Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering

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  • 11
    Current Situation and Possible Solutions of Acid Rain in South Korea
    Environmental statistics reveals that the pollution of acid rain in South Korea is a serious issue. Yet the awareness of people is low. Even after a gradual decrease of pollutant emission in Korea, the acidity has not been reduced. There no boundaries in the atmosphere are set and the influence of the neighboring countries such as China is apparent. Governmental efforts among China, Japan and Korea have been made on this issue. However, not much progress has been observed. Along with the governmental activities, therefore, an active monitoring of the pollution among the countries and the promotion of environmental awareness at the civil level including especially the middle and high schools are highly recommended. It will be this young generation who will face damaged country as inheritance not the current generation.
    Hydrogen from Waste Tyres
    Hydrogen is regarded to play an important role in future energy systems because it can be produced from abundant resources and its combustion only generates water. The disposal of waste tyres is a major problem in environmental management throughout the world. The use of waste materials as a source of hydrogen is particularly of interest in that it would also solve a waste treatment problem. There is much interest in the use of alternative feedstocks for the production of hydrogen since more than 95% of current production is from fossil fuels. The pyrolysis of waste tyres for the production of liquid fuels, activated carbons and gases has been extensively researched. However, combining pyrolysis with gasification is a novel process that can gasify the gaseous products from pyrolysis. In this paper, an experimental investigation into the production of hydrogen and other gases from the bench scale pyrolysis-gasification of tyres has been investigated. Experiments were carried using a two stage system consisting of pyrolysis of the waste tyres followed by catalytic steam gasification of the evolved gases and vapours in a second reactor. Experiments were conducted at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C using Ni/Al2O3 as a catalyst. The results showed that there was a dramatic increase in gas yield and the potential H2 production when the gasification temperature was increased from 600 to 900 oC. Overall, the process showed that high yields of hydrogen can be produced from waste tyres.
    Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Multi-Stage Distillation
    The tray/multi-tray distillation process is a topic that has been investigated to great detail over the last decade by many teams such as Jubran et al. [1], Adhikari et al. [2], Mowla et al. [3], Shatat et al. [4] and Fath [5] to name a few. A significant amount of work and effort was spent focusing on modeling and/simulation of specific distillation hardware designs. In this work, we have focused our efforts on investigating and gathering experimental data on several engineering and design variables to quantify their influence on the yield of the multi-tray distillation process. Our goals are to generate experimental performance data to bridge some existing gaps in the design, engineering, optimization and theoretical modeling aspects of the multi-tray distillation process.
    Implementation of Technology Concept for the Reduction of Cyanobacteria in Laboratory

    Following the research in the Department of environmental engineering in Faculty of mechanical engineering on Technical University of Kosice and experiences with electrocoagulation style of disposal waste water, there were designed and partly examining the equipment of two stage revitalization on the standing and little fusible water of tenet electrolysis on the little tarns. With the cooperation with vet experts was that manners prove and it is innocuous for animals, during which time cyanobacteria are totally paralyzed. For the implementation of science and research results have been obtained by means EU funds for structural development.

    Seismic Alert System based on Artificial Neural Networks
    We board the problem of creating a seismic alert system, based upon artificial neural networks, trained by using the well-known back-propagation and genetic algorithms, in order to emit the alarm for the population located into a specific city, about an eminent earthquake greater than 4.5 Richter degrees, and avoiding disasters and human loses. In lieu of using the propagation wave, we employed the magnitude of the earthquake, to establish a correlation between the recorded magnitudes from a controlled area and the city, where we want to emit the alarm. To measure the accuracy of the posed method, we use a database provided by CIRES, which contains the records of 2500 quakes incoming from the State of Guerrero and Mexico City. Particularly, we performed the proposed method to generate an issue warning in Mexico City, employing the magnitudes recorded in the State of Guerrero.
    Tropical Cyclogenesis Response to Solar Activity in the Eastern Pacific Region

    The relationship between tropical cyclogenesis and solar activity is addressed in this paper, analyzing the relationship between important parameters in the evolution of tropical cyclones as the CAPE, wind shear and relative vorticity, and the Dst geomagnetic index as a parameter of solar activity. The apparent relationship between all this phenomena has a different response depending on the phase of the solar cycles.

