Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 22
    Analysis of Target Location Estimation in High Performance Radar System
    In this paper, an analysis of a target location estimation system using the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) for high performance radar systems is presented. In synthetic environments, we are here concerned with three key elements of radar system modeling, which makes radar systems operates accurately in strategic situation in virtual ground. Radar Cross Section (RCS) modeling is used to determine the actual amount of electromagnetic waves that are reflected from a tactical object. Pattern Propagation Factor (PPF) is an attenuation coefficient of the radar equation that contains the reflection from the surface of the earth, the diffraction, the refraction and scattering by the atmospheric environment. Clutter is the unwanted echoes of electronic systems. For the data fusion of output results from radar detection in synthetic environment, BLUE is used and compared with the mean values of each simulation results. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the radar system.
    Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network
    This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.
    An Advanced Time-Frequency Domain Method for PD Extraction with Non-Intrusive Measurement
    Partial discharge (PD) detection is an important method to evaluate the insulation condition of metal-clad apparatus. Non-intrusive sensors which are easy to install and have no interruptions on operation are preferred in onsite PD detection. However, it often lacks of accuracy due to the interferences in PD signals. In this paper a novel PD extraction method that uses frequency analysis and entropy based time-frequency (TF) analysis is introduced. The repetitive pulses from convertor are first removed via frequency analysis. Then, the relative entropy and relative peak-frequency of each pulse (i.e. time-indexed vector TF spectrum) are calculated and all pulses with similar parameters are grouped. According to the characteristics of non-intrusive sensor and the frequency distribution of PDs, the pulses of PD and interferences are separated. Finally the PD signal and interferences are recovered via inverse TF transform. The de-noised result of noisy PD data demonstrates that the combination of frequency and time-frequency techniques can discriminate PDs from interferences with various frequency distributions.
    Design of Power System Stabilizer Based on Sliding Mode Control Theory for Multi- Machine Power System
    This paper present a new method for design of power system stabilizer (PSS) based on sliding mode control (SMC) technique. The control objective is to enhance stability and improve the dynamic response of the multi-machine power system. In order to test effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation will be carried out to analyze the small signal stability characteristics of the system about the steady state operating condition following the change in reference mechanical torque and also parameters uncertainties. For comparison, simulation of a conventional control PSS (lead-lag compensation type) will be carried out. The main approach is focusing on the control performance which later proven to have the degree of shorter reaching time and lower spike.
    Evaluation of Protocol Applied to Network Routing WCETT Cognitive Radio

    This article presents the results of researchrelated to the assessment protocol weightedcumulative expected transmission time (WCETT)applied to cognitive radio networks.The development work was based on researchdone by different authors, we simulated a network,which communicates wirelessly, using a licensedchannel, through which other nodes are notlicensed, try to transmit during a given time nodeuntil the station's owner begins its transmission.

    A Propagator Method like Algorithm for Estimation of Multiple Real-Valued Sinusoidal Signal Frequencies

    In this paper a novel method for multiple one dimensional real valued sinusoidal signal frequency estimation in the presence of additive Gaussian noise is postulated. A computationally simple frequency estimation method with efficient statistical performance is attractive in many array signal processing applications. The prime focus of this paper is to combine the subspace-based technique and a simple peak search approach. This paper presents a variant of the Propagator Method (PM), where a collaborative approach of SUMWE and Propagator method is applied in order to estimate the multiple real valued sine wave frequencies. A new data model is proposed, which gives the dimension of the signal subspace is equal to the number of frequencies present in the observation. But, the signal subspace dimension is twice the number of frequencies in the conventional MUSIC method for estimating frequencies of real-valued sinusoidal signal. The statistical analysis of the proposed method is studied, and the explicit expression of asymptotic (large-sample) mean-squared-error (MSE) or variance of the estimation error is derived. The performance of the method is demonstrated, and the theoretical analysis is substantiated through numerical examples. The proposed method can achieve sustainable high estimation accuracy and frequency resolution at a lower SNR, which is verified by simulation by comparing with conventional MUSIC, ESPRIT and Propagator Method.

