Miniaturization of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Loaded with Metamaterial
In this paper a novel structure of metamaterial is
proposed in order to miniaturize a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna. The metamaterial is composed of two nested split octagons
which are located on a 10 mm
An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors
Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).
An Adaptive ARQ – HARQ Method with Two RS Codes
In this paper we proposed multistage adaptive
ARQ/HARQ/HARQ scheme. This method combines pure ARQ
(Automatic Repeat reQuest) mode in low channel bit error rate and
hybrid ARQ method using two different Reed-Solomon codes in
middle and high error rate conditions. It follows, that our scheme has
three stages. The main goal is to increase number of states in adaptive
HARQ methods and be able to achieve maximum throughput for
every channel bit error rate. We will prove the proposal by
calculation and then with simulations in land mobile satellite channel
environment. Optimization of scheme system parameters is described
in order to maximize the throughput in the whole defined Signal-to-
Noise Ratio (SNR) range in selected channel environment.
Design of an Experimental Setup to Study the Drives of Battery Electric Vehicles
This paper describes the design considerations of an
experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of batteryfed
electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components
are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper,
durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers.
Multiple experiments are performed in the form of steady-state
system exploring, acceleration programs, multi-step tests (speed
control, torque control), load collectives or close-to-reality driving
tests (driving simulation). Main focus of the functional testing is on
the measurements of power and energy efficiency and investigations
in driving simulation mode, which are used for application purposes.
In order to enable the examination of the drive trains beyond
standard modes of operation, different other parameters can be
Thermal Analysis of a Sliding Electric Contact System Using Finite Element Method
In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a
sliding contact system is proposed for both steady-state or transient
conditions. The influence of contact force, electric current and
ambient temperature on the temperature distribution, has been
investigated. A thermal analysis of the different type of the graphite
material of fixed electric contact and its influence on contact system
temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three
dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done.
There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation
Analysis of Relation between Unlabeled and Labeled Data to Self-Taught Learning Performance
Obtaining labeled data in supervised learning is often
difficult and expensive, and thus the trained learning algorithm tends
to be overfitting due to small number of training data. As a result,
some researchers have focused on using unlabeled data which may
not necessary to follow the same generative distribution as the labeled
data to construct a high-level feature for improving performance on
supervised learning tasks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of
the relationship between unlabeled and labeled data for classification
performance. Specifically, we will apply difference unlabeled data
which have different degrees of relation to the labeled data for
handwritten digit classification task based on MNIST dataset. Our
experimental results show that the higher the degree of relation
between unlabeled and labeled data, the better the classification
performance. Although the unlabeled data that is completely from
different generative distribution to the labeled data provides the lowest
classification performance, we still achieve high classification performance.
This leads to expanding the applicability of the supervised
learning algorithms using unsupervised learning.
Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid Communications
Smart Grids employ wireless sensor networks for
their control and monitoring. Sensors are characterized by limitations
in the processing power, energy supply and memory spaces, which
require a particular attention on the design of routing and data
Since most routing algorithms for sensor networks, focus on
finding energy efficient paths to prolong the lifetime of sensor
networks, the power of sensors on efficient paths depletes quickly,
and consequently sensor networks become incapable of monitoring
events from some parts of their target areas. In consequence, the
design of routing protocols should consider not only energy
efficiency paths, but also energy efficient algorithms in general.
In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing protocol for
wireless sensor networks without the support of any location
information system. The reliability and the efficiency of this protocol
have been demonstrated by simulation studies where we compare
them to the legacy protocols. Our simulation results show that these
algorithms scale well with network size and density.
Solar Cell Parameters Estimation Using Simulated Annealing Algorithm
This paper presents Simulated Annealing based
approach to estimate solar cell model parameters. Single diode solar
cell model is used in this study to validate the proposed approach
outcomes. The developed technique is used to estimate different
model parameters such as generated photocurrent, saturation current,
series resistance, shunt resistance, and ideality factor that govern the
current-voltage relationship of a solar cell. A practical case study is
used to test and verify the consistency of accurately estimating
various parameters of single diode solar cell model. Comparative
study among different parameter estimation techniques is presented
to show the effectiveness of the developed approach.
