the former in terms of 97% increase in output resistance,24% decrease in power dissipation and 40% decrease in minimum voltage required for constant saturation current. Furthermore the effect on performance of current mirror due to change in chirality vector of CNT has also been investigated. The circuit simulations are carried out using HSPICE model.
BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm
This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization
(PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed
Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is
to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for
voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution
network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load
flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined
appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this
operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB
software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better
results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33-
bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction
for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover,
voltage profile improvement is achieved.
Multiple Moving Talker Tracking by Integration of Two Successive Algorithms
In this paper, an estimation accuracy of multiple moving
talker tracking using a microphone array is improved. The tracking
can be achieved by the adaptive method in which two algorithms are integrated, namely, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace
Tracking) algorithm and the IPLS (Interior Point Least Square) algorithm. When either talker begins to speak again after a silent
period, an appropriate feasible region for an evaluation function of
the IPLS algorithm might not be set. Then, the tracking fails due to the incorrect updating. Therefore, if an increment of the number of
active talkers is detected, the feasible region must be reset. Then, a low cost realization is required for the high speed tracking and a high
accuracy realization is desired for the precise tracking. In this paper,
the directions roughly estimated using the delayed-sum-array method
are used for the resetting. Several results of experiments performed in
an actual room environment show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The Effects of Various Boundary Conditions on Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Beamwith Piezoelectric Layers Based on Third order Shear Deformation Theory
This article attempts to analyze functionally graded beam thermal buckling along with piezoelectric layers applying based on the third order shearing deformation theory considering various boundary conditions. The beam properties are assumed to vary continuously from the lower surface to the upper surface of the beam. The equilibrium equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations, piezoelectric material constitutive equations and third order shear deformation theory assumptions. In order to fulfill such an aim, at first functionally graded beam with piezoelectric layers applying the third order shearing deformation theory along with clamped -clamped boundary conditions are thoroughly analyzed, and then following making sure of the correctness of all the equations, the very same beam is analyzed with piezoelectric layers through simply-simply and simply-clamped boundary conditions. In this article buckling critical temperature for functionally graded beam is derived in two different ways, without piezoelectric layer and with piezoelectric layer and the results are compared together. Finally, all the conclusions obtained will be compared and contrasted with the same samples in the same and distinguished conditions through tables and charts. It would be noteworthy that in this article, the software MAPLE has been applied in order to do the numeral calculations.
Object Detection based Weighted-Center Surround Difference
Intelligent traffic surveillance technology is an issue in
the field of traffic data analysis. Therefore, we need the technology to
detect moving objects in real-time while there are variations in background and natural light. In this paper, we proposed a Weighted-Center Surround Difference
method for object detection in outdoor environments. The proposed system detects objects using the saliency map that is obtained by
analyzing the weight of each layers of Gaussian pyramid. In order to validate the effectiveness of our system, we implemented the proposed
method using a digital signal processor, TMS320DM6437.
Experimental results show that blurred noisy around objects was effectively eliminated and the object detection accuracy is improved.
Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method
This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical
model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of
distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial
differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field
analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this
research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced
loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional
finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool
for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution
transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular
numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in
various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most
engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution,
the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations
governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation
based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB
Linear Phase High Pass FIR Filter Design using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents an optimal design of linear phase
digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Improved
Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO). In the design process, the filter
length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and
stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal
optimization problem. An iterative method is introduced to find the
optimal solution of FIR filter design problem. Evolutionary
algorithms like real code genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm
optimization (PSO), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO)
have been used in this work for the design of linear phase high pass
FIR filter. IPSO is an improved PSO that proposes a new definition
for the velocity vector and swarm updating and hence the solution
quality is improved. A comparison of simulation results reveals the
optimization efficacy of the algorithm over the prevailing
optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable,
highly non-linear, and constrained FIR filter design
Extended Low Power Bus Binding Combined with Data Sequence Reordering
In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the
switching activity (SA) in on-chip buses through the use of a bus
binding technique in high-level synthesis. While many binding
techniques to reduce the SA exist, we present yet another technique for
further reducing the switching activity. Our proposed method
combines bus binding and data sequence reordering to explore a wider
solution space. The problem is formulated as a multiple traveling
salesman problem and solved using simulated annealing technique.
The experimental results revealed that a binding solution obtained
with the proposed method reduces 5.6-27.2% (18.0% on average) and
2.6-12.7% (6.8% on average) of the switching activity when compared
with conventional binding-only and hybrid binding-encoding
MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design
This paper proposes the novel model order
formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher
order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO)
based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the
successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to
meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero
cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID
controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated
second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed
loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed
method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.