    Correction of Infrared Data for Electrical Components on a Board
    In this paper, the data correction algorithm is suggested when the environmental air temperature varies. To correct the infrared data in this paper, the initial temperature or the initial infrared image data is used so that a target source system may not be necessary. The temperature data obtained from infrared detector show nonlinear property depending on the surface temperature. In order to handle this nonlinear property, Taylor series approach is adopted. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can reduce the influence of environmental temperature on the components in the board. The main advantage of this algorithm is to use only the initial temperature of the components on the board rather than using other reference device such as black body sources in order to get reference temperatures.
    Design of EDFA Gain Controller based on Disturbance Observer Technique
    Based on a theoretical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) model, we have proposed an application of disturbance observer(DOB) with proportional/integral/differential(PID) controller to EDFA for minimizing gain-transient time of wavelength -division-multiplexing (WDM) multi channels in optical amplifier in channel add/drop networks. We have dramatically reduced the gain-transient time to less than 30μsec by applying DOB with PID controller to the control of amplifier gain. The proposed DOB-based gain control algorithm for EDFA was implemented as a digital control system using TI's DSP(TMS320C28346) chip and experimental results of the system verify the excellent performance of the proposed gain control methodology.
    Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Fixed-Size Batch Arrivals

    The transient analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch Poisson arrivals and a single server with exponential service times is presented. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. These functions are shown to be a generalization of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, with the batch size B as the generalizing parameter. Results for the case of single-packet arrivals are obtained first. The similarities between the two families of functions are then used to obtain results for the general case of batch arrival queue with a batch size larger than one.

    Design and Development of Ferroelectric Material for Microstrip Patch Array Antenna
    This paper presents the utilizing of ferroelectric material on antenna application. There are two different ferroelectric had been used on the proposed antennas which include of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) and Bismuth Titanate (BiT), suitable for Access Points operating in the WLAN IEEE 802.11 b/g and WiMAX IEEE 802.16 within the range of 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz application. BST, which had been tested to own a dielectric constant of εr = 15 while BiT has a dielectric constant that higher than BST which is εr = 21 and both materials are in rectangular shaped. The influence of various parameters on antenna characteristics were investigated extensively using commercial electromagnetic simulations software by Communication Simulation Technology (CST). From theoretical analysis and simulation results, it was demonstrated that ferroelectric material used have not only improved the directive emission but also enhanced the radiation efficiency.
    Efficient Detection Using Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Mobile Cognitive Radio Systems

    This paper proposes a smart design strategy for a sequential detector to reliably detect the primary user-s signal, especially in fast fading environments. We study the computation of the log-likelihood ratio for coping with a fast changing received signal and noise sample variances, which are considered random variables. First, we analyze the detectability of the conventional generalized log-likelihood ratio (GLLR) scheme when considering fast changing statistics of unknown parameters caused by fast fading effects. Secondly, we propose an efficient sensing algorithm for performing the sequential probability ratio test in a robust and efficient manner when the channel statistics are unknown. Finally, the proposed scheme is compared to the conventional method with simulation results with respect to the average number of samples required to reach a detection decision.

