Power Line Carrier Equipment Supporting IP Traffic Transmission in the Enterprise Networks of Energy Companies
This article discusses the questions concerning of creating small packet networks for energy companies with application of high voltage power line carrier equipment (PLC) with functionality of IP traffic transmission. The main idea is to create converged PLC links between substations and dispatching centers where packet data and voice are transmitted in one data flow. The article contents description of basic conception of the network, evaluation of voice traffic transmission parameters, and discussion of header compression techniques in relation to PLC links. The results of exploration show us, that convergent packet PLC links can be very useful in the construction of small packet networks between substations in remote locations, such as deposits or low populated areas.
Millimeter Wave I/Q Generation with the Inductive Resonator Matched Poly-Phase Filter
A way of generating millimeter wave I/Q signal using inductive resonator matched poly-phase filter is suggested. Normally the poly-phase filter generates quite accurate I/Q phase and magnitude but the loss of the filter is considerable due to series connection of passive RC components. This loss term directly increases system noise figure when the poly-phase filter is used in RF Front-end. The proposed matching method eliminates above mentioned loss and in addition provides gain on the passive filter. The working algorithm is illustrated by mathematical analysis. The generated I/Q signal is used in implementing millimeter wave phase shifter for the 60 GHz communication system to verify its effectiveness. The circuit is fabricated in 90 nm TSMC RF CMOS process under 1.2 V supply voltage. The measurement results showed that the suggested method improved gain by 6.5 dB and noise by 2.3 dB. The summary of the proposed I/Q generation is compared with previous works.
The Frequency Graph for the Traveling Salesman Problem
Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is hard to resolve
when the number of cities and routes become large. The frequency
graph is constructed to tackle the problem. A frequency graph
maintains the topological relationships of the original weighted graph.
The numbers on the edges are the frequencies of the edges emulated
from the local optimal Hamiltonian paths. The simplest kind of local
optimal Hamiltonian paths are computed based on the four vertices
and three lines inequality. The search algorithm is given to find the
optimal Hamiltonian circuit based on the frequency graph. The
experiments show that the method can find the optimal Hamiltonian
circuit within several trials.
Signal Transmission Analysis of Differential Pairs Using Semicircle-Shaped Via Structure
In this paper, the signal transmission analysis of the
semicircle-shaped via structure for the differential pairs is presented in
the frequency range up to 10 GHz. In order to improve the signal
transmission properties in the differential pairs, single via is separated
centrally into two semicircle-shaped sections, which are
interconnected with the traces of differential pairs respectively. This
via structure make possible to route differential pairs using only one
via. In addition, it can improve impedance discontinuity around its
region and then enhance the signal transmission properties in the
differential pairs. The electrical analysis such as S-parameter
calculation and eye diagram simulation has been performed to
investigate the improvement of the signal transmission property in the
differential pairs with new via structure.
The Effect of Dynamic Eccentricity on Induction Machine Stator Currents (Part A)
Current spectrums of a high power induction machine was calculated for the cases of full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity. The calculations involve integration of 93 electrical plus four mechanical ordinary differential equations. Electrical equations account for variable inductances affected by slotting and eccentricities. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. The paper presents the stator current spectrums in full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity cases, and demonstrates the harmonics present in each case. The effect of dynamic eccentricity is demonstrating via comparing the current spectrums related to dynamic eccentricity cases with the full symmetry one. The paper includes one case study, refers to dynamic eccentricity, to present the spectrum of the measured current and demonstrate the existence of the harmonics related to dynamic eccentricity. The zooms of current spectrums around the main slot harmonic zone are included to simplify the comparison and prove the existence of the dynamic eccentricity harmonics in both calculated and measured current spectrums.
Impact of GCSC on Measured Impedance by Distance Relay in the Presence of Single Phase to Earth Fault
This paper presents the impact study of GTO Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) parameters on measured impedance (Zseen) by MHO distance relays for single transmission line high voltage 220 kV in the presence of single phase to earth fault with fault resistance (RF). The study deals with a 220 kV single electrical transmission line of Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Group Sonelgaz (Algerian Company of Electrical and Gas) compensated by series Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) i.e. GCSC connected at midpoint of the transmission line. The transmitted active and reactive powers are controlled by three GCSC-s. The effects of maximum reactive power injected as well as injected maximum voltage by GCSC on distance relays measured impedance is treated. The simulations results investigate the effects of GCSC injected parameters: variable reactance (XGCSC), variable voltage (VGCSC) and reactive power injected (QGCSC) on measured resistance and reactance in the presence of earth fault with resistance fault varied between 5 to 50 Ω for three cases study.
