Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 27

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 27
    852
    High Speed and Ultra Low-voltage CMOS NAND and NOR Domino Gates
    Abstract:

    In this paper we ultra low-voltage and high speed CMOS domino logic. For supply voltages below 500mV the delay for a ultra low-voltage NAND2 gate is aproximately 10% of a complementary CMOS inverter. Furthermore, the delay variations due to mismatch is much less than for conventional CMOS. Differential domino gates for AND/NAND and OR/NOR operation are presented.

    26
    988
    Empowering Communications Challenged users using Development Kits
    Abstract:
    The rapid pace of technological advancement and its consequential widening digital divide has resulted in the marginalization of the disabled especially the communication challenged. The dearth of suitable technologies for the development of assistive technologies has served to further marginalize the communications challenged user population and widen this chasm even further. Given the varying levels of disability there and its associated requirement for customized solution based. This paper explains the use of a Software Development Kits (SDK) for the bridging of this communications divide through the use of industry poplar communications SDKs towards identification of requirements for communications challenged users as well as identification of appropriate frameworks for future development initiatives.
    25
    3893
    Modeling of Sensitivity for SPR Biosensors- New Aspects
    Abstract:
    The computer modeling is carried out for parameter of sensitivity of optoelectronic chemical and biosensors, using phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The physical model of SPR-sensor-s is described with (or without) of modifications of sensitive gold film surface by a dielectric layer. The variants of increasing of sensitivity for SPR-biosensors, constructed on the principle gold – dielectric – biomolecular layer are considered. Two methods of mathematical treatment of SPR-curve are compared – traditional, with estimation of sensor-s response as shift of the SPRcurve minimum and proposed, for system with dielectric layer, using calculating of the derivative in the point of SPR-curve half-width.
    24
    3940
    Real Time Monitoring of Long Slender Shaft by Distributed-Lumped Modeling Techniques
    Abstract:
    The aim of this paper is to determine the stress levels at the end of a long slender shaft such as a drilling assembly used in the oil or gas industry using a mathematical model in real-time. The torsional deflection experienced by this type of drilling shaft (about 4 KM length and 20 cm diameter hollow shaft with a thickness of 1 cm) can only be determined using a distributed modeling technique. The main objective of this project is to calculate angular velocity and torque at the end of the shaft by TLM method and also analyzing of the behavior of the system by transient response. The obtained result is compared with lumped modeling technique the importance of these results will be evident only after the mentioned comparison. Two systems have different transient responses and in this project because of the length of the shaft transient response is very important.
    23
    4143
    An Efficient Approach for Optimal Placement of TCSC in Double Auction Power Market
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes an investment cost recovery based efficient and fast sequential optimization approach to optimal allocation of thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) in competitive power market. The optimization technique has been used with an objective to maximizing the social welfare and minimizing the device installation cost by suitable location and rating of TCSC in the system. The effectiveness of proposed approach for location of TCSC has been compared with some existing methods of TCSC placement, in terms of its impact on social welfare, TCSC investment recovery and optimal generation as well as load patterns. The results have been obtained on modified IEEE 14-bus system.
    22
    4219
    A Robust Approach to the Load Frequency Control Problem with Speed Regulation Uncertainty
    Abstract:

    The load frequency control problem of power systems has attracted a lot of attention from engineers and researchers over the years. Increasing and quickly changing load demand, coupled with the inclusion of more generators with high variability (solar and wind power generators) on the network are making power systems more difficult to regulate. Frequency changes are unavoidable but regulatory authorities require that these changes remain within a certain bound. Engineers are required to perform the tricky task of adjusting the control system to maintain the frequency within tolerated bounds. It is well known that to minimize frequency variations, a large proportional feedback gain (speed regulation constant) is desirable. However, this improvement in performance using proportional feedback comes about at the expense of a reduced stability margin and also allows some steady-state error. A conventional PI controller is then included as a secondary control loop to drive the steadystate error to zero. In this paper, we propose a robust controller to replace the conventional PI controller which guarantees performance and stability of the power system over the range of variation of the speed regulation constant. Simulation results are shown to validate the superiority of the proposed approach on a simple single-area power system model.

