Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 25

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 25
    Matrix-Interleaved Serially Concatenated Block Codes for Speech Transmission in Fixed Wireless Communication Systems

    In this paper, we study a class of serially concatenated block codes (SCBC) based on matrix interleavers, to be employed in fixed wireless communication systems. The performances of SCBC¬coded systems are investigated under various interleaver dimensions. Numerical results reveal that the matrix interleaver could be a competitive candidate over conventional block interleaver for frame lengths of 200 bits; hence, the SCBC coding based on matrix interleaver is a promising technique to be employed for speech transmission applications in many international standards such as pan-European Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800, and Joint Detection Code Division Multiple Access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio systems, where the speech frame contains around 200 bits.

    Low Power Bus Binding Based on Dynamic Bit Reordering
    In this paper, the problem of reducing switching activity in on-chip buses at the stage of high-level synthesis is considered, and a high-level low power bus binding based on dynamic bit reordering is proposed. Whereas conventional methods use a fixed bit ordering between variables within a bus, the proposed method switches a bit ordering dynamically to obtain a switching activity reduction. As a result, the proposed method finds a binding solution with a smaller value of total switching activity (TSA). Experimental result shows that the proposed method obtains a binding solution having 12.0-34.9% smaller TSA compared with the conventional methods.
    Probabilistic Electrical Power Generation Modeling Using Decimal to Binary Conversion
    Generation system reliability assessment is an important task which can be performed using deterministic or probabilistic techniques. The probabilistic approaches have significant advantages over the deterministic methods. However, more complicated modeling is required by the probabilistic approaches. Power generation model is a basic requirement for this assessment. One form of the generation models is the well known capacity outage probability table (COPT). Different analytical techniques have been used to construct the COPT. These approaches require considerable mathematical modeling of the generating units. The unit-s models are combined to build the COPT which will add more burdens on the process of creating the COPT. Decimal to Binary Conversion (DBC) technique is widely and commonly applied in electronic systems and computing This paper proposes a novel utilization of the DBC to create the COPT without engaging in analytical modeling or time consuming simulations. The simple binary representation , “0 " and “1 " is used to model the states o f generating units. The proposed technique is proven to be an effective approach to build the generation model.
    FEA- Aided Design, Optimization and Development of an Axial Flux Motor for Implantable Ventricular Assist Device
    This paper presents the optimal design and development of an axial flux motor for blood pump application. With the design objective of maximizing the motor efficiency and torque, different topologies of AFPM machine has been examined. Selection of optimal magnet fraction, Halbach arrangement of rotor magnets and the use of Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) material for the stator core results in a novel motor with improved efficiency and torque profile. The results of the 3D Finite element analysis for the novel motor have been shown.
    Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Controlling Spacecraft Power System
    Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) made during this decade have forever changed the way we look at automating spacecraft subsystems including the electrical power system. AI have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper, a mathematical modeling and MATLAB–SIMULINK model for the different components of the spacecraft power system is presented. Also, a control system, which includes either the Neural Network Controller (NNC) or the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for achieving the coordination between the components of spacecraft power system as well as control the energy flows. The performance of the spacecraft power system is evaluated by comparing two control systems using the NNC and the FLC.
    Mitigation of Flicker using STATCOM with Three-Level 12-pulse Voltage Source Inverter
    Voltage flicker is a disturbance in electrical power systems. The reason for this disturbance is mainly the large nonlinear loads such as electric arc furnaces. Synchronous static compensator (STATCOM) is considered as a proper technique to mitigate the voltage flicker. Application of more suitable and precise power electronic converter leads to a more precise performance of the compensator. In this paper a three-level 12-pulse voltage source inverter (VSI) with a 12-terminal transformer connected to the ac system is studied and the obtained results are compared with the performance of a STATCOM using a simple two-level VSI and an optimal and more precise performance of the proposed scheme is achieved.
    Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Using Simulating Annealing (SA)
    This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement in a distribution system. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to he installed and, during each load level,the control settings of these capacitors in order that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints,network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem with a nondifferentiable objective function. Four solution mythologies based on algorithms (GA),tabu search (TS), and hybrid GA-SA algorithms are presented.The solution methodologies are preceded by a sensitivity analysis to select the candidate capacitor installation locations.
    Simulation of a Double-Sided Axial Flux Brushless Dc Two-Phase Motor Dynamics
    The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of a double-sided axial flux permanent magnet brushless DC (AFPM BLDC) motor with two-phase winding. To study the motor operation, a mathematical dynamic model has been proposed for motor, which became the basis for simulations that were performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The results of simulations were presented in form of the waveforms of selected quantities and the electromechanical characteristics performed by the motor. The calculation results show that the two-phase motor version develops smooth torque and reaches high efficiency. The twophase motor can be applied where more smooth torque is required. Finally a study on the influence of switching angle on motor performance shows that when advance switching technique is used, the motor operates with the highest efficiency.
    Wavelet Entropy Based Algorithm for Fault Detection and Classification in FACTS Compensated Transmission Line