MIMO-OFDM Coded for Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Systems
This paper proposes and analyses the wireless
telecommunication system with multiple antennas to the emission
and reception MIMO (multiple input multiple output) with space
diversity in a OFDM context. In particular it analyses the
performance of a DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television) broadcasting
system that includes MIMO-OFDM techniques. Different
propagation channel models and configurations are considered for
each diversity scheme. This study has been carried out in the context
of development of the next generation DVB-T/H and WRAN.
UPFC Supplementary Controller Design Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Damping Low Frequency Oscillations in Power Systems
This paper presents a systematic approach for designing Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based supplementary damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. Detailed investigations have been carried out considering the four alternatives UPFC based damping controller namely modulating index of series inverter (mB), modulating index of shunt inverter (mE), phase angle of series inverter (δB ) and phase angle of the shunt inverter (δE ). The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to optimize damping controller parameters. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional method of tuning the damping controller parameters to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach.
GSM-Based Approach for Indoor Localization
Ability of accurate and reliable location estimation in
indoor environment is the key issue in developing great number of
context aware applications and Location Based Services (LBS).
Today, the most viable solution for localization is the Received
Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting based approach using wireless
local area network (WLAN). This paper presents two RSS
fingerprinting based approaches – first we employ widely used
WLAN based positioning as a reference system and then investigate
the possibility of using GSM signals for positioning. To compare
them, we developed a positioning system in real world environment,
where realistic RSS measurements were collected. Multi-Layer
Perceptron (MLP) neural network was used as the approximation
function that maps RSS fingerprints and locations. Experimental
results indicate advantage of WLAN based approach in the sense of
lower localization error compared to GSM based approach, but GSM
signal coverage by far outreaches WLAN coverage and for some
LBS services requiring less precise accuracy our results indicate that
GSM positioning can also be a viable solution.
Low Leakage MUX/XOR Functions Using Symmetric and Asymmetric FinFETs
In this paper, FinFET devices are analyzed with
emphasis on sub-threshold leakage current control. This is achieved
through proper biasing of the back gate, and through the use of
asymmetric work functions for the four terminal FinFET devices. We
are also examining different configurations of multiplexers and XOR
gates using transistors of symmetric and asymmetric work functions.
Based on extensive characterization data for MUX circuits, our
proposed configuration using symmetric devices lead to leakage
current and delay improvements of 65% and 47% respectively
compared to results in the literature. For XOR gates, a 90%
improvement in the average leakage current is achieved by using
asymmetric devices. All simulations are based on a 25nm FinFET
technology using the University of Florida UFDG model.
Improvement over DV-Hop Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we propose improved versions of DVHop
algorithm as QDV-Hop algorithm and UDV-Hop algorithm for
better localization without the need for additional range measurement
hardware. The proposed algorithm focuses on third step of DV-Hop,
first error terms from estimated distances between unknown node and
anchor nodes is separated and then minimized. In the QDV-Hop
algorithm, quadratic programming is used to minimize the error to
obtain better localization. However, quadratic programming requires
a special optimization tool box that increases computational
complexity. On the other hand, UDV-Hop algorithm achieves
localization accuracy similar to that of QDV-Hop by solving
unconstrained optimization problem that results in solving a system
of linear equations without much increase in computational
complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of our
proposed schemes (QDV-Hop and UDV-Hop) is superior to DV-Hop
and DV-Hop based algorithms in all considered scenarios.