    21
    4748
    Transcutaneous Inductive Powering Links Based on ASK Modulation Techniques
    Abstract:
    This paper presented a modified efficient inductive powering link based on ASK modulator and proposed efficient class- E power amplifier. The design presents the external part which is located outside the body to transfer power and data to the implanted devices such as implanted Microsystems to stimulate and monitoring the nerves and muscles. The system operated with low band frequency 10MHZ according to industrial- scientific – medical (ISM) band to avoid the tissue heating. For external part, the modulation index is 11.1% and the modulation rate 7.2% with data rate 1 Mbit/s assuming Tbit = 1us. The system has been designed using 0.35-μm fabricated CMOS technology. The mathematical model is given and the design is simulated using OrCAD P Spice 16.2 software tool and for real-time simulation, the electronic workbench MULISIM 11 has been used.
    20
    6440
    Interconnect Analysis of a Novel Multiplexer Based Full-Adder Cell for Power and Propagation Delay Optimizations
    Abstract:
    The proposed multiplexer-based novel 1-bit full adder cell is schematized by using DSCH2 and its layout is generated by using microwind VLSI CAD tool. The adder cell layout interconnect analysis is performed by using BSIM4 layout analyzer. The adder circuit is compared with other six existing adder circuits for parametric analysis. The proposed adder cell gives better performance than the other existing six adder circuits in terms of power, propagation delay and PDP. The proposed adder circuit is further analyzed for interconnect analysis, which gives better performance than other adder circuits in terms of layout thickness, width and height.
    19
    6704
    Loop-free Local Path Repair Strategy for Directed Diffusion
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes an implementation for the directed diffusion paradigm aids in studying this paradigm-s operations and evaluates its behavior according to this implementation. The directed diffusion is evaluated with respect to the loss percentage, lifetime, end-to-end delay, and throughput. From these evaluations some suggestions and modifications are proposed to improve the directed diffusion behavior according to this implementation with respect to these metrics. The proposed modifications reflect the effect of local path repair by introducing a technique called Loop-free Local Path Repair (LLPR) which improves the directed diffusion behavior especially with respect to packet loss percentage by about 92.69%. Also LLPR improves the throughput and end-to-end delay by about 55.31% and 14.06% respectively, while the lifetime decreases by about 29.79%.
    18
    7242
    Variation of Spot Price and Profits of Andhra Pradesh State Grid in Deregulated Environment
    Abstract:
    In this paper variation of spot price and total profits of the generating companies- through wholesale electricity trading are discussed with and without Central Generating Stations (CGS) share and seasonal variations are also considered. It demonstrates how proper analysis of generators- efficiencies and capabilities, types of generators owned, fuel costs, transmission losses and settling price variation using the solutions of Optimal Power Flow (OPF), can allow companies to maximize overall revenue. It illustrates how solutions of OPF can be used to maximize companies- revenue under different scenarios. And is also extended to computation of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) is very important to the transmission system security and market forecasting. From these results it is observed that how crucial it is for companies to plan their daily operations and is certainly useful in an online environment of deregulated power system. In this paper above tasks are demonstrated on 124 bus real-life Indian utility power system of Andhra Pradesh State Grid and results have been presented and analyzed.
    17
    7463
    Study on Performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Linear FM and Transient Signal Analysis
    Abstract:

    This research paper presents some methods to assess the performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Time-Frequency representation of non-stationary signals, in comparison with the other representations like STFT, Spectrogram etc. The simultaneous timefrequency resolution of WVD is one of the important properties which makes it preferable for analysis and detection of linear FM and transient signals. There are two algorithms proposed here to assess the resolution and to compare the performance of signal detection. First method is based on the measurement of area under timefrequency plot; in case of a linear FM signal analysis. A second method is based on the instantaneous power calculation and is used in case of transient, non-stationary signals. The implementation is explained briefly for both methods with suitable diagrams. The accuracy of the measurements is validated to show the better performance of WVD representation in comparison with STFT and Spectrograms.

