Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 30

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 30
    16076
    Orchestra/Percussion Classification Algorithm for United Speech Audio Coding System
    Abstract:

    Unified Speech Audio Coding (USAC), the latest MPEG standardization for unified speech and audio coding, uses a speech/audio classification algorithm to distinguish speech and audio segments of the input signal. The quality of the recovered audio can be increased by well-designed orchestra/percussion classification and subsequent processing. However, owing to the shortcoming of the system, introducing an orchestra/percussion classification and modifying subsequent processing can enormously increase the quality of the recovered audio. This paper proposes an orchestra/percussion classification algorithm for the USAC system which only extracts 3 scales of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) rather than traditional 13 scales of MFCCs and use Iterative Dichotomiser 3 (ID3) Decision Tree rather than other complex learning method, thus the proposed algorithm has lower computing complexity than most existing algorithms. Considering that frequent changing of attributes may lead to quality loss of the recovered audio signal, this paper also design a modified subsequent process to help the whole classification system reach an accurate rate as high as 97% which is comparable to classical 99%.

    29
    16070
    A Study on the Condition Monitoring of Transmission Line by On-line Circuit Parameter Measurement
    Abstract:

    An on-line condition monitoring method for transmission line is proposed using electrical circuit theory and IT technology in this paper. It is reasonable that the circuit parameters such as resistance (R), inductance (L), conductance (g) and capacitance (C) of a transmission line expose the electrical conditions and physical state of the line. Those parameters can be calculated from the linear equation composed of voltages and currents measured by synchro-phasor measurement technique at both end of the line. A set of linear voltage drop equations containing four terminal constants (A, B ,C ,D ) are mathematical models of the transmission line circuits. At least two sets of those linear equations are established from different operation condition of the line, they may mathematically yield those circuit parameters of the line. The conditions of line connectivity including state of connecting parts or contacting parts of the switching device may be monitored by resistance variations during operation. The insulation conditions of the line can be monitored by conductance (g) and capacitance(C) measurements. Together with other condition monitoring devices such as partial discharge, sensors and visual sensing device etc.,they may give useful information to monitor out any incipient symptoms of faults. The prototype of hardware system has been developed and tested through laboratory level simulated transmission lines. The test has shown enough evident to put the proposed method to practical uses.

    28
    16211
    Controlling of Load Elevators by the Fuzzy Logic Method
    Abstract:

    In this study, a fuzzy-logic based control system was designed to ensure that time and energy is saved during the operation of load elevators which are used during the construction of tall buildings. In the control system that was devised, for the load elevators to work more efficiently, the energy interval where the motor worked was taken as the output variable whereas the amount of load and the building height were taken as input variables. The most appropriate working intervals depending on the characteristics of these variables were defined by the help of an expert. Fuzzy expert system software was formed using Delphi programming language. In this design, mamdani max-min inference mechanism was used and the centroid method was employed in the clarification procedure. In conclusion, it is observed that the system that was designed is feasible and this is supported by statistical analyses..

    27
    16103
    FEA-Based Calculation of Performances of IPM Machines with Five Topologies for Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Traction
    Abstract:

    The paper presents a detailed calculation of characteristic of five different topology permanent magnet machines for high performance traction including hybrid -electric vehicles using finite element analysis (FEA) method. These machines include V-shape single layer interior PM, W-shape single-layer interior PM, Segment interior PM and surface PM on the rotor and with distributed winding on the stator. The performance characteristics which include the back-emf voltage and its harmonic, magnet mass, iron loss and ripple torque are compared and analyzed. One of a 7.5kW IPM prototype was tested and verified finite-element analysis results. The aim of the paper is given some guidance and reference for machine designer which are interested in IPM machine selection for high performance traction application.

    26
    16151
    Evaluation of Multilevel Modulation Formats for 100Gbps Transmission with Direct Detection
    Abstract:

    This paper evaluate the multilevel modulation for different techniques such as amplitude shift keying (M-ASK), MASK, differential phase shift keying (M-ASK-Bipolar), Quaternary Amplitude Shift Keying (QASK) and Quaternary Polarization-ASK (QPol-ASK) at a total bit rate of 107 Gbps. The aim is to find a costeffective very high speed transport solution. Numerical investigation was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained results indicate that some modulation formats can be operated at 100Gbps in optical communication systems with low implementation effort and high spectral efficiency.

