Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering

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  • 10
    9999592
    Cement Mortar Lining as a Potential Source of Water Contamination
    Abstract:

    Several different cements have been tested to evaluate their potential to leach calcium, chromium and aluminum ions in soft water environment. The research allows comparing some different cements in order to the potential risk of water contamination. This can be done only in the same environment. To reach the results in reasonable short time intervals and to make heavy metals measurements with high accuracy, demineralized water was used. In this case the conditions of experiments are far away from the water supply practice, but short time experiments and measurably high concentrations of elements in the water solution are an important advantage. Moreover leaching mechanisms can be recognized, our experiments reported here refer to this kind of cements evaluation.

    9
    9999607
    Early-Warning Lights Classification Management System for Industrial Parks in Taiwan
    Abstract:

    This paper presents the early-warning lights classification management system for industrial parks promoted by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) since 2011, including the definition of each early-warning light, objectives, action program and accomplishments. All of the 151 industrial parks in Taiwan were classified into four early-warning lights, including red, orange, yellow and green, for carrying out respective pollution management according to the monitoring data of soil and groundwater quality, regulatory compliance, and regulatory listing of control site or remediation site. The Taiwan EPA set up a priority list for high potential polluted industrial parks and investigated their soil and groundwater qualities based on the results of the light classification and pollution potential assessment. In 2011-2013, there were 44 industrial parks selected and carried out different investigation, such as the early warning groundwater well networks establishment and pollution investigation/verification for the red and orange-light industrial parks and the environmental background survey for the yellow-light industrial parks. Among them, 22 industrial parks were newly or continuously confirmed that the concentrations of pollutants exceeded those in soil or groundwater pollution control standards. Thus, the further investigation, groundwater use restriction, listing of pollution control site or remediation site, and pollutant isolation measures were implemented by the local environmental protection and industry competent authorities; the early warning lights of those industrial parks were proposed to adjust up to orange or red-light. Up to the present, the preliminary positive effect of the soil and groundwater quality management system for industrial parks has been noticed in several aspects, such as environmental background information collection, early warning of pollution risk, pollution investigation and control, information integration and application, and inter-agency collaboration. Finally, the work and goal of self-initiated quality management of industrial parks will be carried out on the basis of the inter-agency collaboration by the classified lights system of early warning and management as well as the regular announcement of the status of each industrial park.

    8
    9999598
    Open Source Algorithms for 3D Geo-Representation of Subsurface Formations Properties in the Oil and Gas Industry
    Abstract:

    This paper presents the result of the implementation of a series of algorithms intended to be used for representing in most of the 3D geographic software, even Google Earth, the subsurface formations properties combining 2D charts or 3D plots over a 3D background, allowing everyone to use them, no matter the economic size of the company for which they work. Besides the existence of complex and expensive specialized software for modeling subsurface formations based on the same information provided to this one, the use of this open source development shows a higher and easier usability and good results, limiting the rendered properties and polygons to a basic set of charts and tubes.

    7
    9999444
    Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images
    Abstract:

    A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

    6
    9999479
    Dislocation Modelling of the 1997-2009 High-Precision Global Positioning System Displacements in Darjiling- Sikkim Himalaya, India
    Abstract:

    We used high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) to geodetically constrain the motion of stations in the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalayan (DSH) wedge and examine the deformation at the Indian-Tibetan plate boundary using IGS (International GPS Service) fiducial stations. High-precision GPS based displacement and velocity field was measured in the DSH between 1997 and 2009. To obtain additional insight north of the Indo-Tibetan border and in the Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) wedge, published velocities from four stations J037, XIGA, J029 and YADO were also included in the analysis. India-fixed velocities or the back-slip was computed relative to the pole of rotation of the Indian Plate (Latitude 52.97 ± 0.22º, Longitude - 0.30 ± 3.76º, and Angular Velocity 0.500 ± 0.008º/ Myr) in the DaSiT wedge. Dislocation modelling was carried out with the back-slip to model the best possible solution of a finite rectangular dislocation or the causative fault based on dislocation theory that produced the observed back-slip using a forward modelling approach. To find the best possible solution, three different models were attempted. First, slip along a single thrust fault, then two thrust faults and in finally, three thrust faults were modelled to simulate the back-slip in the DaSiT wedge. The three-fault case bests the measured displacements and is taken as the best possible solution.

