Transient Stability Improvement in Multi-Machine System Using Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and Static Var Compensator (SVC)
Increasingly complex modern power systems require
stability, especially for transient and small disturbances. Transient
stability plays a major role in stability during fault and large
disturbance. This paper compares a power system stabilizer (PSS)
and static Var compensator (SVC) to improve damping oscillation
and enhance transient stability. The effectiveness of a PSS connected
to the exciter and/or governor in damping electromechanical
oscillations of isolated synchronous generator was tested. The SVC
device is a member of the shunt FACTS (flexible alternating current
transmission system) family, utilized in power transmission systems.
The designed model was tested with a multi-machine system
consisting of four machines six bus, using MATLAB/SIMULINK
software. The results obtained indicate that SVC solutions are better
A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water
is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application.
The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely
improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead
consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system.
This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond)
MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone
PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on
system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional
(INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC
boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the
system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results
found are satisfactory.
Hybrid Algorithm for Frequency Channel Selection in Wi-Fi Networks
This article proposes a hybrid algorithm for spectrum
allocation in cognitive radio networks based on the algorithms
Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to improve the
performance of the spectrum mobility of secondary users in cognitive
radio networks. To calculate the level of performance of the proposed algorithm a
comparative analysis between the proposed AHP-TOPSIS, Grey
Relational Analysis (GRA) and Multiplicative Exponent Weighting
(MEW) algorithm is performed. Four evaluation metrics are used.
These metrics are accumulative average of failed handoffs,
accumulative average of handoffs performed, accumulative average
of transmission bandwidth, and accumulative average of the
transmission delay. The results of the comparison show that AHP-TOPSIS Algorithm
provides 2.4 times better performance compared to a GRA Algorithm
and, 1.5 times better than the MEW Algorithm.
Thermoelectric Generators as Alternative Source for Electric Power
The research on thermoelectric has been a blooming field of research for the latest decade, owing to large amount of heat source available to be harvested, being eco-friendly and static in operation. This paper provides the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) with bulk material of bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3. Later, the performance of the TEGs is evaluated by considering attaching the TEGs on a plastic (polyethylene sheet) in contrast to the common method of attaching the TEGs on the metal surface.
Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns
In the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance, whether
the data has been well parallelized is an important factor. SSD
parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly
connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and
static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic
allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism,
while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism.
Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when
the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated
conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to
help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data
arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and
continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more
suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance
and random data patterns.
Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication
This paper describes the design and implementation of
a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside
blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for
communications between each node. Due to the security of locations
in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each
refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all
the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used
because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this
system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring,
fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.
Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor under Closed-Loop Control via Independent Radial Basis Function Neural Network
In this paper, a robust fault detection and isolation
(FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear
chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor,
when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial
basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to
model the process dynamics, and using the weighted sum-squared
prediction error as the residual. The Recursive Orthogonal Least
Squares algorithm (ROLS) is employed to train the model to
overcome the training difficulty of the independent mode of the
network. Then, another RBFNN is used as a fault classifier to isolate
faults from different features involved in the residual vector. Several
actuator and sensor faults are simulated in a nonlinear simulation of
the reactor in Simulink. The scheme is used to detect and isolate the
faults on-line. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the
scheme even the process is subjected to disturbances and
uncertainties including significant changes in the monomer feed rate,
fouling factor, impurity factor, ambient temperature, and
measurement noise. The simulation results are presented to illustrate
the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Design and Control Algorithms for Power Electronic Converters for EV Applications
The power electronic components within Electric Vehicles (EV) need to operate in several important modes. Some modes directly influence safety, while others influence vehicle performance. Given the variety of functions and operational modes required of the power electronics, it needs to meet efficiency requirements to minimize power losses. Another challenge in the control and construction of such systems is the ability to support bidirectional power flow. This paper considers the construction, operation, and feasibility of available converters for electric vehicles with feasible configurations of electrical buses and loads. This paper describes logic and control signals for the converters for different operations conditions based on the efficiency and energy usage bases.
Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes
This paper introduces a signal monitoring program
developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get
familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital
sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as
an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital
sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with
an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous
communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU,
the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of
the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a
serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with
the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily
observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors
in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences
with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed
in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since
it was compiled as a standalone executable.
Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs
This paper introduces an effective method of
segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road
sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of
several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in
Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of
the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the
road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a
database system for management of road signs nationwide. We
propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments
Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the
other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The
experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96%
of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign
Detection Characteristics of the Random and Deterministic Signals in Antenna Arrays
In this paper, approach to incoherent signal detection
in multi-element antenna array are researched and modeled. Two
types of useful signals with unknown wavefront were considered:
first one, deterministic (Barker code), and second one, random
(Gaussian distribution). The derivation of the sufficient statistics took
into account the linearity of the antenna array. The performance
characteristics and detecting curves are modeled and compared for
different useful signals parameters and for different number of
elements of the antenna array. Results of researches in case of some
additional conditions can be applied to a digital communications
Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect
This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination
on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its
footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical
simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the
additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station
keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in
satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the
satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after
the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented
biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level
from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and
after the implementation of the pointing corrections.
Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode
Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a
structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are
manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the
transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal
of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of
1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum
of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed.
Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in
transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of
relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude
of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations
in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the
output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the
mixer to the value of received signal.
DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems
This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC
converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power
applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy
sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are
generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels.
Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up
voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage
stresses, is one of the main issues in the development of renewable
energy systems. A procedure for three converters−conventional
DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback
based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The
selection among the converters for the given application is based on
the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.
Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator
This paper aims to analysis the behavior of DC corona
discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Currentvoltage
curves are particularly analyzed. Experimental results show
that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method
of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories:
linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares,
depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns.
The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression
analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or
closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a
finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no
closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.
Unified Power Flow Controller Placement to Improve Damping of Power Oscillations
Weak damping of low frequency oscillations is a frequent phenomenon in electrical power systems. These frequencies can be damped by power system stabilizers. Unified power flow controller (UPFC), as one of the most important FACTS devices, can be applied to increase the damping of power system oscillations and the more effect of this controller on increasing the damping of oscillations depends on its proper placement in power systems. In this paper, a technique based on controllability is proposed to select proper location of UPFC and the best input control signal in order to enhance damping of power oscillations. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated in IEEE 9 bus power system.
Field Programmable Gate Array Based Infinite Impulse Response Filter Using Multipliers
In this paper, an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter
has been designed and simulated on an Field Programmable Gate
Arrays (FPGA). The implementation is based on Multiply Add and
Accumulate (MAC) algorithm which uses multiply operations for
design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to
implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the
look up table of target device. The designed filter has been
synthesized on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) slice based FPGA to
perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful
to enhance the speed performance. The proposed design is simulated
with Matlab, synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool, and
implemented on FPGA devices. The Virtex 5 FPGA based design can
operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5
MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP based design. The Virtex 5 based
implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target
FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to
provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.
Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry
An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a
Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory.
The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also
considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are
established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code
is established using EES software to perform the calculations
required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the
key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature,
mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle
performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the
melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps.
The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present
exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for
steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam
temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine
generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4%
respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values,
leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.
Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm
An innovative approach to develop modified scaling free CORDIC based two parallel pipelined Multipath Delay Commutator (MDC) FFT and IFFT architectures for radix 22 FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.
Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Controller
Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.
Energy Management System in Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery Hybrid Energy Storage
The paper presents and energy management strategy for a Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery hybrid energy storage. The fuel cell hybrid power system is devised basically for emergency power requirements and transient load applications. The power density of an Ultracapacitor is extremely high and for a battery, it is subtle. For a fuel cell, the value of power density is medium. The energy density of these three stockpiling gadgets is contrarily about the power density, i.e. for the batteries it is most noteworthy and for the Ultracapacitor, it is least. Again the fuel cell has medium energy density. The proposed Energy Management System (EMS) is trying to rationalize these parameters viz. the energy density and power density. The working of the fuel cell, Ultracapacitor and batteries are controlled in a coordinated environment in a way to optimize the energy usage and at the same time to get benefits of power and energy density from their inherent characteristics. MATLAB/ Simulink® based test bench is created by using different DC-DC converters for all energy storage devices and an inverter is modeled to supply the time varying load. The results provided by the EMS are highly satisfactory that proves its adaptability.
Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material
The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.
Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting
As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller
This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.
A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors
Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.