    16
    7825
    Unsteady Reversed Stagnation-Point Flow over a Flat Plate
    Abstract:
    This paper investigates the nature of the development of two-dimensional laminar flow of an incompressible fluid at the reversed stagnation-point. ". In this study, we revisit the problem of reversed stagnation-point flow over a flat plate. Proudman and Johnson (1962) first studied the flow and obtained an asymptotic solution by neglecting the viscous terms. This is no true in neglecting the viscous terms within the total flow field. In particular it is pointed out that for a plate impulsively accelerated from rest to a constant velocity V0 that a similarity solution to the self-similar ODE is obtained which is noteworthy completely analytical.
    15
    7948
    Multiclass Support Vector Machines for Environmental Sounds Classification Using log-Gabor Filters
    Abstract:

    In this paper we propose a robust environmental sound classification approach, based on spectrograms features driven from log-Gabor filters. This approach includes two methods. In the first methods, the spectrograms are passed through an appropriate log-Gabor filter banks and the outputs are averaged and underwent an optimal feature selection procedure based on a mutual information criteria. The second method uses the same steps but applied only to three patches extracted from each spectrogram.

    To investigate the accuracy of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments using a large database containing 10 environmental sound classes. The classification results based on Multiclass Support Vector Machines show that the second method is the most efficient with an average classification accuracy of 89.62 %.

    14
    8305
    Some Design Issues in Designing of 50KW 50Krpm Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
    Abstract:
    A numbers of important developments have led to an increasing attractiveness for very high speed electrical machines (either motor or generator). Specifically the increasing switching speed of power electronics, high energy magnets, high strength retaining materials, better high speed bearings and improvements in design analysis are the primary drivers in a move to higher speed. The design challenges come in the mechanical design both in terms of strength and resonant modes and in the electromagnetic design particularly in respect of iron losses and ac losses in the various conducting parts including the rotor. This paper describes detailed design work which has been done on a 50,000 rpm, 50kW permanent magnet( PM) synchronous machine. It describes work on electromagnetic and rotor eddy current losses using a variety of methods including both 2D finite element analysis
    13
    8741
    Novel Linear Autozeroing Floating-gate Amplifier for Ultra Low-voltage Applications
    Abstract:

    In this paper we present a linear autozeroing ultra lowvoltage amplifier. The autozeroing performed by all ULV circuits is important to reduce the impact of noise and especially avoid power supply noise in mixed signal low-voltage CMOS circuits. The simulated data presented is relevant for a 90nm TSMC CMOS process.

    12
    9371
    In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm
    Abstract:
    The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.
    11
    10271
    Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrixand Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK
    Abstract:

    A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalueeigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.

    10
    10572
    A Study on the User Experience Design of Mobile Twitter Application
    Abstract:

    The number of people using SNS with their mobile devices is soaring. This research focuses on the Twitter service that has the most third-party applications and delved into the fact that there were not sufficient studies on the UX design aspects of Twitter applications. Among social network services which have emerged as a major social topic lately, this research try to analyze the UX design of the Twitter application which is also called micro-blogging service. Therefore this research sets its goal to draw components of the UX design aspect of the Tweeter application on which there are not enough analysis yet. Moreover, this research suggests improvement of mobile application which will assure better users- experience. In order to analyze the UX design aspect of the mobile twitter application, with relevant document and user research, evaluating factors of the UX Design which would affect users- experience were organized. The subjects for cases were selected among six paid and free social networking applications that had been consistently ranked from 1st to 100th in the Korean application store during May, 2012 after closely monitoring the rank. From May 15th to May 11th in 2012, in accordance with the evaluating standard, surveys were conducted in a form of interviews with 20 subjects who have used the Twitter application to find out problems and solutions for the UX design of the mobile Twitter application.