Research of Ring MEMS Rate Integrating Gyroscopes
This paper To get the angle value with a MEMS rate
gyroscope in some specific field, the usual method is to make an
integral operation to the rate output, which will lead the error
cumulating effect. So the rate gyro is not suitable. MEMS rate
integrating gyroscope (MRIG) will solve this problem. A DSP system
has been developed to implement the control arithmetic. The system
can measure the angle of rotation directly by the control loops that
make the sensor work in whole-angle mode. Modeling the system with
MATLAB, desirable results of angle outputs are got, which prove the
feasibility of the control arithmetic.
A Generator from Cascade Markov Model for Packet Loss and Subsequent Bit Error Description
In this paper we present a novel error model for
packet loss and subsequent error description. The proposed model
simulates the error performance of wireless communication link. The
model is designed as two independent Markov chains, where the first
one is used for packet generation and the second one generates
correctly and incorrectly transmitted bits for received packets from
the first chain. The statistical analyses of real communication on the
wireless link are used for determination of model-s parameters. Using
the obtained parameters and the implementation of the generator, we
collected generated traffic. The obtained results generated by
proposed model are compared with the real data collection.
Exploiting Global Self Similarity for Head-Shoulder Detection
People detection from images has a variety of applications such as video surveillance and driver assistance system, but is still a challenging task and more difficult in crowded environments such as shopping malls in which occlusion of lower parts of human body often occurs. Lack of the full-body information requires more effective features than common features such as HOG. In this paper, new features are introduced that exploits global self-symmetry (GSS) characteristic in head-shoulder patterns. The features encode the similarity or difference of color histograms and oriented gradient histograms between two vertically symmetric blocks. The domain-specific features are rapid to compute from the integral images in Viola-Jones cascade-of-rejecters framework. The proposed features are evaluated with our own head-shoulder dataset that, in part, consists of a well-known INRIA pedestrian dataset. Experimental results show that the GSS features are effective in reduction of false alarmsmarginally and the gradient GSS features are preferred more often than the color GSS ones in the feature selection.
Reliability Evaluation of Composite Electric Power System Based On Latin Hypercube Sampling
This paper investigates the suitability of Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) for composite electric power system reliability analysis. Each sample generated in LHS is mapped into an equivalent system state and used for evaluating the annualized system and load point indices. DC loadflow based state evaluation model is solved for each sampled contingency state. The indices evaluated are loss of load probability, loss of load expectation, expected demand not served and expected energy not supplied. The application of the LHS is illustrated through case studies carried out using RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems. Results obtained are compared with non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation and state enumeration analytical approaches. An error analysis is also carried out to check the LHS method’s ability to capture the distributions of the reliability indices. It is found that LHS approach estimates indices nearer to actual value and gives tighter bounds of indices than non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation.
Leakage Reduction ONOFIC Approach for Deep Submicron VLSI Circuits Design
Minimizations of power dissipation, chip area with higher circuit performance are the necessary and key parameters in deep submicron regime. The leakage current increases sharply in deep submicron regime and directly affected the power dissipation of the logic circuits. In deep submicron region the power dissipation as well as high performance is the crucial concern since increasing importance of portable systems. Number of leakage reduction techniques employed to reduce the leakage current in deep submicron region but they have some trade-off to control the leakage current. ONOFIC approach gives an excellent agreement between power dissipation and propagation delay for designing the efficient CMOS logic circuits. In this article ONOFIC approach is compared with LECTOR technique and output results show that ONOFIC approach significantly reduces the power dissipation and enhance the speed of the logic circuits. The lower power delay product is the big outcome of this approach and makes it an influential leakage reduction technique.
Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter
The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.
Analytical Subthreshold Drain Current Model Incorporating Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Carrier scatterings in the inversion channel of MOSFET dominates the carrier mobility and hence drain current. This paper presents an analytical model of the subthreshold drain current incorporating the effective electron mobility model of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by assuming two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges at the surface and by using the conventional drift-diffusion equation. Effective electron mobility model includes three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as ballistic phenomena in the pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The model is simulated for various pocket profile and device parameters as well as for various bias conditions. Simulation results show that the subthreshold drain current data matches the experimental data already published in the literature.