Frequency-Variation Based Method for Parameter Estimation of Transistor Amplifier
In this paper, a frequency-variation based method has
been proposed for transistor parameter estimation in a commonemitter
transistor amplifier circuit. We design an algorithm to estimate
the transistor parameters, based on noisy measurements of the output
voltage when the input voltage is a sine wave of variable frequency
and constant amplitude. The common emitter amplifier circuit has
been modelled using the transistor Ebers-Moll equations and the
perturbation technique has been used for separating the linear and
nonlinear parts of the Ebers-Moll equations. This model of the amplifier
has been used to determine the amplitude of the output sinusoid as
a function of the frequency and the parameter vector. Then, applying
the proposed method to the frequency components, the transistor
parameters have been estimated. As compared to the conventional
time-domain least squares method, the proposed method requires
much less data storage and it results in more accurate parameter
estimation, as it exploits the information in the time and frequency
domain, simultaneously. The proposed method can be utilized for
parameter estimation of an analog device in its operating range of
frequencies, as it uses data collected from different frequencies output
signals for parameter estimation.
Bond Graph and Bayesian Networks for Reliable Diagnosis
Bond Graph as a unified multidisciplinary tool is widely
used not only for dynamic modelling but also for Fault Detection and
Isolation because of its structural and causal proprieties. A binary
Fault Signature Matrix is systematically generated but to make the
final binary decision is not always feasible because of the problems
revealed by such method. The purpose of this paper is introducing a
methodology for the improvement of the classical binary method of
decision-making, so that the unknown and identical failure signatures
can be treated to improve the robustness. This approach consists of
associating the evaluated residuals and the components reliability data
to build a Hybrid Bayesian Network. This network is used in two
distinct inference procedures: one for the continuous part and the
other for the discrete part. The continuous nodes of the network are
the prior probabilities of the components failures, which are used by
the inference procedure on the discrete part to compute the posterior
probabilities of the failures. The developed methodology is applied
to a real steam generator pilot process.
On the Analysis of Localization Accuracy of Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems using Cramer's Rule
This paper presents an analysis of the localization accuracy of indoor positioning systems using Cramer-s rule via IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks. The objective is to study the impact of the methods used to convert the received signal strength into the distance that is used to compute the object location in the wireless indoor positioning system. Various methods were tested and the localization accuracy was analyzed. The experimental results show that the method based on the empirical data measured in the non line-of-sight (NLOS) environment yield the highest localization accuracy; with the minimum error distance less than 3 m.
Analysis of Codebook Based Channel Feedback Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems
This paper investigates the performance of Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) feedback system combined with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The first feedback technique uses a combination of both the long-term and short-term channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, whereas the second technique uses only the short term CSI. The long-term and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The effectiveness of these techniques has been demonstrated through the simulation of a MIMO-OFDM feedback system. The results have been evaluated for 4x4 MIMO channels. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the MIMO-OFDM channel feedback system over the one without incorporating OFDM. Performance gain of about 3 dB is observed for MIMO-OFDM feedback system as compared to the one without employing OFDM. Hence MIMO-OFDM becomes an attractive approach for future high speed wireless communication systems.
Averaging Model of a Three-Phase Controlled Rectifier Feeding an Uncontrolled Buck Converter
Dynamic models of power converters are normally
time-varying because of their switching actions. Several approaches
are applied to analyze the power converters to achieve the timeinvariant
models suitable for system analysis and design via the
classical control theory. The paper presents how to derive dynamic
models of the power system consisting of a three-phase controlled
rectifier feeding an uncontrolled buck converter by using the
combination between the well known techniques called the DQ and
the generalized state-space averaging methods. The intensive timedomain
simulations of the exact topology model are used to support
the accuracies of the reported model. The results show that the
proposed model can provide good accuracies in both transient and
The Development of Flying Type Moving Robot Using Image Processing
Wheel-running type moving robot has the restriction
on the moving range caused by obstacles or stairs. Solving this
weakness, we studied the development of moving robot using airship.
Our airship robot moves by recognizing arrow marks on the path. To
have the airship robot recognize arrow marks, we used edge-based
template matching. To control propeller units, we used PID and PD
controller. The results of experiments demonstrated that the airship
robot can move along the marks and can go up and down the stairs. It is
shown the possibility that airship robot can become a robot which can
move at wide range facilities.
Sensorless Speed Based on MRAS with Tuning of IP Speed Controller in FOC of Induction Motor Drive Using PSO
In this paper, a field oriented control (FOC) induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact FOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor speed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The Integral Proportional (IP) gains speed controller are tuned by a modern approach that is the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to optimize the parameters of the IP controller. The use of PSO as an optimization algorithm makes the drive robust, with faster dynamic response, higher accuracy and insensitive to load variation. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving load.