    25
    9996605
    Direct Torque Control - DTC of Induction Motor Used for Piloting a Centrifugal Pump Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator
    Abstract:

    In this paper we propose the study of a centrifugal pump control system driven by a three-phase induction motor, which is supplied by a PhotoVoltaic PV generator. The system includes solar panel, a DC / DC converter equipped with its MPPT control, a voltage inverter to three-phase Pulse Width Modulation - PWM and a centrifugal pump driven by a three phase induction motor. In order to control the flow of the centrifugal pump, a Direct Torque Control - DTC of the induction machine is used. To illustrate the performances of the control, simulation results are carried out using Matlab/Simulink.

    24
    16628
    A Dictionary Learning Method Based On EMD for Audio Sparse Representation
    Abstract:

    Sparse representation has long been studied and several dictionary learning methods have been proposed. The dictionary learning methods are widely used because they are adaptive. In this paper, a new dictionary learning method for audio is proposed. Signals are at first decomposed into different degrees of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique. Then these IMFs form a learned dictionary. To reduce the size of the dictionary, the K-means method is applied to the dictionary to generate a K-EMD dictionary. Compared to K-SVD algorithm, the K-EMD dictionary decomposes audio signals into structured components, thus the sparsity of the representation is increased by 34.4% and the SNR of the recovered audio signals is increased by 20.9%.

    23
    16128
    A New Design of Mobile Thermoelectric Power Generation System
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a compact thermoelectric power generator system based on temperature difference across the element. The system can transfer the burning heat energy to electric energy directly. The proposed system has a thermoelectric generator and a power control box. In the generator, there are 4 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), each of which uses 2 thermoelectric chips (TEs) and 2 cold sinks, 1 thermal absorber, and 1 thermal conduction flat board. In the power control box, there are 1 storing energy device, 1 converter, and 1 inverter. The total net generating power is about 11W. This system uses commercial portable gas stoves or burns timber or the coal as the heat source, which is easily obtained. It adopts solid-state thermoelectric chips as heat inverter parts. The system has the advantages of being light-weight, quite, and mobile, requiring no maintenance, and havng easily-supplied heat source. The system can be used a as long as burning is allowed. This system works well for highly-mobilized outdoors situations by providing a power for illumination, entertainment equipment or the wireless equipment at refuge. Under heavy storms such as typhoon, when the solar panels become ineffective and the wind-powered machines malfunction, the thermoelectric power generator can continue providing the vital power.

    22
    16145
    Highly Flexible Modularized Sensor Platform
    Abstract:

    Sensors have been used in various kinds of academic fields and applications. In this article, we propose the idea of modularized sensors that combine multiple sensor modules into a unique sensor. We divide a sensor into several units according to functionalities. Each unit has different sensor modules, which share the same type of connectors and can be serially and arbitrarily connected each other. A user can combine different sensor modules into a sensor platform according to requirements. Compared with current modularized sensors, the proposed sensor platform is highly flexible and reusable. We have implemented the prototype of the proposed sensor platform, and the experimental results show the proposed platform can work correctly.

    21
    16078
    Evaluation of State of the Art IDS Message Exchange Protocols
    Abstract:

    During the last couple of years, the degree of dependence on IT systems has reached a dimension nobody imagined to be possible 10 years ago. The increased usage of mobile devices (e.g., smart phones), wireless sensor networks and embedded devices (Internet of Things) are only some examples of the dependency of modern societies on cyber space. At the same time, the complexity of IT applications, e.g., because of the increasing use of cloud computing, is rising continuously. Along with this, the threats to IT security have increased both quantitatively and qualitatively, as recent examples like STUXNET or the supposed cyber attack on Illinois water system are proofing impressively. Once isolated control systems are nowadays often publicly available - a fact that has never been intended by the developers. Threats to IT systems don’t care about areas of responsibility. Especially with regard to Cyber Warfare, IT threats are no longer limited to company or industry boundaries, administrative jurisdictions or state boundaries. One of the important countermeasures is increased cooperation among the participants especially in the field of Cyber Defence. Besides political and legal challenges, there are technical ones as well. A better, at least partially automated exchange of information is essential to (i) enable sophisticated situational awareness and to (ii) counter the attacker in a coordinated way. Therefore, this publication performs an evaluation of state of the art Intrusion Detection Message Exchange protocols in order to guarantee a secure information exchange between different entities.

