|Commenced in January 1999||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 12|
In designing river intakes and diversion structures, it is paramount that the sediments entering the intake are minimized or, if possible, completely separated. Due to high water velocity, sediments can significantly damage hydraulic structures especially when mechanical equipment like pumps and turbines are used. This subsequently results in wasting water, electricity and further costs. Therefore, it is prudent to investigate and analyze the performance of lateral intakes affected by sediment control structures. Laboratory experiments, despite their vast potential and benefits, can face certain limitations and challenges. Some of these include: limitations in equipment and facilities, space constraints, equipment errors including lack of adequate precision or mal-operation, and finally, human error. Research has shown that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of intake structure design – which is to design longlasting and proficient structures – the best combination of sediment control structures (such as sill and submerged vanes) along with parameters that increase their performance (such as diversion angle and location) should be determined. Cost, difficulty of execution and environmental impacts should also be included in evaluating the optimal design. This solution can then be applied to similar problems in the future. Subsequently, the model used to arrive at the optimal design requires high level of accuracy and precision in order to avoid improper design and execution of projects. Process of creating and executing the design should be as comprehensive and applicable as possible. Therefore, it is important that influential parameters and vital criteria is fully understood and applied at all stages of choosing the optimal design. In this article, influential parameters on optimal performance of the intake, advantages and disadvantages, and efficiency of a given design are studied. Then, a multi-criterion decision matrix is utilized to choose the optimal model that can be used to determine the proper parameters in constructing the intake.
Measurements of radioactivity in the environment is of great importance to monitor and control the levels of radiation to which man is exposed directly or indirectly. It is necessary to show that regardless of working or being close to nuclear power plants, people are daily in contact with some amount of radiation from the actual environment and food that are ingested, contradicting the view of most of them. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of natural and artificial radiation from radionuclides present in cement, soil and fertilizers used in Sergipe State – Brazil. The radionuclide activitiesmeasured all samples arebelow the Brazilian limit of the exclusion and exemption criteria from the requirement of radiation protection.It was detected Be-7 in organic fertilizers that means a short interval between the brewing processes for use in agriculture. It was also detected an unexpected Cs-137 in some samples; however its activities does not represent risk for the population. Th-231 was also found in samples of soil and cement in the state of Sergipe that is an unprecedented result.
One year (November 2009-October 2010) sediment monitoring was used to evaluate pollution status, concentration and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in West Port of Malaysia. Sediment sample were collected from nine stations every four months. Geo-accumulation factor and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were estimated to better understand the pollution level in study area. The heavy metal concentration (Mg/g dry weight) were ranged from 20.2 to 162 for As, 7.4 to 27.6 for Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 22.3 to 80 for Pb and 23 to 98.3 for Zn. In general, concentration some metals (As,Cd, Hg and Pb) was higher than background values that are considered as serious concern for aquatic life and the human health.