Multi-Line Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) Controller for Transient Stability Analysis of a Multi-Machine Power System Network
A considerable progress has been achieved in transient
stability analysis (TSA) with various FACTS controllers. But, all
these controllers are associated with single transmission line. This
paper is intended to discuss a new approach i.e. a multi-line FACTS
controller which is interline power flow controller (IPFC) for TSA of
a multi-machine power system network. A mathematical model of
IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM) presented and this
model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow
algorithm. Then, the reduced admittance matrix of a multi-machine
power system network for a three phase fault without and with IPFC
is obtained which is required to draw the machine swing curves. A
general approach based on L-index has also been discussed to find
the best location of IPFC to reduce the proximity to instability of a
power system. Numerical results are carried out on two test systems
namely, 6-bus and 11-bus systems. A program in MATLAB has
been written to plot the variation of generator rotor angle and speed
difference curves without and with IPFC for TSA and also a simple
approach has been presented to evaluate critical clearing time for test
systems. The results obtained without and with IPFC are compared
Fuzzy Logic Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor Drive
This paper presents an intelligent speed control
system based on fuzzy logic for a voltage source PWM inverter-fed
indirect vector controlled induction motor drive. Traditional indirect
vector control system of induction motor introduces conventional PI
regulator in outer speed loop; it is proved that the low precision of the
speed regulator debases the performance of the whole system. To
overcome this problem, replacement of PI controller by an intelligent
controller based on fuzzy set theory is proposed. The performance of
the intelligent controller has been investigated through digital
simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK package for different
operating conditions such as sudden change in reference speed and
load torque. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance
of the proposed controller is better than that of the conventional PI
Intelligent Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Interconnected Power System using Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Controller
This paper presents the development and application of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based intelligent hybrid neuro fuzzy controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of two-area interconnected thermal power system with reheat non linearity. The dynamic response of the system has been studied for 1% step load perturbation in area-1. The performance of the proposed neuro fuzzy controller is compared against conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller, state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller and fuzzy gain scheduled proportionalintegral (FGSPI) controller. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed intelligent neuro fuzzy controller is the most effective of all in improving the transients of frequency and tie-line power deviations against small step load disturbances. Simulations have been performed using Matlab®.
An Authoring Tool for Vibrotactile Images
This paper presents an authoring tool which makes a
user easily and intuitively design vibrotactile sensation. A mobile
hardware platform powered by ANDROID, a multi-purpose haptic
driver and a linear resonance actuator are used to implement the
system of the presented authoring tool. The tool allows users to easily
and simply create a vibrotactile sensation by drawing vibrotactile
images and to feel the sensation by rubbing drawn images on the touch
screen of a mobile device. The tool supports a graphical interface for
designing, editing and playing vibrotactile images as well as a
pre-defined file format for save and open.
Variable-Relation Criterion for Analysis of the Memristor
To judge whether the memristor can be interpreted as
the fourth fundamental circuit element, we propose a variable-relation
criterion of fundamental circuit elements. According to the criterion,
we investigate the nature of three fundamental circuit elements and the
memristor. From the perspective of variables relation, the memristor
builds a direct relation between the voltage across it and the current
through it, instead of a direct relation between the magnetic flux and
the charge. Thus, it is better to characterize the memristor and the
resistor as two special cases of the same fundamental circuit element,
which is the memristive system in Chua-s new framework. Finally, the
definition of memristor is refined according to the difference between
the magnetic flux and the flux linkage.
A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine
The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.
Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique
Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
is a promising technology which can offer high speed data,
voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated
by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies.
The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The
biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its
wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment.
The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM
IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital
modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination
of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI)
Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless
access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed.
It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories
according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give
a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance
of the system.
The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters
This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.
Accurate Fault Classification and Section Identification Scheme in TCSC Compensated Transmission Line using SVM
This paper presents a new approach for the protection
of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) line using
Support Vector Machine (SVM). One SVM is trained for fault
classification and another for section identification. This method use
three phase current measurement that results in better speed and
accuracy than other SVM based methods which used single phase
current measurement. This makes it suitable for real-time protection.
The method was tested on 10,000 data instances with a very wide
variation in system conditions such as compensation level, source
impedance, location of fault, fault inception angle, load angle at
source bus and fault resistance. The proposed method requires only
local current measurement.
Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Material
The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in
T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a
well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain
in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
This paper presents the experimental results on
ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator
under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor
polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant
from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test.
After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in
degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as
decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness
measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical
analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested
specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.
Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.
GPS and Discrete Kalman Filter for Indoor Robot Navigation
This paper discusses the implementation of the Kalman
Filter along with the Global Positioning System (GPS) for indoor
robot navigation. Two dimensional coordinates is used for the map
building, and refers to the global coordinate which is attached to the
reference landmark for position and direction information the robot
gets. The Discrete Kalman Filter is used to estimate the robot position,
project the estimated current state ahead in time through time update
and adjust the projected estimated state by an actual measurement at
that time via the measurement update. The navigation test has been
performed and has been found to be robust.
