Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering

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  • 6
    Study on Rural Landscape Design Method under the Background of the Population Diversification

    Population diversification phenomena becomes quite common in villages located in China’s developed coastal area. Based on the analysis of the traditional rural society and its landscape characteristics, and in consideration of diversified landscape requirements due to the population diversification, with dual ideas of heritage and innovation, methods for rural landscape design were explored by taking Duxuao Village in Zhejiang Province of China as an example.

    Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

    Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulfate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analyzing the change in organic matter, odor, color, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulfate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, fecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulfate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed. 

    Spectral Assessing of Topographic Effects on Seismic Behavior of Trapezoidal Hill

    One of the most important issues about the structural damages caused by earthquake is the evaluating of the spectral response of the site on which the construction is built. This fact has demonstrated during many earlier earthquakes and many researchers’ reports have concerned with it. According to these reports, features of the site materials and geometry of the ground surface are considered the main factors. This study concentrates on the specific form of topographies like hills. Assessing of spectral responses of different points on the hills and beside demonstrates considerable differences between 1D and 2D methods of geotechnical analyses. A general trend of amplifications on the top of the hills and de-amplifications near the toe of the hills has been appeared within the acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectrums of horizontal motion. Evaluating of spectral responses of different sizes of the hills revealed that as much as the hill-size enlarges differences between spectral responses of 1D and 2D analyses transfers to longer range of periods and becomes wider.

    Assessment of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Two Portuguese Slaughterhouses

    With the objective of characterizing the profile and performance of energy use by slaughterhouses, surveys and audits were performed in two different facilities located in the northeastern region of Portugal. Energy consumption from multiple energy sources was assessed monthly, along with production and costs, for the same reference year. Gathered data was analyzed to identify and quantify the main consuming processes and to estimate energy efficiency indicators for benchmarking purposes. Main results show differences between the two slaughterhouses concerning energy sources, consumption by source and sector, and global energy efficiency. Electricity is the most used source in both slaughterhouses with a contribution of around 50%, being essentially used for meat processing and refrigeration. Natural gas, in slaughterhouse A, and pellets, in slaughterhouse B, used for heating water take the second place, with a mean contribution of about 45%. On average, a 62 kgoe/t specific energy consumption (SEC) was found, although with differences between slaughterhouses. A prominent negative correlation between SEC and carcass production was found specially in slaughterhouse A. Estimated Specific Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gases Intensity (GHGI) show mean values of about 50 €/t and 1.8 tCO2e/toe, respectively. Main results show that there is a significant margin for improving energy efficiency and therefore lowering costs in this type of non-energy intensive industries. 

    Ammonia Release during Photocopying Operations

    The paper represents the dependence of ammonia concentration on microclimate parameters and photocopying shop circulation. The concentration of ammonia was determined during 8-hours working time over five days including three sampling points of a photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The obtained results pointed out that the room temperature possesses the highest impact on ammonia release. The obtained ammonia concentration was in the range of 1.53 to 0.42ppm and decreased with the temperature decreasing from 24.6 to 20.7oC. As the detected concentrations were within the permissible levels of The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and The Health and Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, in the range of 35 to 200ppm, there was no danger to the employee’s health in the photocopying shop.

    The Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessments of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Bhubaneswar, India

    The power system utility has started to think about the green power technology in order to have an eco-friendly environment. The green power technology utilizes renewable energy sources for reduction of GHG emissions. Odisha state (India) is very rich in potential of renewable energy sources especially in solar energy (about 300 solar days), for installation of grid connected photovoltaic system. This paper focuses on the utilization of photovoltaic systems in an Institute building of Bhubaneswar city, Odisha. Different data like solar insolation (kW/m2/day), sunshine duration has been collected from metrological stations for Bhubaneswar city. The required electrical power and cost are calculated for daily load of 1.0 kW. The HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model of Electric Renewable) software is used to estimate system size and its performance analysis. The simulation result shows that the cost of energy (COE) is $ 0.194/kWh, the Operating cost is $63/yr and the net present cost (NPC) is $3,917. The energy produced from PV array is 1,756kWh/yr and energy purchased from grid is 410kWh/yr. The AC primary load consumption is 1314 kWh/yr and the Grid sales are 746 kWh/yr. One battery is connected in parallel with 12V DC Bus and the usable nominal capacity 2.4 kWh with 9.6 h autonomy capacity.