    20
    16124
    Content Based Image Retrieval of Brain MR Images across Different Classes
    Abstract:

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging play a vital role in the decision-diagnosis process of brain MR images. For an accurate diagnosis of brain related problems, the experts mostly compares both T1 and T2 weighted images as the information presented in these two images are complementary. In this paper, rotational and translational invariant form of Local binary Pattern (LBP) with additional gray scale information is used to retrieve similar slices of T1 weighted images from T2 weighted images or vice versa. The incorporation of additional gray scale information on LBP can extract more local texture information. The accuracy of retrieval can be improved by extracting moment features of LBP and reweighting the features based on users feedback. Here retrieval is done in a single subject scenario where similar images of a particular subject at a particular level are retrieved, and multiple subjects scenario where relevant images at a particular level across the subjects are retrieved.

    19
    16146
    Study of Two Writing Schemes for a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based On Spin Orbit Torque
    Abstract:

    MRAM technology provides a combination of fast access time, non-volatility, data retention and endurance. While a growing interest is given to two-terminal Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJ) based on Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) switching as the potential candidate for a universal memory, its reliability is dramatically decreased because of the common writing/reading path. Three-terminal MTJ based on Spin-Orbit Torque (SOT) approach revitalizes the hope of an ideal MRAM. It can overcome the reliability barrier encountered in current two-terminal MTJs by separating the reading and the writing path. In this paper, we study two possible writing schemes for the SOT-MTJ device based on recently fabricated samples. While the first is based on precessional switching, the second requires the presence of permanent magnetic field. Based on an accurate Verilog-A model, we simulate the two writing techniques and we highlight advantages and drawbacks of each one. Using the second technique, pioneering logic circuits based on the three-terminal architecture of the SOT-MTJ described in this work are under development with preliminary attractive results.

    18
    16121
    Perceptual JPEG Compliant Coding by Using DCT-Based Visibility Thresholds of Color Images
    Abstract:

    Effective estimation of just noticeable distortion (JND) for images is helpful to increase the efficiency of a compression algorithm in which both the statistical redundancy and the perceptual redundancy should be accurately removed. In this paper, we design a DCT-based model for estimating JND profiles of color images. Based on a mathematical model of measuring the base detection threshold for each DCT coefficient in the color component of color images, the luminance masking adjustment, the contrast masking adjustment, and the cross masking adjustment are utilized for luminance component, and the variance-based masking adjustment based on the coefficient variation in the block is proposed for chrominance components. In order to verify the proposed model, the JND estimator is incorporated into the conventional JPEG coder to improve the compression performance. A subjective and fair viewing test is designed to evaluate the visual quality of the coding image under the specified viewing condition. The simulation results show that the JPEG coder integrated with the proposed DCT-based JND model gives better coding bit rates at visually lossless quality for a variety of color images.

    17
    16110
    Interoperability and Performance Analysis of IEC61850 Based Substation Protection System
    Abstract:
    Since IEC61850 substation communication standard represents the trend to develop new generations of Substation Automation System (SAS), many IED manufacturers pursue this technique and apply for KEMA. In order to put on the market to meet customer demand as fast as possible, manufacturers often apply their products only for basic environment standard certification but claim to conform to IEC61850 certification. Since verification institutes generally perform verification tests only on specific IEDs of the manufacturers, the interoperability between all certified IEDs cannot be guaranteed. Therefore the interoperability between IEDs from different manufacturers needs to be tested. Based upon the above reasons, this study applies the definitions of the information models, communication service, GOOSE functionality and Substation Configuration Language (SCL) of the IEC61850 to build the concept of communication protocols, and build the test environment. The procedures of the test of the data collection and exchange of the P2P communication mode and Client / Server communication mode in IEC61850 are outlined as follows. First, test the IED GOOSE messages communication capability from different manufacturers. Second, collect IED data from each IED with SCADA system and use HMI to display the SCADA platform. Finally, problems generally encountered in the test procedure are summarized.
    Keywords:
    16
    16111
    Advanced Geolocation of IP Addresses
    Abstract:

    Tracing and locating the geographical location of users (Geolocation) is used extensively in todays Internet. Whenever we, e.g., request a page from google we are - unless there was a specific configuration made - automatically forwarded to the page with the relevant language and amongst others, dependent on our location identified, specific commercials are presented. Especially within the area of Network Security, Geolocation has a significant impact. Because of the way the Internet works, attacks can be executed from almost everywhere. Therefore, for an attribution, knowledge of the origination of an attack - and thus Geolocation - is mandatory in order to be able to trace back an attacker. In addition, Geolocation can also be used very successfully to increase the security of a network during operation (i.e. before an intrusion actually has taken place). Similar to greylisting in emails, Geolocation allows to (i) correlate attacks detected with new connections and (ii) as a consequence to classify traffic a priori as more suspicious (thus particularly allowing to inspect this traffic in more detail). Although numerous techniques for Geolocation are existing, each strategy is subject to certain restrictions. Following the ideas of Endo et al., this publication tries to overcome these shortcomings with a combined solution of different methods to allow improved and optimized Geolocation. Thus, we present our architecture for improved Geolocation, by designing a new algorithm, which combines several Geolocation techniques to increase the accuracy.

    15
    16216
    Design of Air Conditioning Automation for Patisserie Shopwindow
    Abstract:

    Having done in this study, air-conditioning automation for patisserie shopwindow was designed. In the cooling sector it is quite important to cooling up the air temperature in the shopwindow within short time interval. Otherwise the patisseries inside of the shopwindow will be spoilt in a few days. Additionally the humidity is other important parameter for the patisseries kept in shopwindow. It must be raised up to desired level in a quite short time. Traditional patisserie shopwindows only allow controlling temperature manually. There is no humidity control and humidity is supplied by fans that are directed to the water at the bottom of the shopwindows. In this study, humidity and temperature sensors (SHT11), PIC, AC motor controller, DC motor controller, ultrasonic nebulizer and other electronic circuit members were used to simulate air conditioning automation for patisserie shopwindow in proteus software package. The simulation results showed that temperature and humidity values are adjusted in desired time duration by openloop control technique. Outer and inner temperature and humidity values were used for control mechanism.

    14
    16914
    Application New Approach with Two Networks Slow and Fast on the Asynchronous Machine
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we propose a new modular approach called neuroglial consisting of two neural networks slow and fast which emulates a biological reality recently discovered. The implementation is based on complex multi-time scale systems; validation is performed on the model of the asynchronous machine. We applied the geometric approach based on the Gerschgorin circles for the decoupling of fast and slow variables, and the method of singular perturbations for the development of reductions models.

    This new architecture allows for smaller networks with less complexity and better performance in terms of mean square error and convergence than the single network model.

    13
    16087
    Integration of CMOS Biosensor into a Polymeric Lab-on-a-Chip System
    Abstract:

    We present an integration approach of a CMOS biosensor into a polymer based microfluidic environment suitable for mass production. It consists of a wafer-level-package for the silicon die and laser bonding process promoted by an intermediate hot melt foil to attach the sensor package to the microfluidic chip, without the need for dispensing of glues or underfiller. A very good condition of the sensing area was obtained after introducing a protection layer during packaging. A microfluidic flow cell was fabricated and shown to withstand pressures up to Δp = 780 kPa without leakage. The employed biosensors were electrically characterized in a dry environment.

    12
    16130
    Design of Low-Area HEVC Core Transform Architecture
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes and implements an core transform architecture, which is one of the major processes in HEVC video compression standard. The proposed core transform architecture is implemented with only adders and shifters instead of area-consuming multipliers. Shifters in the proposed core transform architecture are implemented in wires and multiplexers, which significantly reduces chip area. Also, it can process from 4×4 to 16×16 blocks with common hardware by reusing processing elements. Designed core transform architecture in 0.13um technology can process a 16×16 block with 2-D transform in 130 cycles, and its gate count is 101,015 gates.

