Musical Instrument Classification Using Embedded Hidden Markov Models
In this paper, a novel method for recognition of musical
instruments in a polyphonic music is presented by using an
embedded hidden Markov model (EHMM). EHMM is a doubly
embedded HMM structure where each state of the external HMM
is an independent HMM. The classification is accomplished for
two different internal HMM structures where GMMs are used as
likelihood estimators for the internal HMMs. The results are compared
to those achieved by an artificial neural network with two
hidden layers. Appropriate classification accuracies were achieved
both for solo instrument performance and instrument combinations
which demonstrates that the new approach outperforms the similar
classification methods by means of the dynamic of the signal.
Skin Detection using Histogram depend on the Mean Shift Algorithm
In this paper, we were introduces a skin detection
method using a histogram approximation based on the mean shift
algorithm. The proposed method applies the mean shift procedure to a
histogram of a skin map of the input image, generated by comparison
with standard skin colors in the CbCr color space, and divides the
background from the skin region by selecting the maximum value
according to brightness level. The proposed method detects the skin
region using the mean shift procedure to determine a maximum value
that becomes the dividing point, rather than using a manually selected
threshold value, as in existing techniques. Even when skin color is
contaminated by illumination, the procedure can accurately segment
the skin region and the background region. The proposed method may
be useful in detecting facial regions as a pretreatment for face
recognition in various types of illumination.
Performance Monitoring of the Refrigeration System with Minimum Set of Sensors
This paper describes a methodology for remote
performance monitoring of retail refrigeration systems. The proposed
framework starts with monitoring of the whole refrigeration circuit
which allows detecting deviations from expected behavior caused by
various faults and degradations. The subsequent diagnostics methods
drill down deeper in the equipment hierarchy to more specifically
determine root causes. An important feature of the proposed concept
is that it does not require any additional sensors, and thus, the
performance monitoring solution can be deployed at a low
installation cost. Moreover only a minimum of contextual
information is required, which also substantially reduces time and
cost of the deployment process.
Modeling and Simulation of In-vessel Core Handling in PFBR Operator Training Simulator
Component handling system is one of the important sub systems of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) used for fuel handling. Core handling system is again a sub system of component handling system. Core handling system consists of in-vessel and ex-vessel subassembly handling. In-vessel core handling involves transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug operations. Modeling and simulation of in-vessel core handling is a part of development of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Operator Training Simulator. This paper deals with simulation and modeling of operations of transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug needed for in-vessel core handling. Process modeling was developed in house using platform independent Cµ code with OpenGL (Open Graphics Library). The control logic models and virtual panel were modeled using simulation tool.
Fast Algorithm of Shot Cut Detection
In this paper we present a novel method, which
reduces the computational complexity of abrupt cut detection. We
have proposed fast algorithm, where the similarity of frames within
defined step is evaluated instead of comparing successive frames.
Based on the results of simulation on large video collection, the
proposed fast algorithm is able to achieve 80% reduction of needed
frames comparisons compared to actually used methods without the
shot cut detection accuracy degradation.
Improvising Intrusion Detection for Malware Activities on Dual-Stack Network Environment
Malware is software which was invented and meant for doing harms on computers. Malware is becoming a significant threat in computer network nowadays. Malware attack is not just only involving financial lost but it can also cause fatal errors which may cost lives in some cases. As new Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) emerged, many people believe this protocol could solve most malware propagation issues due to its broader addressing scheme. As IPv6 is still new compares to native IPv4, some transition mechanisms have been introduced to promote smoother migration. Unfortunately, these transition mechanisms allow some malwares to propagate its attack from IPv4 to IPv6 network environment. In this paper, a proof of concept shall be presented in order to show that some existing IPv4 malware detection technique need to be improvised in order to detect malware attack in dual-stack network more efficiently. A testbed of dual-stack network environment has been deployed and some genuine malware have been released to observe their behaviors. The results between these different scenarios will be analyzed and discussed further in term of their behaviors and propagation methods. The results show that malware behave differently on IPv6 from the IPv4 network protocol on the dual-stack network environment. A new detection technique is called for in order to cater this problem in the near future.
System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to note is the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component, which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significance of transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Enhanced Performance for Support Vector Machines as Multiclass Classifiers in Steel Surface Defect Detection
Steel surface defect detection is essentially one of
pattern recognition problems. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are
known as one of the most proper classifiers in this application. In this
paper, we introduce a more accurate classification method by using
SVMs as our final classifier of the inspection system. In this scheme,
multiclass classification task is performed based on the "one-againstone"
method and different kernels are utilized for each pair of the
classes in multiclass classification of the different defects.