    9
    10583
    Multiple Object Tracking using Particle Swarm Optimization
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based approach for multiple object tracking based on histogram matching. To start with, gray-level histograms are calculated to establish a feature model for each of the target object. The difference between the gray-level histogram corresponding to each particle in the search space and the target object is used as the fitness value. Multiple swarms are created depending on the number of the target objects under tracking. Because of the efficiency and simplicity of the PSO algorithm for global optimization, target objects can be tracked as iterations continue. Experimental results confirm that the proposed PSO algorithm can rapidly converge, allowing real-time tracking of each target object. When the objects being tracked move outside the tracking range, global search capability of the PSO resumes to re-trace the target objects.
    8
    10944
    Alternating Implicit Block FDTD Method For Scalar Wave Equation
    Abstract:
    In this paper, an alternating implicit block method for solving two dimensional scalar wave equation is presented. The new method consist of two stages for each time step implemented in alternating directions which are very simple in computation. To increase the speed of computation, a group of adjacent points is computed simultaneously. It is shown that the presented method increase the maximum time step size and more accurate than the conventional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and other existing method of natural ordering.
    7
    11276
    M-ary Chaotic Sequence Based SLM-OFDM System for PAPR Reduction without Side-Information
    Abstract:

    Selected Mapping (SLM) is a PAPR reduction technique, which converts the OFDM signal into several independent signals by multiplication with the phase sequence set and transmits one of the signals with lowest PAPR. But it requires the index of the selected signal i.e. side information (SI) to be transmitted with each OFDM symbol. The PAPR reduction capability of the SLM scheme depends on the selection of phase sequence set. In this paper, we have proposed a new phase sequence set generation scheme based on M-ary chaotic sequence and a mapping scheme to map quaternary data to concentric circle constellation (CCC) is used. It is shown that this method does not require SI and provides better SER performance with good PAPR reduction capability as compared to existing SLMOFDM methods.

    6
    12100
    GSM Position Tracking using a Kalman Filter
    Abstract:
    GSM has undoubtedly become the most widespread cellular technology and has established itself as one of the most promising technology in wireless communication. The next generation of mobile telephones had also become more powerful and innovative in a way that new services related to the user-s location will arise. Other than the 911 requirements for emergency location initiated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) of the United States, GSM positioning can be highly integrated in cellular communication technology for commercial use. However, GSM positioning is facing many challenges. Issues like accuracy, availability, reliability and suitable cost render the development and implementation of GSM positioning a challenging task. In this paper, we investigate the optimal mobile position tracking means. We employ an innovative scheme by integrating the Kalman filter in the localization process especially that it has great tracking characteristics. When tracking in two dimensions, Kalman filter is very powerful due to its reliable performance as it supports estimation of past, present, and future states, even when performing in unknown environments. We show that enhanced position tracking results is achieved when implementing the Kalman filter for GSM tracking.
    5
    12655
    SURF Based Image Matching from Different Angle of Viewpoints using Rectification and Simplified Orientation Correction
    Abstract:

    Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) is commonly used for feature matching in stereovision because of their robustness towards scale changes and rotational changes. However, SURF feature cannot cope with large viewpoint changes or skew distortion. This paper introduces a method which can help to improve the wide baseline-s matching performance in term of accuracy by rectifying the image using two vanishing points. Simplified orientation correction was used to remove the false matching..