    5
    9999530
    Review of Downscaling Methods in Climate Change and Their Role in Hydrological Studies
    Abstract:

    Recent perceived climate variability raises concerns with unprecedented hydrological phenomena and extremes. Distribution and circulation of the waters of the Earth become increasingly difficult to determine because of additional uncertainty related to anthropogenic emissions. The world wide observed changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle have been related to an increase in the observed temperature over several decades. Although the effect of change in climate on hydrology provides a general picture of possible hydrological global change, new tools and frameworks for modelling hydrological series with nonstationary characteristics at finer scales, are required for assessing climate change impacts. Of the downscaling techniques, dynamic downscaling is usually based on the use of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), which generate finer resolution output based on atmospheric physics over a region using General Circulation Model (GCM) fields as boundary conditions. However, RCMs are not expected to capture the observed spatial precipitation extremes at a fine cell scale or at a basin scale. Statistical downscaling derives a statistical or empirical relationship between the variables simulated by the GCMs, called predictors, and station-scale hydrologic variables, called predictands. The main focus of the paper is on the need for using statistical downscaling techniques for projection of local hydrometeorological variables under climate change scenarios. The projections can be then served as a means of input source to various hydrologic models to obtain streamflow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and other hydrological variables of interest.

    4
    9999582
    Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria
    Abstract:

    The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

    3
    9999761
    Stewardship of Urban Greenery in an Era of Global Urbanisation
    Abstract:

    Urban greenery remains the bastion of urban landscape and a key to sustainable development due to its integral connections to the general health and wellbeing of urban residents. However, in an era of rapid urbanisation, recent studies indicate that urban greenery, especially ecologically sensitive areas, in many African cities is becoming increasingly depleted. Given the scale and rate of natural and anthropogenic change, effective management of urban greenery as the ultimate goal of restoring depleting urban landscapes is urgent. This review advocates for an urban resilience model to managing urban greenery.

    2
    10000194
    Evaluation of GSM Radiation Power Density in Three Major Cities in Nigeria
    Abstract:

    The levels of maximum power density of GSM signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand held spectrum analyzer 200m away from 271 base stations, at 1.2m to the ground level. The maximum GSM 900 signal power density was 139.63μW/m2 in Lagos, 162.49μW/m2 in Ibadan and 5411.26μW/m2 in Abuja. Also, the maximum GSM 1800 signal power density was 296.82μW/m2 in Lagos, 116.82μW/m2 in Ibadan and 1263.00μW/m2 in Abuja. The level of power density of GSM 900 and GSM 1800 signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja are far less than the recommended value of 4.5W/m2 for GSM 900 and 9.0 W/m2 for GSM 1800 by the ICNRP guideline. It can be concluded that exposure to GSM signals in these cities cannot contribute to the health detriments caused by thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation.

    1
    10000196
    Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of Lead Pollution in Egypt
    Abstract:

    Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal from environmental pollutants. A total of 180 Male scalp hair samples were collected from different environments in Greater Cairo (GC), i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas (60 samples from each) having different activities during the period of, 1/5/2010 to 1/11/2012. Hair samples were collected during five stages. Data proved that the concentration of lead in male industrial areas of Cairo ranged between 6.2847 to 19.0432 μg/g, with mean value of 12.3288 μg/g. On the other hand, lead content of hair samples of residential-traffic areas ranged between 2.8634 to 16.3311 μg/g with mean value of 9.7552 μg/g. While lead concentration on the hair of the male residents living in rural area ranged between 1.0499-9.0402μg/g with mean value of 4.7327 μg/g. The Pb concentration in scalp hair of Cairo residents of residential-traffic and rural traffic areas was observed to follow the same pattern. The pattern was that of decrease concentration of summer and its increase in winter. Then, there was a marked increase in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this increase was significant. These were obviously seen for the residential-traffic and rural areas residents. Pb pollution in residents of industrial areas showed the same seasonal pattern, but there was marked to decrease in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this decrease was significant. Lead pollution in residents of GC was serious. It is worth noting that the atmosphere is still contaminated by lead despite a decade of using unleaded gasoline. Strong seasonal variation in higher Pb concentration on winter than in summer was found. Major contributions to the pollution with Pb could include industry emissions, motor vehicle emissions and long transported dust from outside Cairo. More attention should be paid to the reduction of Pb content of the urban aerosol and to the Pb pollution health.