Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 15
    Evolutionary Algorithms for Learning Primitive Fuzzy Behaviors and Behavior Coordination in Multi-Objective Optimization Problems
    Evolutionary robotics is concerned with the design of intelligent systems with life-like properties by means of simulated evolution. Approaches in evolutionary robotics can be categorized according to the control structures that represent the behavior and the parameters of the controller that undergo adaptation. The basic idea is to automatically synthesize behaviors that enable the robot to perform useful tasks in complex environments. The evolutionary algorithm searches through the space of parameterized controllers that map sensory perceptions to control actions, thus realizing a specific robotic behavior. Further, the evolutionary algorithm maintains and improves a population of candidate behaviors by means of selection, recombination and mutation. A fitness function evaluates the performance of the resulting behavior according to the robot-s task or mission. In this paper, the focus is in the use of genetic algorithms to solve a multi-objective optimization problem representing robot behaviors; in particular, the A-Compander Law is employed in selecting the weight of each objective during the optimization process. Results using an adaptive fitness function show that this approach can efficiently react to complex tasks under variable environments.
    General Purpose Pulse Width Modulation Based Sliding Mode Controller for Buck DC-DC

    This paper is a simple and systematic approaches to the design and analysis a pulse width modulation (PWM) based sliding mode controller for buck DC-DC Converters. Various aspects of the design, including the practical problems and the proposed solutions, are detailed. However, these control strategies can't compensate for large load current and input voltage variations. In this paper, a new control strategy by compromising both schemes advantages and avoiding their drawbacks is proposed, analyzed and simulated.

    In Vitro Study of Coded Transmission in Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Systems
    In the paper the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging is presented. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Moreover signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved while maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16- bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequency 4 MHz was used. To generate a spherical wave covering the full image region a single element transmission aperture was used and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver is presented to illustrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.
    Data Gathering Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Sensor network applications are often data centric and involve collecting data from a set of sensor nodes to be delivered to various consumers. Typically, nodes in a sensor network are resource-constrained, and hence the algorithms operating in these networks must be efficient. There may be several algorithms available implementing the same service, and efficient considerations may require a sensor application to choose the best suited algorithm. In this paper, we present a systematic evaluation of a set of algorithms implementing the data gathering service. We propose a modular infrastructure for implementing such algorithms in TOSSIM with separate configurable modules for various tasks such as interest propagation, data propagation, aggregation, and path maintenance. By appropriately configuring these modules, we propose a number of data gathering algorithms, each of which incorporates a different set of heuristics for optimizing performance. We have performed comprehensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of these heuristics, and we present results from our experimentation efforts.
    A PN Sequence Generator based on Residue Arithmetic for Multi-User DS-CDMA Applications
    The successful use of CDMA technology is based on the construction of large families of encoding sequences with good correlation properties. This paper discusses PN sequence generation based on Residue Arithmetic with an effort to improve the performance of existing interference-limited CDMA technology for mobile cellular systems. All spreading codes with residual number system proposed earlier did not consider external interferences, multipath propagation, Doppler effect etc. In literature the use of residual arithmetic in DS-CDMA was restricted to encoding of already spread sequence; where spreading of sequence is done by some existing techniques. The novelty of this paper is the use of residual number system in generation of the PN sequences which is used to spread the message signal. The significance of cross-correlation factor in alleviating multi-access interference is also discussed. The RNS based PN sequence has superior performance than most of the existing codes that are widely used in DS-CDMA applications. Simulation results suggest that the performance of the proposed system is superior to many existing systems.
    Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic based Full Adder Circuit
    In this paper, we present the design and experimental evaluation of complementary energy path adiabatic logic (CEPAL) based 1 bit full adder circuit. A simulative investigation on the proposed full adder has been done using VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of cadence in 0.18μm UMC technology and its performance has been compared with the conventional CMOS full adder circuit. The CEPAL based full adder circuit exhibits the energy saving of 70% to the conventional CMOS full adder circuit, at 100 MHz frequency and 1.8V operating voltage.
    Finger Vein Recognition using PCA-based Methods
    In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed to merit the accuracy of finger vein recognition. The performances of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), and Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA) in this algorithm are validated and compared with each other in order to determine which one is the most appropriate one in terms of finger vein recognition.
    Life Time Based Analysis of MAC Protocols of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in WSN Applications
    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are emerging because of the developments in wireless communication technology and miniaturization of the hardware. WSN consists of a large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional sensor nodes to monitor physical conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, etc. The MAC protocol to be used in the sensor networks must be energy efficient and this should aim at conserving the energy during its operation. In this paper, with the focus of analyzing the MAC protocols used in wireless Adhoc networks to WSN, simulation experiments were conducted in Global Mobile Simulator (GloMoSim) software. Number of packets sent by regular nodes, and received by sink node in different deployment strategies, total energy spent, and the network life time have been chosen as the metric for comparison. From the results of simulation, it is evident that the IEEE 802.11 protocol performs better compared to CSMA and MACA protocols.
    On the Perfomance of Multiband OFDM under Log-normal Channel Fading
    A modified Saleh-Valenzuela channel model has been adapted for Ultra Wideband (UWB) system. The suggested realistic channel is assessed by its distribution of fading amplitude and time of arrivals. Furthermore, the propagation characteristic has been distinct into four channel models, namely CM 1 to 4. Each are differentiate in terms of cluster arrival rates, rays arrival rate within each cluster and its respective constant decay rates. This paper described the multiband OFDM system performance simulates under these multipath conditions. Simulation work described in this paper is based on WiMedia ECMA-368 standard, which has been deployed for practical implementation of low cost and low power UWB devices.
    MRAS Based Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Drives