    4
    13136
    Evaluation of Efficient CSI Based Channel Feedback Techniques for Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Systems
    Abstract:
    This paper explores the implementation of adaptive coding and modulation schemes for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) feedback systems. Adaptive coding and modulation enables robust and spectrally-efficient transmission over time-varying channels. The basic premise is to estimate the channel at the receiver and feed this estimate back to the transmitter, so that the transmission scheme can be adapted relative to the channel characteristics. Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The longterm and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The coded modulation increases the effective transmit power relative to uncoded variablerate variable-power MQAM performance for MIMO-OFDM feedback system. Hence proposed arrangement becomes an attractive approach to achieve enhanced spectral efficiency and improved error rate performance for next generation high speed wireless communication systems.
    3
    13655
    The Study on the Conversed Remediation between Old and New Media in Case of Smart Phone and PC in South Korea
    Abstract:
    After Apple's first introduction its smart phone, iPhone in the end of 2009 in Korea, the number of Korean smarphone users had been rapidly increasing so that the half of Korean population became smart phone users as of February, 2012. Currently, smart phones are positioned as a major digital media with powerful influences in Korea. And, now, Koreans are leaning new information, enjoying games and communicating other people every time and everywhere. As smart phone devices' performances increased, the number of usable services became more while adequate GUI developments are required to implement various functions with smart phones. The strategy to provide similar experiences on smart phones through familiar features based on employment of existing media's functions mostly contributed to smart phones' popularization in connection with smart phone devices' iconic GUIs. The spread of Smart phone increased mobile web accesses. Therefore, the attempts to implement PC's web in the smart phone's web are continuously made. The mobile web GUI provides familiar experiences to users through designs adequately utilizing the smart phone's GUIs. As the number of users familiarized to smart phones and mobile web GUIs, opposite to reversed remediation from many parts of PCs, PCs are starting to adapt smart phone GUIs. This study defines this phenomenon as the reversed remediation, and reviews the reversed remediation cases of Smart phone GUI' characteristics of PCs. For this purpose, the established study issues are as under: · what is the reversed remediation? · what are the smart phone GUI's characteristics? · what kind of interrelationship exist s between the smart phone and PC's web site? It is meaningful in the forecast of the future GUI's change by understanding of characteristics in the paradigm changes of PC and smart phone's GUI designs. This also will be helpful to establish strategies for digital devices' development and design.
    2
    14285
    CAPWAP Status and Design Considerations for Seamless Roaming Support
    Abstract:
    Wireless LAN technologies have picked up momentum in the recent years due to their ease of deployment, cost and availability. The era of wireless LAN has also given rise to unique applications like VOIP, IPTV and unified messaging. However, these real-time applications are very sensitive to network and handoff latencies. To successfully support these applications, seamless roaming during the movement of mobile station has become crucial. Nowadays, centralized architecture models support roaming in WLANs. They have the ability to manage, control and troubleshoot large scale WLAN deployments. This model is managed by Control and Provision of Wireless Access Point protocol (CAPWAP). This paper covers the CAPWAP architectural solution along with its proposals that have emerged. Based on the literature survey conducted in this paper, we found that the proposed algorithms to reduce roaming latency in CAPWAP architecture do not support seamless roaming. Additionally, they are not sufficient during the initial period of the network. This paper also suggests important design consideration for mobility support in future centralized IEEE 802.11 networks.
    1
    15339
    An Automated Test Setup for the Characterization of Antenna in CATR
    Abstract:
    This paper describes the development of a fully automated measurement software for antenna radiation pattern measurements in a Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR). The CATR has a frequency range from 2-40 GHz and the measurement hardware includes a Network Analyzer for transmitting and Receiving the microwave signal and a Positioner controller to control the motion of the Styrofoam column. The measurement process includes Calibration of CATR with a Standard Gain Horn (SGH) antenna followed by Gain versus angle measurement of the Antenna under test (AUT). The software is designed to control a variety of microwave transmitter / receiver and two axis Positioner controllers through the standard General Purpose interface bus (GPIB) interface. Addition of new Network Analyzers is supported through a slight modification of hardware control module. Time-domain gating is implemented to remove the unwanted signals and get the isolated response of AUT. The gated response of the AUT is compared with the calibration data in the frequency domain to obtain the desired results. The data acquisition and processing is implemented in Agilent VEE and Matlab. A variety of experimental measurements with SGH antennas were performed to validate the accuracy of software. A comparison of results with existing commercial softwares is presented and the measured results are found to be within .2 dBm.