A Power Conversion System using the Renewable Energies for HEV Charger
With a development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV),
A photovoltaic(PV) generation system is used for charging batteries in many cases. A dc/dc converter using PV power for a battery charger
requires a high efficiency. In this paper, A ZVS boost converter using the renewable energies for HEV charger is proposed. Through the theoretical analysis and experimental result, operation modes and characteristics of the proposed topology are verified.
Quasi Multi-Pulse Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator Employing Line Frequency Switching 2-Level GTO Inverters
Back-to-back static synchronous compensator (BtBSTATCOM) consists of two back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSC) with a common DC link in a substation. This configuration extends the capabilities of conventional STATCOM that bidirectional active power transfer from one bus to another is possible. In this paper, VSCs are designed in quasi multi-pulse form in which GTOs are triggered only once per cycle in PSCAD/EMTDC. The design details of VSCs as well as gate switching circuits and controllers are fully represented. Regulation modes of BtBSTATCOM are verified and tested on a multi-machine power system through different simulation cases. The results presented in the form of typical time responses show that practical PI controllers are almost robust and stable in case of start-up, set-point change, and line faults.
Designing and Manufacturing High Voltage Pulse Generator with Adjustable Pulse and Monitoring Current and Voltage: Food Processing Application
Using strength Pulse Electrical Field (PEF) in food
industries is a non-thermal process that can deactivate
microorganisms and increase penetration in plant and animals tissues
without serious impact on food taste and quality. In this paper designing and fabricating of a PEF generator has been presented. Pulse generation methods have been surveyed and the best of them
selected. The equipment by controller set can generate square pulse with adjustable parameters such as amplitude 1-5kV, frequency 0.1-10Hz, pulse width 10-100s, and duty cycle 0-100%. Setting the number of pulses, and presenting the output voltage and current
waveforms on the oscilloscope screen are another advantages of this
equipment. Finally, some food samples were tested that yielded the satisfactory results. PEF applying had considerable effects on potato, banana and purple cabbage. It caused increase Brix factor from 0.05
to 0.15 in potato solution. It is also so effective in extraction color material from purple cabbage. In the last experiment effects of PEF
voltages on color extraction of saffron scum were surveyed (about 6% increasing yield).
Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error
Phase error in communications systems degrades error
performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the
average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in
the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary
intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and
periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the
average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified
through comparison with simulation result.
Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Decode-and-Forward Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks
Cooperative diversity (CD) has been adopted in many communication systems because it helps in improving performance of the wireless communication systems with the help of the relays that emulate the multiple antenna terminals. This work aims to provide the derivation of the performance analysis expressions of the multiuser diversity (MUD) in the two-hop cooperative multi-relay wireless networks (TCMRNs). Considering the work analysis, we provide analytically the derivation of a closed form expression of the two most commonly used performance metrics namely, the outage probability and the symbol error probability (SEP) for the fixed decode-and-forward (FDF) protocol with MUD.
On the Analysis of IP Traffic Distribution in the Network of Suranaree University of Technology
This paper presents the IP traffic analysis. The traffic
was collected from the network of Suranaree University of
Technology using the software based on the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP). In particular, we analyze the
distribution of the aggregated traffic during the hours of peak load
and light load. The traffic profiles including the parameters described
the traffic distributions were derived. From the statistical analysis
applying three different methods, including the Kolmogorov Smirnov
test, Anderson Darling test, and Chi-Squared test, we found that the
IP traffic distribution is a non-normal distribution and the
distributions during the peak load and the light load are different. The
experimental study and analysis show high uncertainty of the IP
A Novel Method to Evaluate Line Loadability for Distribution Systems with Realistic Loads
This paper presents a simple method for estimation of
additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn
before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial
distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at
different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple
line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of
the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use
to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The
proposed method also compares with the existing method of
maximum loadability index . The simulation results show that the
LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system
instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near
one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and
predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to
prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the
proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus
and 69 bus RDS.
Reliability Assessment of Bangladesh Power System Using Recursive Algorithm
An electric utility-s main concern is to plan, design, operate and maintain its power supply to provide an acceptable level of reliability to its users. This clearly requires that standards of reliability be specified and used in all three sectors of the power system, i.e., generation, transmission and distribution. That is why reliability of a power system is always a major concern to power system planners. This paper presents the reliability analysis of Bangladesh Power System (BPS). Reliability index, loss of load probability (LOLP) of BPS is evaluated using recursive algorithm and considering no de-rated states of generators. BPS has sixty one generators and a total installed capacity of 5275 MW. The maximum demand of BPS is about 5000 MW. The relevant data of the generators and hourly load profiles are collected from the National Load Dispatch Center (NLDC) of Bangladesh and reliability index 'LOLP' is assessed for the period of last ten years.