Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory
The equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of the
biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb(II) by a Spore Forming Bacillus (MGL
75) were investigated at different experimental conditions. The
Langmuir and Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)
equilibrium adsorption models were applied to describe the
biosorption of the metal ions by MGL 75 biomass. The Langmuir
model fitted the equilibrium data better than the other models.
Maximum adsorption capacities q max for lead (II) and cadmium (II)
were found equal to 158.73mg/g and 91.74 mg/g by Langmuir model.
The values of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation
showed that adsorption process is a physiosorption process. The
thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°),
and entropy (ΔS°) changes were also calculated, and the values
indicated that the biosorption process was exothermic and
spontaneous. Experiment data were also used to study biosorption
kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic
models. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption
capacities and related correlation coefficients were calculated and
discussed. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both
metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of Reservoir Due to Vertical Component of Earthquake Using an Analytical Solution
This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams induced by vertical component earthquake when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. Presented analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure in the reservoir of gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. It is concluded that because the vertical component of ground motion causes significant hydrodynamic forces in the horizontal direction on a vertical upstream face, responses to the vertical component of ground motion are of special importance in analysis of concrete gravity dams subjected to earthquakes.
Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by a Sequential Treatment of Ozonation Followed by Fenton Process: Influence of the Water Matrix
A sequential treatment of ozonation followed by a
Fenton or photo-Fenton process, using black light lamps (365 nm) in
this latter case, has been applied to remove a mixture of
pharmaceutical compounds and the generated by-products both in
ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The scientifictechnological
innovation of this study stems from the in situ
generation of hydrogen peroxide from the direct ozonation of
pharmaceuticals, and can later be used in the application of Fenton
and photo-Fenton processes. The compounds selected as models
were sulfamethoxazol and acetaminophen. It should be remarked that
the use of a second process is necessary as a result of the low
mineralization yield reached by the exclusive application of ozone.
Therefore, the influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms
of hydrogen peroxide concentration, individual compound
concentration and total organic carbon removed. Moreover, the
concentration of different iron species in solution has been measured.
Effects of Microwave Heating on Biogas Production, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Volatile Solids Solubilization of Food Residues
This paper presents the results of the preliminary investigation of microwave (MW) irradiation pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of food residues using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Low solids systems with a total solids (TS) content ranging from 5.0-10.0% were analyzed. The inoculum to bulk mass of substrates to water ratio was 1:2:2 (mass basis). The experimental conditions for pretreatments were as follows: a control (no MW irradiation), two runs with MW irradiation for 15 and 30 minutes at 320 W, and another two runs with MW irradiation at 528 W for 30 and 60 minutes. The cumulative biogas production were 6.3 L and 8.7 L for 15min/320 W and 30min/320 W MW irradiation conditions, respectively, and 10.5 L and 11.4 L biogas for 30min/528 W and 60min/528 W, respectively, as compared to the control giving 5.8 L biogas. Both an increase in exposure time of irradiation and power of MW had increased the rate and yield of biogas. Singlefactor ANOVA tests (p<0.05) indicated that the variations in VS, TS, COD and cumulative biogas generation were significantly different for the pretreatment conditions. Results from this study indicated that MW irradiation had enhanced the biogas production and degradation of total solids with a significant improvement in VS and COD solubilization.
Ecological Risk Assessment of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the North Port, Malaysia
The pollution of sediments sampled from the North
Port by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated.
Concentrations of PAHs estimated in the port sediments ranged from
199 to 2851.2 μg/kg dw. The highest concentration was found which
is closed to the Berth line, this locations affected by intensive
shipping activities and Land based runoff and they were dominated
by the high molecular weight PAHs (4–6- rings). Source
identification showed that PAHs originated mostly from the
pyrogenic source either from the combustion of fossil fuels, grass,
wood and coal (majority of the samples). Ecological Risk Assessment
on the port sediments presented that slightly adverse ecological
effects to biological community are expected to occur at the vicinity
of the stations 1 and 4. Thus PAHs are not considered as pollutants of
concern in the North Port.
Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-contaminated Soil Slurry by Fenton Oxidation
Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the optimal
treatment condition of Fenton oxidation process to removal
contaminant in soil slurry contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.
This research studied somefactors that affect the removal efficiency
of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil slurry including molar ratio of
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ferrous ion(Fe2+), pH condition and
reaction time.The resultsdemonstrated that the optimum condition
was that the molar ratio of H2O2:Fe3+ was 200:1,the pHwas 4.0and
the rate of reaction was increasing rapidly from starting point to 7th
hour and destruction kinetic rate (k) was 0.24 h-1. Approximately
96% of petroleum hydrocarbon was observed(initialtotal petroleum
hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 70±7gkg-1)
Toward Strengthening Social Resilience: A Case Study on Recovery of Capture Fisheries after Asia's Tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia
Social resilience has role to govern the local community and coastal fisheries resources toward sustainable fisheries development in tsunami affected area. This paper asses, explore and investigates of indigenous institutions, external and internal facilitators toward strengthening social resilience. Identification of the genuine organizations role had been conducted twice by using Rapid Assessment Appraisal, Focus Group Discussion, and in-depth interview for collecting primary and secondary data. Local wisdom had a contribution and adaptable to rebound social resilience. The Panglima Laot Lhok (sea commander) had determined and adapted role on recovery of the fishing community, particularly facilitated aid delivery to fishermen, as shown in anchovy fisheries relief case in Krueng Raya Bay. Toke Bangku (financial trader) had stimulated for reinforcement of advance payment and market channel. The other institutions supported upon linking and bridging connectivity among stakeholders. Collaborative governance can avoid conflict, reduce donor dependency and strengthen social resilience within fishing community.
Comparative Analysis of Diversity and Similarity Indices with Special Relevance to Vegetations around Sewage Drains
Indices summarizing community structure are used to
evaluate fundamental community ecology, species interaction,
biogeographical factors, and environmental stress. Some of these
indices are insensitive to gross community changes induced by
contaminants of pollution. Diversity indices and similarity indices are
reviewed considering their ecological application, both theoretical
and practical. For some useful indices, empirical equations are given
to calculate the expected maximum value of the indices to which the
observed values can be related at any combination of sample sizes at
the experimental sites. This paper examines the effects of sample size
and diversity on the expected values of diversity indices and
similarity indices, using various formulae. It has been shown that all
indices are strongly affected by sample size and diversity. In some
indices, this influence is greater than the others and an attempt has
been made to deal with these influences.
Incorporation Mechanism of Stabilizing Simulated Lead-Laden Sludge in Aluminum-Rich Ceramics
This study investigated a strategy of blending lead-laden sludge and Al-rich precursors to reduce the release of metals from the stabilized products. Using PbO as the simulated lead-laden sludge to sinter with γ-Al2O3 by Pb:Al molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:12, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 were formed as final products during the sintering process, respectively. By firing the PbO + γ-Al2O3 mixtures with different Pb/Al molar ratios at 600 to 1000 °C, the lead transformation was determined through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. In Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/2 system, the formation of PbAl2O4 is initiated at 700 °C, but an effective formation was observed above 750 °C. An intermediate phase, Pb9Al8O21, was detected in the temperature range of 800-900 °C. However, different incorporation behavior for sintering PbO with Al-rich precursors at a Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/12 was observed during the formation of PbAl12O19 in this system. In the sintering process, both temperature and time effect on the formation of PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases were estimated. Finally, a prolonged leaching test modified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-s toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the durability of PbO, Pb9Al8O21, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases. Comparison for the leaching results of the four phases demonstrated the higher intrinsic resistance of PbAl12O19 against acid attack.
Application of Artificial Neural Network to Classification Surface Water Quality
Water quality is a subject of ongoing concern.
Deterioration of water quality has initiated serious management
efforts in many countries. This study endeavors to automatically
classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6
factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen
(DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen
(NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (TColiform).