Variable Step-Size APA with Decorrelation of AR Input Process
This paper introduces a new variable step-size APA with decorrelation of AR input process is based on the MSD analysis. To achieve a fast convergence rate and a small steady-state estimation error, he proposed algorithm uses variable step size that is determined by minimising the MSD. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is achieved better performance than the other algorithms.
Modeling and Analysis for Effective Capacity of a Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Networks
New generation mobile communication networks have
the ability of supporting triple play. In order that, Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) access techniques have
been chosen to enlarge the system ability for high data rates
networks. Many of cross-layer modeling and optimization schemes
for Quality of Service (QoS) and capacity of downlink multiuser
OFDM system were proposed. In this paper, the Maximum Weighted
Capacity (MWC) based resource allocation at the Physical (PHY)
layer is used. This resource allocation scheme provides a much better
QoS than the previous resource allocation schemes, while
maintaining the highest or nearly highest capacity and costing similar
complexity. In addition, the Delay Satisfaction (DS) scheduling at the
Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, which allows more than one
connection to be served in each slot is used. This scheduling
technique is more efficient than conventional scheduling to
investigate both of the number of users as well as the number of
subcarriers against system capacity. The system will be optimized for
different operational environments: the outdoor deployment scenarios
as well as the indoor deployment scenarios are investigated and also
for different channel models. In addition, effective capacity approach
 is used not only for providing QoS for different mobile users, but
also to increase the total wireless network's throughput.
On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Standard Arabic Language
The Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) applied to
Arabic language is a challenging task. This is mainly related to the
language specificities which make the researchers facing multiple
difficulties such as the insufficient linguistic resources and the very
limited number of available transcribed Arabic speech corpora. In
this paper, we are interested in the development of a HMM-based
ASR system for Standard Arabic (SA) language. Our fundamental
research goal is to select the most appropriate acoustic parameters
describing each audio frame, acoustic models and speech recognition
unit. To achieve this purpose, we analyze the effect of varying frame
windowing (size and period), acoustic parameter number resulting
from features extraction methods traditionally used in ASR, speech
recognition unit, Gaussian number per HMM state and number of
embedded re-estimations of the Baum-Welch Algorithm. To evaluate
the proposed ASR system, a multi-speaker SA connected-digits
corpus is collected, transcribed and used throughout all experiments.
A further evaluation is conducted on a speaker-independent continue
SA speech corpus. The phonemes recognition rate is 94.02% which is
relatively high when comparing it with another ASR system
evaluated on the same corpus.
Distributed Frequency Synchronization for Global Synchronization in Wireless Mesh Networks
In this paper, our focus is to assure a global frequency synchronization in OFDMA-based wireless mesh networks with local information. To acquire the global synchronization in distributed manner, we propose a novel distributed frequency synchronization (DFS) method. DFS is a method that carrier frequencies of distributed nodes converge to a common value by repetitive estimation and averaging step and sharing step. Experimental results show that DFS achieves noteworthy better synchronization success probability than existing schemes in OFDMA-based mesh networks where the estimation error is presented.
Enhanced Spectral Envelope Coding Based On NLMS for G.729.1
In this paper, a new encoding algorithm of spectral envelope based on NLMS in G.729.1 for VoIP is proposed. In the TDAC part of G.729.1, the spectral envelope and MDCT coefficients extracted in the weighted CELP coding error (lower-band) and the higher-band input signal are encoded. In order to reduce allocation bits for spectral envelope coding, a new quantization algorithm based on NLMS is proposed. Also, reduced bits are used to enhance sound quality. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by sound quality and bit reduction rates in clean and frame loss conditions.
Maximizing Sum-Rate for Multi-User Two-Way Relaying Networks with ANC Protocol
In this paper we study the resource allocation problem
for an OFDMA based cooperative two-way relaying (TWR) network.