    Developing a Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework for the National University of Malaysia

    Campus sustainability is the goal of a university striving for sustainable development. This study found that of 17 popular approaches, two comprehensive campus sustainability assessment frameworks were developed in the context of Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE), and used by many university campuses around the world. Sustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating Systems (STARS) and the Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework (CSAF) approaches are more comprehensive than others. Therefore, the researchers examined aspects and elements used by CSAF and STARS in the approach to develop a campus sustainability assessment framework for Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Documents analysis found that CSAF and STARS do not focus on physical development, especially the construction industry, as key elements of campus sustainability assessment. This finding is in accordance with the Sustainable UKM Programme which consists of three main components of sustainable community, ecosystem and physical development.

    Integrating Bioremediation and Phytoremediation to Clean up Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soils
    This work involved the use of phytoremediation to remediate an aged soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). At microcosm scale, tests were prepared using soil samples that have been collected in an industrial area with a total PCBs concentration of about 250 μg kg-1. Medicago sativa and Lolium italicum were the species selected in this study that is used as “feasibility test" for full scale remediation. The experiment was carried out with the addition of a mixture of randomly methylatedbeta- cyclodextrins (RAMEB). At the end of the experiment analysis of soil samples showed that in general the presence of plants has led to a higher degradation of most congeners with respect to not vegetated soil. The two plant species efficiencies were comparable and improved by RAMEB addition with a final reduction of total PCBs near to 50%. With increasing the chlorination of the congeners the removal percentage of PCBs progressively decreased.
    Developing Cu-Mesoporous TiO2 Cooperated with Ozone Assistance and Online- Regeneration System for Acid Odor Removal in All Weather
    Cu-mesoporous TiO2 is developed for removal acid odor cooperated with ozone assistance and online- regeneration system with/without UV irradiation (all weather) in study. The results showed that Cu-mesoporous TiO2 present the desirable adsorption efficiency of acid odor without UV irradiation, due to the larger surface area, pore sizeand the additional absorption ability provided by Cu. In the photocatalysis process, the material structure also benefits Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to perform the more outstanding efficiency on degrading acid odor. Cu also postponed the recombination of electron-hole pairs excited from TiO2 to enhance photodegradation ability. Cu-mesoporous TiO2 could gain the conspicuous increase on photocatalysis ability from ozone assistance, but without any benefit on adsorption. In addition, the online regeneration procedure could process the used Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to reinstate the adsorption ability and maintain the photodegradtion performance, depended on scrubbing, desorping acid odor and reducing Cu to metal state.
    Portable Continuous Aerosol Concentrator for the Determination of NO2 in the Air

    The paper deals with the development of portable aerosol concentrator and its application for the determination of nitrites and nitrates. The device enables the continuous trapping of pollutants in the air. An extensive literature search has been elaborated which aims at the development of samplers and the possibilities of their application in the continuous determination of volatile organic compounds. The practical part of the paper is focused on the development of the portable aerosol concentrator. The device using the Aerosol Enrichment Unit has been experimentally verified and subsequently realized. It operates on the principle of equilibrium accumulation of pollutants from the gaseous phase using absorption liquid polydisperse aerosol. The device has been applied for monitoring nitrites and nitrates in the air. The chemiluminescence detector was used for detection; the achieved detection limit for nitrites was 28 ng/m3 and for nitrates 78 ng/m3.

    Decolorization and COD Reduction Efficiency of Magnesium over Iron based Salt for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater Containing Diazo and Anthraquinone Dyes

    Magnesium chloride, though cost wise roughly same as of ferrous sulphate, is less commonly used coagulant in comparison to the ferrous sulphate for the treatment of wastewater. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as iron based salt and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as magnesium based salt in terms of decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency of textile wastewater. The coagulants were evaluated for synthetic textile wastewater containing two diazo dyes namely Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Congo Red (CR) and one anthraquinone dye as Disperse Blue 3 (DB3), in seven possible equi-ratio combinations. Other chemical constituents that are normally released from different textile processing units were also added to replicate a practical scenario. From this study, MgCl2/Lime was found to be a superior coagulant system as compared to FeSO4.7H2O/Lime, FeSO4.7H2O/NaOH and MgCl2/NaOH.