    11
    16132
    Road Extraction Using Stationary Wavelet Transform
    Abstract:

    In this paper, a novel road extraction method using Stationary Wavelet Transform is proposed. To detect road features from color aerial satellite imagery, Mexican hat Wavelet filters are used by applying the Stationary Wavelet Transform in a multiresolution, multi-scale, sense and forming the products of Wavelet coefficients at a different scales to locate and identify road features at a few scales. In addition, the shifting of road features locations is considered through multiple scales for robust road extraction in the asymmetry road feature profiles. From the experimental results, the proposed method leads to a useful technique to form the basis of road feature extraction. Also, the method is general and can be applied to other features in imagery.

    10
    16108
    The Influence of Voltage Flicker for the Wind Generator upon Distribution System
    Abstract:

    One of the most important power quality issues is voltage flicker. Nowadays this issue also impacts the power system all over the world. The fact of the matter is that the more and the larger capacity of wind generator has been installed. Under unstable wind power situation, the variation of output current and voltage have caused trouble to voltage flicker. Hence, the major purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of wind generator on voltage flicker of power system. First of all, digital simulation and analysis are carried out based on wind generator operating under various system short circuit capacity, impedance angle, loading, and power factor of load. The simulation results have been confirmed by field measurements.

    9
    16196
    Nepros- An Innovated Crystal Necklace
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we proposed an invention of an accessory into a communication device that will help humans to be connected universally. Generally, this device will be made up of crystal and will combine many technologies that will enable the user to run various applications and software anywhere and everywhere. Bringing up the concept of from being user friendly, we had used the crystal as the main material of the device that will trap the surrounding lights to produce projection of its screen. This leads to a lesser energy consumption and allows smaller sized battery to be used, making the device less bulky. Additionally, we proposed the usage of micro batteries as our energy source. Thus, researches regarding crystal were made along with explanations in details of specification and function of the technology used in the device. Finally, we had also drawn several views of the invention from different sides to be visualized.

    8
    16193
    The Impact of Self-Phase Modulation on Dispersion Compensated Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT)
    Abstract:

    An exploration in the competency of the optical multilevel Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT) system in tolerating to the impact of nonlinearities as Self Phase Modulation (SPM) during the presence of dispersion compensation methods. The existence of high energy pulses stimulates deterioration in the chirp compression process attained by SPM which introduces an upper power boundary limit. An evaluation of the post and asymmetric prepost fiber compensation methods have been deployed on the MMT system compared with others of the same bit rate modulation formats. The MMT 40 Gb/s post compensation system has 1.4 dB enhancements to the 40 Gb/s 4-Arysystem and less than 3.9 dB penalty compared to the 40 Gb/s OOK-RZsystem. However, the optimized Pre-Post asymmetric compensation has an enhancement of 4.6 dB compared to the Post compensation MMT configuration for a 30% pre compensation dispersion.

    7
    16138
    Steady State Simulation of Power Systems with Change in Topology
    Abstract:

    In power system protection, the need to know the load current together with the fault level detected by a relay is important. This is due to the fact that the relay is required to isolate the equipment being protected if a fault is present and keep the breaker associated with it closed if the current level is lower than the maximum load level. This is not an issue for a radial system. This is not the same however in a looped power system. In a looped power system, the isolation of an equipment system will contribute to a topology change. The change in the power system topology will then influence or change the maximum load current and the fault level detected by each relay. In this paper, a method of data collection for changing topology using matlab and sim-power will be presented. The method will take into consideration the change in topology and collect data for each possible topology.

    6
    16908
    The Electronic and Computer-Aided Periodic Table Prepared for the Visually Impaired Individuals
    Abstract:

    Visually impaired individuals cannot lead their lives as comfortable as others. Therefore, new applications are being developed every passing day in order to make their lives easier. In this study, an electronic and computer-aided audio device was developed with the aim of making the learning of the periodic table easier for the visually impaired. In this device, a board includes buttons for each element of the periodic table. After pressing a button, the visually impaired individual not only hears the name of the element but also feels with his/her hands where that specific element is located.