We focus on amplify and forward (AF) analog network coding
(ANC) protocol. An optimization problem for two basic resources
namely, sub-carrier and power is formulated for multi-user TWR
networks. A joint optimal optimization problem is investigated and
two-step low complexity sub-optimal resource allocation algorithm is
proposed for multi-user TWR networks with ANC protocol. The
proposed algorithm has been evaluated in term of total achievable
system sum-rate and achievable individual sum-rate for each userpair.
The good tradeoff between system sum-rate and fairness is
observed in the two-step proportional resource allocation scheme.
Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit
This paper proposes two types of non-isolated
direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost
converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components
(three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to
convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle
a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck
converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications.
This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We
describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation
results for both circuits.
Network Coding-based ARQ scheme with Overlapping Selection for Resource Limited Multicast/Broadcast Services
Network coding has recently attracted attention as an efficient technique in multicast/broadcast services. The problem of finding the optimal network coding mechanism maximizing the bandwidth efficiency is hard to solve and hard to approximate. Lots of network coding-based schemes have been suggested in the literature to improve the bandwidth efficiency, especially network coding-based automatic repeat request (NCARQ) schemes. However, existing schemes have several limitations which cause the performance degradation in resource limited systems. To improve the performance in resource limited systems, we propose NCARQ with overlapping selection (OS-NCARQ) scheme. The advantages of OS-NCARQ scheme over the traditional ARQ scheme and existing NCARQ schemes are shown through the analysis and simulations.
Puff Noise Detection and Cancellation for Robust Speech Recognition
In this paper, an algorithm for detecting and attenuating
puff noises frequently generated under the mobile environment is
proposed. As a baseline system, puff detection system is designed
based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and 39th Mel Frequency
Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) is extracted as feature parameters. To
improve the detection performance, effective acoustic features for puff
detection are proposed. In addition, detected puff intervals are
attenuated by high-pass filtering. The speech recognition rate was
measured for evaluation and confusion matrix and ROC curve are used
to confirm the validity of the proposed system.
Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation
In this paper the optimal control strategy for
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system
is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed
operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector
assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization,
maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the
conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three
components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable
in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation
results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive.
The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.
Study the Effect of Soft Errors on FlexRay-Based Automotive Systems
FlexRay, as a communication protocol for automotive
control systems, is developed to fulfill the increasing demand on the
electronic control units for implementing systems with higher safety
and more comfort. In this work, we study the impact of
radiation-induced soft errors on FlexRay-based steer-by-wire system.
We injected the soft errors into general purpose register set of FlexRay
nodes to identify the most critical registers, the failure modes of the
steer-by-wire system, and measure the probability distribution of
failure modes when an error occurs in the register file.
Acoustic Source Localization Based On the Extended Kalman Filter for an Underwater Vehicle with a Pair of Hydrophones
In this study, we consider a special situation that only a pair of hydrophone on a moving underwater vehicle is available to localize a fixed acoustic source of far distance. The trigonometry can be used in this situation by using two different DOA of different locations. Notice that the distance between the two locations should be measured. Therefore, we assume that the vehicle is sailing straightly and the moving distance for each unit time is measured continuously. However, the accuracy of the localization using the trigonometry is highly dependent to the accuracy of DOAs and measured moving distances. Therefore, we proposed another method based on the extended Kalman filter that gives more robust and accurate localization result.
MIMO Performances in Tunnel Environment: Interpretation from the Channel Characteristics
The objective of this contribution is to study the
performances in terms of bit error rate, of space-time code algorithms
applied to MIMO communication in tunnels. Indeed, the channel
characteristics in a tunnel are quite different than those of urban or
indoor environment, due to the guiding effect of the tunnel.
Therefore, MIMO channel matrices have been measured in a straight
tunnel, in a frequency band around 3GHz. Correlation between array
elements and properties of the MIMO matrices are first studied as a
function of the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.