The methodology involves applying data mining
techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network
models. The data consisted of 11 sites of canals in Dusit district in
Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of
Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural
network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 96.52%
in classifying the water quality of Dusit district canal in Bangkok
Subsequently, this encouraging result could be applied with plan and
management source of water quality.
Root System Production and Aboveground Biomass Production of Chosen Cover Crops
The most planted cover crops in the Czech Republic
are mustard (Sinapis alba) and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia
Benth.). A field trial was executed to evaluate root system size (RSS)
in eight varieties of mustard and five varieties of phacelia on two
locations, in three BBCH phases and in two years. The relationship
between RSS and aboveground biomass was inquired. The root
system was assessed by measuring its electric capacity. Aboveground
mass and root samples to be evaluated by means of a digital image
analysis were recovered in the BBCH phase 70. The yield of
aboveground biomass of mustard was always statistically
significantly higher than that of phacelia. Mustard showed a
statistically significant negative correlation between root length
density (RLD) within 10 cm and aboveground biomass weight (r = -
0.46*). Phacelia featured a statistically significant correlation
between aboveground biomass production and nitrate nitrogen
content in soil (r=0.782**).
Toxicity Test of Ag+, Nano-Ag0 and Nano- Ag2O Using Green Algae (Chlorella sp.) and Water Flea (Moina macrocopa)
The research objective was to study the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in aquatic organisms. Three forms of free silver ion nanoparticles (Ag+), silver nano particles (nano-Ag0) and silver oxide nanoparticles (nano Ag2O) were examined for toxic effects with Chlorella sp. and Moina macrocopa. The results showed that the toxicity of three silver ion forms to both organisms was examined
Mathematical Modeling of the Influence of Hydrothermal Processes in the Water Reservoir
In this paper presents the mathematical model of
hydrothermal processes in thermal power plant with different wind
direction scenarios in the water reservoir, which is solved by the
Navier - Stokes and temperature equations for an incompressible
fluid in a stratified medium. Numerical algorithm based on the
method of splitting by physical parameters. Three dimensional
Poisson equation is solved with Fourier method by combination of
tridiagonal matrix method (Thomas algorithm).
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment and Wastewater from the Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies- Iran
The present study was performed in Musa bay (northern part of the Persian Gulf) around the coastal area of Bandare-Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies. Sediment samples and effluent samples were collected from the selected stations, from June 2009 to June 2010. The samples were analyzed to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. The average level of TPH concentration in the study area was more than the natural background value at all of the stations, especially at station BI1 which was the main effluent outlet of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company. Also the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon was monitored in the effluents of aforementioned petrochemical companies and the results showed that the concentration of TPH in the effluents of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company was greater than Razi petrochemical company which is may be related to the products of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (aromatics, polymers, chemicals, fuel).
Numerical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Ground Movement above Underground Mine
This paper describes topic of computer simulation with regard to the ground movement above an underground mine. Simulation made with software package ADINA for nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with finite elements method. The one of representative profiles from Mine 'Stara Jama' in Zenica has been investigated. A collection and selection of both geo-mechanical data and geometric parameters of the mine was necessary for performing these simulations. Results of estimation have been compared with measured values (vertical displacement of surface), and then simulation performed with assumed dynamic and dimensions of excavation, over a period of time. Results are presented with bitmaps and charts.
The Energy Impacts of Using Top-Light Daylighting Systems for Academic Buildings in Tropical Climate
Careful design and selection of daylighting systems can greatly help in reducing not only artificial lighting use, but also decrease cooling energy consumption and, therefore, potential for downsizing air-conditioning systems. This paper aims to evaluate the energy performance of two types of top-light daylighting systems due to the integration of daylight together with artificial lighting in an existing examinaton hall in University Kebangsaan Malaysia, based on a hot and humid climate. Computer simulation models have been created for building case study (base case) and the two types of toplight daylighting designs for building energy performance evaluation using the VisualDOE 4.0 building energy simulation program. The finding revealed that daylighting through top-light systems is a very beneficial design strategy in reducing annual lighting energy consumption and the overall total annual energy consumption.