    5
    16955
    Effect of Field Dielectric Material on Performance of InGaAs Power LDMOSFET
    Abstract:

    In this paper, a power laterally-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As is presented. The device utilizes a thicker field-oxide with low dielectric constant under the field-plate in order to achieve possible reduction in device capacitances and reduced-surface-field effect. Using 2D numerical simulations, performance of the proposed device is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional LDMOSFET. The proposed structure provides 50% increase in the breakdown voltage, 21% increase in transit frequency, and 72% improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device for same cell pitch.

    4
    17292
    An Evaluation of Sag Detection Techniques for Fast Solid-State Electronic Transferring to Alternate Electrical Energy Sources
    Abstract:

    This paper deals with the evaluation of different detection strategies used in power electronic devices as a critical element for an effective mitigation of voltage disturbances. The effectiveness of those detection schemes in the mitigation of disturbances such as voltage sags by a Solid-State Transfer Switch is evaluated through simulations. All critical parameters affecting their performance is analytically described and presented. Moreover, the effect of fast detection of sags on the overall performance of STS is analyzed and investigated.

    3
    17352
    A Novel Low-Profile Coupled-Fed Printed Twelve-Band Mobile Phone Antenna with Slotted Ground Plane for LTE/GSM/UMTS/WIMAX/WLAN Operations
    Abstract:

    A low profile planar antenna for twelve-band operation in the mobile phone is presented. The proposed antenna radiating elements occupy an area equals 17 × 50 mm2 are mounted on the compact no-ground portion of the system circuit board to achieve a simple low profile structure. In order to overcome the shortcoming of narrow bandwidth for conventional planar printed antenna, a novel bandwidth enhancement approach for multiband handset antennas is proposed here. The technique used in this study shows that by using a coupled-fed mechanism and a slotted ground structure, a multiband operation with wideband characteristic can be achieved. The influences of the modifications introduced into the ground plane improved significantly the bandwidths of the designed antenna. The slotted ground plane structure with the coupled-fed elements contributes their lowest, middle and higher-order resonant modes to form four operating modes. The generated modes are able to cover LTE 700/2300/2500, GSM 850/900/1800/1900, UMTS, WiMAX 3500, WLAN 2400/5200/5800 operations. Parametric studies via simulation are provided and discussed. Proposed antenna’s gain, efficiency and radiation pattern characteristics over the desired operating bands are obtained and discussed. The reasonable results observed can meet the requirements of practical mobile phones.

    2
    9996639
    Instrumentation for Studying Real-time Popcorn Effect in Surface Mount Packages during Solder Reflow
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Occurrence of popcorn in IC packages while assembling them onto the PCB is a well known moisture sensitive reliability issues, especially for surface mount packages. Commonly reflow soldering simulation process is conducted to assess the impact of assembling IC package onto PCB. A strain gauge-based instrumentation is developed to investigate the popcorn effect in surface mount packages during reflow soldering process. The instrument is capable of providing real-time quantitative information of the occurrence popcorn phenomenon in IC packages. It is found that the popcorn occur temperatures between 218 to 241°C depending on moisture soak condition, but not at the peak temperature of the reflow process. The presence of popcorn and delamination are further confirmed by scanning acoustic tomography as a failure analysis.

    1
    9996640
    Quantum Enhanced Correlation Matrix Memories via States Orthogonalisation
    Abstract:

    This paper introduces a Quantum Correlation Matrix Memory (QCMM) and Enhanced QCMM (EQCMM), which are useful to work with quantum memories. A version of classical Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process in Dirac notation (called Quantum Orthogonalisation Process: QOP) is presented to convert a non-orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of non-orthonormal quantum vectors (called qudits) to an orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of orthonormal quantum qudits. This work shows that it is possible to improve the performance of QCMM thanks QOP algorithm. Besides, the EQCMM algorithm has a lot of additional fields of applications, e.g.: Steganography, as a replacement Hopfield Networks, Bilevel image processing, etc. Finally, it is important to mention that the EQCMM is an extremely easy to implement in any firmware.