In the proposed system, a decision tree is employed in the first
stage for two-class classification of the steel surfaces to "defect" and
"non-defect", in order to decrease the time complexity. Based on
the experimental results, generated from over one thousand images,
the proposed multiclass classification scheme is more accurate than
the conventional methods and the overall system yields a sufficient
performance which can meet the requirements in steel manufacturing.
Application of CPN Tools for Simulation and Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation
We consider the problem of bandwidth allocation in a
substrate network as an optimization problem for the aggregate utility
of multiple applications with diverse requirements and describe a
simulation scheme for dynamically adaptive bandwidth allocation
protocols. The proposed simulation model based on Coloured Petri
Nets (CPN) is realized using CPN Tools.
Thermal Management of Space Power Electronics using TLM-3D
When designing satellites, one of the major issues aside for designing its primary subsystems is to devise its thermal. The thermal management of satellites requires solving different sets of issues with regards to modelling. If the satellite is well conditioned all other parts of the satellite will have higher temperature no matter what. The main issue of thermal modelling for satellite design is really making sure that all the other points of the satellite will be within the temperature limits they are designed. The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread and the modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. This paper presents a Three-Dimensional Modal Transmission Line Matrix (3D-TLM) implementation of transient heat flow in space power electronics. In such kind of components heat dissipation and good thermal management are essential. Simulation provides the cheapest tool to investigate all aspects of power handling. The 3DTLM has been successful in modeling heat diffusion problems and has proven to be efficient in terms of stability and complex geometry. The results show a three-dimensional visualisation of self-heating phenomena in the device affected by outer space constraints, and will presents possible approaches for increasing the heat dissipation capability of the power modules.
3.5-bit Stage of the CMOS Pipeline ADC
A 3.5-bit stage of the CMOS pipelined ADC is proposed. In this report, the main part of 3.5-bit stage ADC is introduced. How the MDAC, comparator and encoder worked and designed are shown in details. Besides, an OTA which is used in fully differential pipelined ADC was described. Using gain-boost architecture with differential amplifier, this OTA achieve high-gain and high-speed. This design was using CMOS 0.18um process and simulation in Cadence. The result of the simulation shows that the OTA has a gain up to 80dB, the unity gain bandwidth of about 1.138GHz with 2pF load.
Comparison of Different PWM Switching Modes of BLDC Motor as Drive Train of Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicle (EV) is one of the effective solutions to
control emission of greenhouses gases in the world. It is of interest
for future transportation due to its sustainability and efficiency by
automotive manufacturers. Various electrical motors have been used
for propulsion system of electric vehicles in last decades. In this
paper brushed DC motor, Induction motor (IM), switched reluctance
motor (SRM) and brushless DC motor (BLDC) are simulated and
compared. BLDC motor is recommended for high performance
electric vehicles. PWM switching technique is implemented for speed
control of BLDC motor. Behavior of different modes of PWM speed
controller of BLDC motor are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
BLDC motor characteristics are compared and discussed for various
PWM switching modes under normal and inverter fault conditions.
Comparisons and discussions are verified through simulation results.
Synthesis and Characterization of Cu-NanoWire Arrays by EMD Using ITO-Template
Nanowire arrays of copper with uniform diameters have
been synthesized by potentiostatic electrochemical metal deposition
(EMD) of copper sulphate and potassium chloride solution within
the nano-channels of porous Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO), also known as
Tin doped Indium Oxide templates. The nanowires developed were
fairly continuous with diameters ranging from 110-140 nm along
the entire length. Single as well as poly-crystalline copper wires
have been prepared by application of appropriate potential during the
EMD process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution
transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), small angle electron
diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used
to characterize the synthesized nano wires at room temperature. The
electrochemical response of synthesized products was evaluated by
cyclic voltammetry while surface energy analysis was carried out
using a Goniometer.
Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context
This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of the system to optimize the utilization of the hybrid renewable energy sources and also a proposition of how theses isolated Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems at remote islands can be grid-connected is analyzed towards vision of green smart-grid.