    The recent trend in field oriented control (FOC) is towards the use of sensorless techniques that avoid the use of speed sensor and flux sensor. Sensors are replaced by estimators or observers to minimise the cost and increase the reliability. In this paper an anlyse of perfomance of a MRAS used in sensorless control of induction motors and sensitvity to machine parameters change are studied.

    Voltage Stability Proximity Index Determined by LES Algorithm

    In this paper, we propose an easily computable proximity index for predicting voltage collapse of a load bus using only measured values of the bus voltage and power; Using these measurements a polynomial of fourth order is obtained by using LES estimation algorithms. The sum of the absolute values of the polynomial coefficient gives an idea of the critical bus. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed method on 6 bus test system. The results obtained verify its applicability, as well as its accuracy and the simplicity. From this indicator, it is allowed to predict the voltage instability or the proximity of a collapse. Results obtained by the PV curve are compared with corresponding values by QV curves and are observed to be in close agreement.

    Time-Domain Stator Current Condition Monitoring: Analyzing Point Failures Detection by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) Test

    This paper deals with condition monitoring of electric switch machine for railway points. Point machine, as a complex electro-mechanical device, switch the track between two alternative routes. There has been an increasing interest in railway safety and the optimal management of railway equipments maintenance, e.g. point machine, in order to enhance railway service quality and reduce system failure. This paper explores the development of Kolmogorov- Smirnov (K-S) test to detect some point failures (external to the machine, slide chairs, fixing, stretchers, etc), while the point machine (inside the machine) is in its proper condition. Time-domain stator Current signatures of normal (healthy) and faulty points are taken by 3 Hall Effect sensors and are analyzed by K-S test. The test is simulated by creating three types of such failures, namely putting a hard stone and a soft stone between stock rail and switch blades as obstacles and also slide chairs- friction. The test has been applied for those three faults which the results show that K-S test can effectively be developed for the aim of other point failures detection, which their current signatures deviate parametrically from the healthy current signature. K-S test as an analysis technique, assuming that any defect has a specific probability distribution. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) are used to differentiate these probability distributions. This test works based on the null hypothesis that ECDF of target distribution is statistically similar to ECDF of reference distribution. Therefore by comparing a given current signature (as target signal) from unknown switch state to a number of template signatures (as reference signal) from known switch states, it is possible to identify which is the most likely state of the point machine under analysis.

    Theoretical Considerations of the Influence of Mechanical Uniaxial Stress on Pixel Readout Circuits

    In this work the effects of uniaxial mechanical stress on a pixel readout circuit are theoretically analyzed. It is the effects of mechanical stress on the in-pixel transistors do not arise at the output, when a correlated double sampling circuit is used. However, mechanical stress effects on the photodiode will directly appear at the readout chain output. Therefore, compensation techniques are needed to overcome this situation. Moreover simulation technique of mechanical stress is proposed and diverse layout as well as design recommendations are put forward, in order to minimize stress related effects on the output of a circuit. he shown, that wever, Moreover, a out

    An Experimental Investigation of Heating in Induction Motors
    The ability to predict an accurate temperature distribution requires the knowledge of the losses, the thermal characteristics of the materials, and the cooling conditions, all of which are very difficult to quantify. In this paper, the impact of the effects of iron and copper losses are investigated separately and their effects on the heating in various points of the stator of an induction motor, is highlighted by using two simple tests. In addition, the effect of a defect, such as an open circuit in a phase of the stator, on the heating is also obtained by a no-load test. The squirrel cage induction motor is rated at 2.2 kW; 380 V; 5.2 A; Δ connected; 50 Hz; 1420 rpm and the class of insulation F, has been thermally tested under several load conditions. Several thermocouples were placed in strategic points of the stator.
    Cascade Kalman Filter Configuration for Low Cost IMU/GPS Integration in Car Navigation Like Robot
    This paper introduces a low cost INS/GPS algorithm for land vehicle navigation application. The data fusion process is done with an extended Kalman filter in cascade configuration mode. In order to perform numerical simulations, MATLAB software has been developed. Loosely coupled configuration is considered. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that a low-cost INS/GPS navigation system is partially capable of meeting the performance requirements for land vehicle navigation. The relative effectiveness of the kalman filter implementation in integrated GPS/INS navigation algorithm is highlighted. The paper also provides experimental results; field test using a car is carried out.