Then, owing to a software tool simulating the link, predicted values
of bit error rate are given for VLAST, OSTBC and QSTBC
algorithms applied to a MIMO configuration with 2 or 4 array
elements. Results are interpreted from the analysis of the channel
Zigbee Based Wireless Energy Surveillance System for Energy Savings
In this paper, zigbee communication based wireless energy surveillance system is presented. The proposed system consists of multiple energy surveillance devices and an energy surveillance monitor. Each different standby power-off value of electric device is set automatically by using learning function of energy surveillance device. Thus adaptive standby power-off function provides user convenience and it maximizes the energy savings. Also, power consumption monitoring function is helpful to reduce inefficient energy consumption in home. The zigbee throughput simulator is designed to evaluate minimum transmission power and maximum allowable information quantity in the proposed system. The test result of prototype has been satisfied all the requirements. The proposed system has confirmed that can be used as an intelligent energy surveillance system for energy savings in home or office.
Arterial Stiffness Detection Depending on Neural Network Classification of the Multi- Input Parameters
Diagnostic and detection of the arterial stiffness is
very important; which gives indication of the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To make a cheap and easy method for general screening technique to avoid the future cardiovascular
complexes , due to the rising of the arterial stiffness ; a proposed algorithm depending on photoplethysmogram to be used. The
photoplethysmograph signals would be processed in MATLAB. The
signal will be filtered, baseline wandering removed, peaks and
valleys detected and normalization of the signals should be achieved
.The area under the catacrotic phase of the photoplethysmogram
pulse curve is calculated using trapezoidal algorithm ; then will used
in cooperation with other parameters such as age, height, blood
pressure in neural network for arterial stiffness detection. The Neural
network were implemented with sensitivity of 80%, accuracy 85%
and specificity of 90% were got from the patients data. It is
concluded that neural network can detect the arterial STIFFNESS
depending on risk factor parameters.
Target Signal Detection Using MUSIC Spectrum in Noise Environment
In this paper, a target signal detection method using
multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is proposed. The
MUSIC algorithm is a subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA)
estimation method. The algorithm detects the DOAs of multiple
sources using the inverse of the eigenvalue-weighted eigen spectra. To
apply the algorithm to target signal detection for GSC-based
beamforming, we utilize its spectral response for the target DOA in
noisy conditions. For evaluation of the algorithm, the performance of
the proposed target signal detection method is compared with that of
the normalized cross-correlation (NCC), the fixed beamforming, and
the power ratio method. Experimental results show that the proposed
algorithm significantly outperforms the conventional ones in receiver
operating characteristics(ROC) curves.
A Robust Diverged Localization and Recognition of License Registration Characters
Localization and Recognition of License registration characters from the moving vehicle is a computationally complex task in the field of machine vision and is of substantial interest because of its diverse applications such as cross border security, law enforcement and various other intelligent transportation applications. Previous research used the plate specific details such as aspect ratio, character style, color or dimensions of the plate in the complex task of plate localization. In this paper, license registration character is localized by Enhanced Weight based density map (EWBDM) method, which is independent of such constraints. In connection with our previous method, this paper proposes a method that relaxes constraints in lighting conditions, different fonts of character occurred in the plate and plates with hand-drawn characters in various aspect quotients. The robustness of this method is well suited for applications where the appearance of plates seems to be varied widely. Experimental results show that this approach is suited for recognizing license plates in different external environments.
Cold Analysis for Dispersion, Attenuation and RF Efficiency Characteristics of a Gyrotron Cavity
In the present paper, a gyrotron cavity is analyzed in the absence of electron beam for dispersion, attenuation and RF efficiency. For all these characteristics, azimuthally symmetric TE0n modes have been considered. The attenuation characteristics for TE0n modes indicated decrease in attenuation constant as the frequency is increased. Interestingly, the lowest order TE01 mode resulted in lowest attenuation. Further, three different cavity wall materials have been selected for attenuation characteristics. The cavity made of material with higher conductivity resulted in lower attenuation. The effect of material electrical conductivity on the RF efficiency has also been observed and has been found that the RF efficiency rapidly decreases as the electrical conductivity of the cavity material decreases. The RF efficiency rapidly decreases with increasing diffractive quality factor. The ohmic loss variation as a function of frequency of operation for three different cavities made of copper, aluminum and nickel has been observed. The ohmic losses are lowest for the copper cavity and hence the highest RF efficiency.