    Three-Level Converters based Generalized Unified Power Quality Conditioner
    A generalized unified power quality conditioner (GUPQC) by using three single-phase three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) connected back-to-back through a common dc link is proposed in this paper as a new custom power device for a three-feeder distribution system. One of the converters is connected in shunt with one feeder for mitigation of current harmonics and reactive power compensation, while the other two VSCs are connected in series with the other two feeders to maintain the load voltage sinusoidal and at constant level. A new control scheme based on synchronous reference frame is proposed for series converters. The simulation analysis on compensation performance of GUPQC based on PSCAD/EMTDC is reported.
    Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity
    Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18
    Joint Design of MIMO Relay Networks Based on MMSE Criterion
    This paper deals with wireless relay communication systems in which multiple sources transmit information to the destination node by the help of multiple relays. We consider a signal forwarding technique based on the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) approach with multiple antennas for each relay. A source-relay-destination joint design strategy is proposed with power constraints at the destination and the source nodes. Simulation results confirm that the proposed joint design method improves the average MSE performance compared with that of conventional MMSE relaying schemes.
    Overhead Estimation over Capacity of Mobile WiMAX
    The IEEE802.16 standard which has emerged as Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technology, promises to deliver high data rate over large areas to a large number of subscribers in the near future. This paper analyze the effect of overheads over capacity of downlink (DL) of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)–based on the IEEE802.16e mobile WiMAX system with and without overheads. The analysis focuses in particular on the impact of Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) as well as deriving an algorithm to determine the maximum numbers of subscribers that each specific WiMAX sector may support. An analytical study of the WiMAX propagation channel by using Cost- 231 Hata Model is presented. Numerical results and discussion estimated by using Matlab to simulate the algorithm for different multi-users parameters.
    A Taxonomy of Internal Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network
    Developments in communication technologies especially in wireless have enabled the progress of low-cost and lowpower wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The features of such WSN are holding minimal energy, weak computational capabilities, wireless communication and an open-medium nature where sensors are deployed. WSN is underpinned by application driven such as military applications, the health sector, etc. Due to the intrinsic nature of the network and application scenario, WSNs are vulnerable to many attacks externally and internally. In this paper we have focused on the types of internal attacks of WSNs based on OSI model and discussed some security requirements, characterizers and challenges of WSNs, by which to contribute to the WSN-s security research.
    Risk Level Evaluation for Power System Facilities in Smart Grid
    Reliability Centered Maintenance(RCM) is one of most widely used methods in the modern power system to schedule a maintenance cycle and determine the priority of inspection. In order to apply the RCM method to the Smart Grid, a precedence study for the new structure of rearranged system should be performed due to introduction of additional installation such as renewable and sustainable energy resources, energy storage devices and advanced metering infrastructure. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the priority of maintenance and inspection of the power system facilities in the Smart Grid using the Risk Priority Number. In order to calculate that risk index, it is required that the reliability block diagram should be analyzed for the Smart Grid system. Finally, the feasible technical method is discussed to estimate the risk potential as part of the RCM procedure.
    A Novel Framework for Abnormal Behaviour Identification and Detection for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Despite extensive study on wireless sensor network security, defending internal attacks and finding abnormal behaviour of the sensor are still difficult and unsolved task. The conventional cryptographic technique does not give the robust security or detection process to save the network from internal attacker that cause by abnormal behavior. The insider attacker or abnormally behaved sensor identificationand location detection framework using false massage detection and Time difference of Arrival (TDoA) is presented in this paper. It has been shown that the new framework can efficiently identify and detect the insider attacker location so that the attacker can be reprogrammed or subside from the network to save from internal attack.
    Minimizing Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks using Binary Integer Linear Programming

    The important issue considered in the widespread deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is an efficiency of the energy consumption. In this paper, we present a study of the optimal relay station planning problems using Binary Integer Linear Programming (BILP) model to minimize the energy consumption in WSNs. Our key contribution is that the proposed model not only ensures the required network lifetime but also guarantees the radio connectivity at high level of communication quality. Specially, we take into account effects of noise, signal quality limitation and bit error rate characteristics. Numerical experiments were conducted in various network scenarios. We analyzed the effects of different sensor node densities and distribution on the energy consumption.

    State of the Art: A Study on Fall Detection
    Unintentional falls are rife throughout the ages and have been the common factor of serious or critical injuries especially for the elderly society. Fortunately, owing to the recent rapid advancement in technology, fall detection system is made possible, enabling detection of falling events for the elderly, monitoring the patient and consequently provides emergency support in the event of falling. This paper presents a review of 3 main categories of fall detection techniques, ranging from year 2005 to year 2010. This paper will be focusing on discussing the techniques alongside with summary and conclusion for them.
    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition
    The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.
    On using PEMFC for Electrical Power Generation on More Electric Aircraft
    The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing electrical generation and distribution systems of an aircraft. The dynamic characteristics of fuel cell systems necessitate an adaptation of the electrical power system. The architecture studied in this paper consists of a 50kW fuel cell, a dc to dc converter and several loads. The dc to dc converter is used to step down the fuel cell voltage from about 625Vdc to 28Vdc.