    Distance protection of transmission lines including advanced flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices has been a very challenging task. FACTS devices of interest in this paper are static synchronous series compensators (SSSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC). In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to detect and classify the fault and identify the fault position in a transmission line with respect to a FACTS device placed in the midpoint of the transmission line. Discrete wavelet transformation and wavelet entropy calculations are used to analyze during fault current and voltage signals of the compensated transmission line. The proposed algorithm is very simple and accurate in fault detection and classification. A variety of fault cases and simulation results are introduced to show the effectiveness of such algorithm.

    Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Adhoc Networks
    The aim of this paper is to explore the security issues that significantly affect the performance of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET)and limit the services provided to their intended users. The MANETs are more vulnerable to Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) because of their properties like shared medium, dynamic topologies etc. A DDoS attack is a coordinated attempt made by malicious users to flood the victim network with the large amount of data such that the resources of the victim network are exhausted resulting in the deterioration of the network performance. This paper highlights the effects of different types of DDoS attacks in MANETs and categorizes them according to their behavior.
    Queen-bee Algorithm for Energy Efficient Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks
    Wireless sensor networks include small nodes which have sensing ability; calculation and connection extend themselves everywhere soon. Such networks have source limitation on connection, calculation and energy consumption. So, since the nodes have limited energy in sensor networks, the optimized energy consumption in these networks is of more importance and has created many challenges. The previous works have shown that by organizing the network nodes in a number of clusters, the energy consumption could be reduced considerably. So the lifetime of the network would be increased. In this paper, we used the Queen-bee algorithm to create energy efficient clusters in wireless sensor networks. The Queen-bee (QB) is similar to nature in that the queen-bee plays a major role in reproduction process. The QB is simulated with J-sim simulator. The results of the simulation showed that the clustering by the QB algorithm decreases the energy consumption with regard to the other existing algorithms and increases the lifetime of the network.
    Turbo-Coded Mobile Terrestrial Communication Systems in Urban and Suburban Areas for Wireless Multimedia Applications

    With the rapid popularization of internet services, it is apparent that the next generation terrestrial communication systems must be capable of supporting various applications like voice, video, and data. This paper presents the performance evaluation of turbo- coded mobile terrestrial communication systems, which are capable of providing high quality services for delay sensitive (voice or video) and delay tolerant (text transmission) multimedia applications in urban and suburban areas. Different types of multimedia information require different service qualities, which are generally expressed in terms of a maximum acceptable bit-error-rate (BER) and maximum tolerable latency. The breakthrough discovery of turbo codes allows us to significantly reduce the probability of bit errors with feasible latency. In a turbo-coded system, a trade-off between latency and BER results from the choice of convolutional component codes, interleaver type and size, decoding algorithm, and the number of decoding iterations. This trade-off can be exploited for multimedia applications by using optimal and suboptimal performance parameter amalgamations to achieve different service qualities. The results are therefore proposing an adaptive framework for turbo-coded wireless multimedia communications which incorporate a set of performance parameters that achieve an appropriate set of service qualities, depending on the application's requirements.