Noise Factors of RFID-Aided Positioning
In recent years, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
is followed with interest by many researches, especially for the
purpose of indoor positioning as the innate properties of RFID are
profitable for achieving it. A lot of algorithms or schemes are proposed
to be used in the RFID-based positioning system, but most of them are
lack of environmental consideration and it induces inaccuracy of
application. In this research, a lot of algorithms and schemes of RFID
indoor positioning are discussed to see whether effective or not on
application, and some rules are summarized for achieving accurate
positioning. On the other hand, a new term “Noise Factor" is involved
to describe the signal loss between the target and the obstacle. As a
result, experimental data can be obtained but not only simulation; and
the performance of the positioning system can be expressed
Design of OTA with Common Drain and Folded Cascade Used in ADC
In this report, an OTA which is used in fully
differential pipelined ADC was described. Using gain-boost
architecture with difference-ended amplifier, this OTA achieve
high-gain and high-speed. Besides, the CMFB circuit is also used, and
some methods are concerned to improve the performance. Then, by
optimization the layout design, OTA-s mismatch was reduced. This
design was using TSMC 0.18um CMOS process and simulation both
schematic and layout in Cadence. The result of the simulation shows
that the OTA has a gain up to 80dB,a unity gain bandwidth of about
1.437GHz for a 2pF load, a slew rate is about 428V/μs, a output swing
is 0.2V~1.35V, with the power supply of 1.8V, the power
consumption is 88mW. This amplifier was used in a 10bit 150MHz
Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller
In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller
design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric
vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the
maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel
slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived
by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include
numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
Electrical Characteristics of SCR - based ESD Device for I/O and Power Rail Clamp in 0.35um Process
This paper presents a SCR-based ESD protection devices for I/O clamp and power rail clamp, respectably. These devices have a low trigger voltage and high holding voltage characteristics than conventional SCR device. These devices are fabricated by using 0.35um BCD (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) processes. These devices were validated using a TLP system. From the experimental results, the device for I/O ESD clamp has a trigger voltage of 5.8V. Also, the device for power rail ESD clamp has a holding voltage of 7.7V.
Unequal Error Protection for Region of Interest with Embedded Zerotree Wavelet
This paper describes a new method of unequal error
protection (UEP) for region of interest (ROI) with embedded zerotree
wavelet algorithm (EZW). ROI technique is important in applications
with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is
encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal
error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques.
In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG)
that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes
(LIB). The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design.
The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the unequal
error protection (UEP) of image transmission with defined ROI and
the equal error protection (EEP) over multiple noisy channels.
Simulation of Tracking Time Delay Algorithm using Mathcad Package
This paper deals with tracking and estimating time delay between two signals. The simulation of this algorithm accomplished by using Mathcad package is carried out. The algorithm we will present adaptively controls and tracking the delay, so as to minimize the mean square of this error. Thus the algorithm in this case has task not only of seeking the minimum point of error but also of tracking the change of position, leading to a significant improving of performance. The flowchart of the algorithm is presented as well as several tests of different cases are carried out.
Approach to Implementation of Power Management with Load Prioritizations in Modern Civil Aircraft
Any use of energy in industrial productive activities is combined with various environment impacts. Withintransportation,
this fact was not only found among land transport, railways and maritime transport, but also in the air transport industry. An effective climate protection requires strategies and measures for reducing all
greenhouses gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, and must
take into account the economic, ecologic and social aspects. It seem simperative now to develop and manufacture environmentally
friendly products and systems, to reduce consumption and use less
resource, and to save energy and power. Today-sproducts could
better serve these requirements taking into account the integration of
a power management system into the electrical power system.This
paper gives an overview of an approach ofpower management with
load prioritization in modernaircraft. Load dimensioning and load
management strategies on current civil aircraft will be presented and
used as a basis for the proposed approach.
Computation of Global Voltage Stability Margin in a Practical Power Network Incorporating FACTS in the OPF Frame Work
This paper presents a methodology to assess the voltage stability status combined with optimal power flow technique using an instantaneous two-bus equivalent model of power system incorporating static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) controllers. There by, a generalized global voltage stability indicator being developed has been applied to a robust practical Indian Eastern Grid 203-bus system. Simulation results have proved that the proposed methodology is promising to assess voltage stability of any power system at any operating point in global scenario. Voltage stability augmentation with the application of SVC at the weakest bus and TCSC at critical line connected to the weakest bus is compared with the system having no compensation. In the proposed network equivalent model the generators have been modeled more accurately considering economic criteria.
Q-Learning with Eligibility Traces to Solve Non-Convex Economic Dispatch Problems
Economic Dispatch is one of the most important power system management tools. It is used to allocate an amount of power generation to the generating units to meet the load demand. The Economic Dispatch problem is a large scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem. In general, heuristic optimization techniques are used to solve non-convex Economic Dispatch problem. In this paper, ideas from Reinforcement Learning are proposed to solve the non-convex Economic Dispatch problem. Q-Learning is a reinforcement learning techniques where each generating unit learn the optimal schedule of the generated power that minimizes the generation cost function. The eligibility traces are used to speed up the Q-Learning process. Q-Learning with eligibility traces is used to solve Economic Dispatch problems with valve point loading effect, multiple fuel options, and power transmission losses.