Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering

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  • 6
    941
    Characterisation of Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Aerosols from Different European Sites
    Abstract:

    The concentrations of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in atmospheric aerosol samples collected at a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a boreal forest (Hyytiälä,  April 2007) and a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008). A clear distinction between “clean" and “polluted" periods was observed. Concentrations obtained for Hyytiälä are significantly lower than those for the other two sites. Source reconciliation was performed using diagnostic parameters, such as the carbon preference index and ratios between PAH. The presence of an unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons, especially for the Finnish and Italian samples, is indicative of petrogenic inputs. In K-puszta, the aliphatic hydrocarbons are dominated by leaf wax n-alkanes. The long range transport of anthropogenic pollution contributed to the Finnish aerosol. Industrial activities and vehicular emissions represent major sources in San Pietro Capofiume. PAH in K-puszta consist of both pyrogenic and petrogenic compounds.

    5
    6934
    Reconstitute Information about Discontinued Water Quality Variables in the Nile Delta Monitoring Network Using Two Record Extension Techniques
    Abstract:
    The world economic crises and budget constraints have caused authorities, especially those in developing countries, to rationalize water quality monitoring activities. Rationalization consists of reducing the number of monitoring sites, the number of samples, and/or the number of water quality variables measured. The reduction in water quality variables is usually based on correlation. If two variables exhibit high correlation, it is an indication that some of the information produced may be redundant. Consequently, one variable can be discontinued, and the other continues to be measured. Later, the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique is employed to reconstitute information about discontinued variable by using the continuously measured one as an explanatory variable. In this paper, two record extension techniques are employed to reconstitute information about discontinued water quality variables, the OLS and the Line of Organic Correlation (LOC). An empirical experiment is conducted using water quality records from the Nile Delta water quality monitoring network in Egypt. The record extension techniques are compared for their ability to predict different statistical parameters of the discontinued variables. Results show that the OLS is better at estimating individual water quality records. However, results indicate an underestimation of the variance in the extended records. The LOC technique is superior in preserving characteristics of the entire distribution and avoids underestimation of the variance. It is concluded from this study that the OLS can be used for the substitution of missing values, while LOC is preferable for inferring statements about the probability distribution.
    4
    9702
    Simulating Climate Change (Temperature and Soil Moisture) in a Mixed-Deciduous Forest, Ontario, Canada
    Abstract:

    To simulate expected climate change, we implemented a two-factor (temperature and soil moisture) field design in a forest in Ontario, Canada. To manipulate moisture input, we erected rain-exclusion structures. Under each structure, plots were watered with one of three treatments and thermally controlled with three heat treatments to simulate changes in air temperature and rainfall based on the climate model (GCM) predictions for the study area. Environmental conditions (including untreated controls) were monitored tracking air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation. We measured rainfall and relative humidity at the site outside the rain-exclusion structures. Analyses of environmental conditions demonstrates that the temperature manipulation was most effective at maintaining target temperature during the early part of the growing season, but it was more difficult to keep the warmest treatment at 5º C above ambient by late summer. Target moisture regimes were generally achieved however incoming solar radiation was slightly attenuated by the structures.

    3
    12783
    Analysis of Meteorological Drought in the Ruhr Basin by Using the Standardized Precipitation Index
    Abstract:
    Drought is one of the most damaging climate-related hazards, it is generally considered as a prolonged absence of precipitation. This normal and recurring climate phenomenon had plagued civilization throughout history because of the negative impacts on economical, environmental and social sectors. Drought characteristics are thus recognized as important factors in water resources planning and management. The purpose of this study is to detect the changes in drought frequency, persistence and severity in the Ruhr river basin. The frequency of drought events was calculated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Used data are daily precipitation records from seven meteorological stations covering the period 1961-2007. The main benefit of the application of this index is its versatility, only rainfall data is required to deliver five major dimensions of a drought : duration, intensity, severity, magnitude, and frequency. Furthermore, drought can be calculated in different time steps. In this study SPI was calculated for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months. Several drought events were detected in the covered period, these events contain mild, moderate and severe droughts. Also positive and negative trends in the SPI values were observed.
    2
    13648
    Sewage Sludge Management in Egypt: Current Status and Perspectives towards a Sustainable Agricultural Use
    Abstract:

    The present disposal routes of sewage sludge represent a critical environmental issue in Egypt. Recently, there has been an increasing concern about sewage sludge management due to the environmental risks, which resulted from the fast expansion of wastewater treatment plants without equal attention in dealing with the produced sludge. This paper discusses the current situation of sewage sludge management in Egypt presenting a brief overview of the existing wastewater treatment plants, sludge production and characteristics as well as options of beneficial use and potential demand of sewage sludge under Egyptian conditions. The characteristics of sewage sludge are discussed considering the results of own sampling and analysis as well as previous studies. Furthermore, alternative treatment scenarios for sewage sludge, which have been recently developed in Egypt, are discussed and perspectives for a sustainable agricultural use are outlined.

    1
    15743
    In-situ Chemical Oxidation of Residual TCE by Permanganate in Epikarst
    Abstract:
    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been widely used for source zone remediation of Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in subsurface environments. DNAPL source zones for karst aquifers are generally located in epikarst where the DNAPL mass is trapped either in karst soil or at the regolith contact with carbonate bedrock. This study aims to investigate the performance of oxidation of residual trichloroethylene found in such environments by potassium permanganate. Batch and flow cell experiments were conducted to determine the kinetics and the mass removal rate of TCE. pH change, Cl production, TCE and MnO4 destruction were monitored routinely during experiments. Nonreactive tracer tests were also conducted prior and after the oxidation process to determine the influence of oxidation on flow conditions. The results show that oxidant consumption rate of the calcareous epikarst soil was significant and the oxidant demand was determined to be 20 g KMnO4/kg soil. Oxidation rate of residual TCE (1.26x10-3 s-1) was faster than the oxidant consumption rate of the soil (2.54 - 2.92x10-4 s-1) at only high oxidant concentrations (> 40 mM KMnO4). Half life of TCE oxidation ranged from 7.9 to 10.7 min. Although highly significant fraction of residual TCE mass in the system was destroyed by permanganate oxidation, TCE concentration in the effluent remained above its MCL. Flow interruption tests indicate that efficiency of ISCO was limited by the rate of TCE dissolution and the rate-limited desorption of TCE. The residence time and the initial concentration of the oxidant in the source zone also controlled the efficiency of ISCO in epikarst.