    Optimal SSSC Placement to ATC Enhancing in Power Systems
    This paper reviews the optimization available transmission capability (ATC) of power systems using a device of FACTS named SSSC equipped with energy storage devices. So that, emplacement and improvement of parameters of SSSC will be illustrated. Thus, voltage magnitude constraints of network buses, line transient stability constraints and voltage breakdown constraints are considered. To help the calculations, a comprehensive program in DELPHI is provided, which is able to simulate and trace the parameters of SSSC has been installed on a specific line. Furthermore, the provided program is able to compute ATC, TTC and maximum value of their enhancement after using SSSC.
    A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea
    This paper presented two new efficient algorithms for contour approximation. The proposed algorithm is compared with Ramer (good quality), Triangle (faster) and Trapezoid (fastest) in this work; which are briefly described. Cartesian co-ordinates of an input contour are processed in such a manner that finally contours is presented by a set of selected vertices of the edge of the contour. In the paper the main idea of the analyzed procedures for contour compression is performed. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Computational time of analyzed methods is estimated depending on a number of numerical operations. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios, and speed. The main advantages of the analyzed algorithm is small numbers of the arithmetic operations compared to the existing algorithms.
    Fail-safe Modeling of Discrete Event Systems using Petri Nets
    In this paper the effect of faults in the elements and parts of discrete event systems is investigated. In the occurrence of faults, some states of the system must be changed and some of them must be forbidden. For this goal, different states of these elements are examined and a model for fail-safe behavior of each state is introduced. Replacing new models of the target elements in the preliminary model by a systematic method, leads to a fail-safe discrete event system.
    Coverage and Connectivity Problem in Sensor Networks
    In over deployed sensor networks, one approach to Conserve energy is to keep only a small subset of sensors active at Any instant. For the coverage problems, the monitoring area in a set of points that require sensing, called demand points, and consider that the node coverage area is a circle of range R, where R is the sensing range, If the Distance between a demand point and a sensor node is less than R, the node is able to cover this point. We consider a wireless sensor network consisting of a set of sensors deployed randomly. A point in the monitored area is covered if it is within the sensing range of a sensor. In some applications, when the network is sufficiently dense, area coverage can be approximated by guaranteeing point coverage. In this case, all the points of wireless devices could be used to represent the whole area, and the working sensors are supposed to cover all the sensors. We also introduce Hybrid Algorithm and challenges related to coverage in sensor networks.
    The effect of the Thickness of Electrical sheet on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters
    This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence thickness of electrical sheet on overvoltage compared to the carcass and between whorls (sections) of the asynchronous motors supplied with PWM converters.
    A Novel Receiver Algorithm for Coherent Underwater Acoustic Communications
    In this paper, we proposed a novel receiver algorithm for coherent underwater acoustic communications. The proposed receiver is composed of three parts: (1) Doppler tracking and correction, (2) Time reversal channel estimation and combining, and (3) Joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED). To reduce computational complexity and optimize the equalization algorithm, Time reversal (TR) channel estimation and combining is adopted to simplify multi-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) into single channel ADFE without reducing the system performance. Simultaneously, the turbo theory is adopted to form joint iterative ADFE and convolutional decoder (JIED). In JIED scheme, the ADFE and decoder exchange soft information in an iterative manner, which can enhance the equalizer performance using decoding gain. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce computational complexity and improve the performance of equalizer. Therefore, the performance of coherent underwater acoustic communications can be improved greatly.
    Assessment of Reliability and Quality Measures in Power Systems
    The paper presents new results of a recent industry supported research and development study in which an efficient framework for evaluating practical and meaningful power system reliability and quality indices was applied. The system-wide integrated performance indices are capable of addressing and revealing areas of deficiencies and bottlenecks as well as redundancies in the composite generation-transmission-demand structure of large-scale power grids. The technique utilizes a linear programming formulation, which simulates practical operating actions and offers a general and comprehensive framework to assess the harmony and compatibility of generation, transmission and demand in a power system. Practical applications to a reduced system model as well as a portion of the Saudi power grid are also presented in the paper for demonstration purposes.
    Reducing the Number of Constraints in Non Safe Petri Net
    This paper addresses the problem of forbidden states in non safe Petri Nets. In the system, for preventing it from entering the forbidden states, some linear constraints can be assigned to them. Then these constraints can be enforced on the system using control places. But when the number of constraints in the system is large, a large number of control places must be added to the model of system. This concept complicates the model of system. There are some methods for reducing the number of constraints in safe Petri Nets. But there is no a systematic method for non safe Petri Nets. In this paper we propose a method for reducing the number of constraints in non safe Petri Nets which is based on solving an integer linear programming problem.
    Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
    Carriers scattering in the inversion channel of n- MOSFET dominates the drain current. This paper presents an effective electron mobility model for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by using two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. The channel is divided into three regions at source, drain and central part of the channel region. The total number of inversion layer charges is found for these three regions by numerical integration from source to drain ends and the number of depletion layer charges is found by using the effective doping concentration including pocket doping effects. These two charges are then used to find the effective normal electric field, which is used to find the effective mobility model incorporating the three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as the ballistic phenomena for the pocket implanted nano-scale n-MOSFET. The simulation results show that the derived mobility model produces the same results as found in the literatures.
    CAD Tools Broadband Amplifier Design

