|Commenced in January 1999||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 14|
The design of methods of the 20 K large dimension cold shield used for infrared radiation demarcating in space environment simulation test were introduced in this paper. The cold shield were cooled by five G-M cryocoolers , and the dimension of the cold shield is the largest in our country.Cold shield installation and distribution and compensator for contraction on cooling were introduced detailedly. The temperature distribution and cool-down time of cold shield surface were also calculated and analysed in this paper. The design of cold shield resolves the difficulty of compensator for contraction on cooling successfully. Test results show that the actual technical performance indicators of cold shield met and exceeded the design requirements.
The forest fires in Thailand are annual occurrence which is the cause of air pollutions. This study intended to estimate the emission from forest fire during 2005-2009 using MODerateresolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, experimental data, and statistical data. The forest fire emission is estimated using equation established by Seiler and Crutzen in 1982. The spatial and temporal variation of forest fire emission is analyzed and displayed in the form of grid density map. From the satellite data analysis suggested between 2005 and 2009, the number of fire hotspots occurred 86,877 fire hotspots with a significant highest (more than 80% of fire hotspots) in the deciduous forest. The peak period of the forest fire is in January to May. The estimation on the emissions from forest fires during 2005 to 2009 indicated that the amount of CO, CO2, CH4, and N2O was about 3,133,845 tons, 47,610.337 tons, 204,905 tons, and 6,027 tons, respectively, or about 6,171,264 tons of CO2eq. They also emitted 256,132 tons of PM10. The year 2007 was found to be the year when the emissions were the largest. Annually, March is the period that has the maximum amount of forest fire emissions. The areas with high density of forest fire emission were the forests situated in the northern, the western, and the upper northeastern parts of the country.