    This paper proposed a new CAD tools for microwave amplifier design. The proposed tool is based on survey about the broadband amplifier design methods, such as the Feedback amplifiers, balanced amplifiers and Compensated Matching Network The proposed tool is developed for broadband amplifier using a compensated matching network "unconditional stability amplifier". The developed program is based on analytical procedures with ability of smith chart explanation. The C# software is used for the proposed tools implementation. The program is applied on broadband amplifier as an example for testing. The designed amplifier is considered as a broadband amplifier at the range 300-700 MHz. The results are highly agreement with the expected results. Finally, these methods can be extended for wide band amplifier design.

    A 16Kb 10T-SRAM with 4x Read-Power Reduction
    This work aims to reduce the read power consumption as well as to enhance the stability of the SRAM cell during the read operation. A new 10-transisor cell is proposed with a new read scheme to minimize the power consumption within the memory core. It has separate read and write ports, thus cell read stability is significantly improved. A 16Kb SRAM macro operating at 1V supply voltage is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS process. Its read power consumption is reduced to 24% of the conventional design. The new cell also has lower leakage current due to its special bit-line pre-charge scheme. As a result, it is suitable for low-power mobile applications where power supply is restricted by the battery.
    Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic based LED Lighting System
    Although lighting systems powered by Photovoltaic (PV) cells have existed for many years, they are not widely used, especially in lighting for buildings, due to their high initial cost and low conversion efficiency. One of the technical challenges facing PV powered lighting systems has been how to use dc power generated by the PV module to energize common light sources that are designed to operate efficiently under ac power. Usually, the efficiency of the dc light sources is very poor compared to ac light sources. Rapid developments in LED lighting systems have made this technology a potential candidate for PV powered lighting systems. This study analyzed the efficiency of each component of PV powered lighting systems to identify optimum system configurations for different applications.
    Star-Hexagon Transformer Supported UPQC
    A new topology of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is proposed for different power quality (PQ) improvement in a three-phase four-wire (3P-4W) distribution system. For neutral current mitigation, a star-hexagon transformer is connected in shunt near the load along with three-leg voltage source inverters (VSIs) based UPQC. For the mitigation of source neutral current, the uses of passive elements are advantageous over the active compensation due to ruggedness and less complexity of control. In addition to this, by connecting a star-hexagon transformer for neutral current mitigation the over all rating of the UPQC is reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of 3P-4W UPQC is evaluated for power-factor correction, load balancing, neutral current mitigation and mitigation of voltage and currents harmonics. A simple control algorithm based on Unit Vector Template (UVT) technique is used as a control strategy of UPQC for mitigation of different PQ problems. In this control scheme, the current/voltage control is applied over the fundamental supply currents/voltages instead of fast changing APFs currents/voltages, thereby reducing the computational delay. Moreover, no extra control is required for neutral source current compensation; hence the numbers of current sensors are reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of UPQC is analyzed through simulations results using MATLAB software with its Simulink and Power System Block set toolboxes.