Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 20

Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • 20
    One Dimensional Object Segmentation and Statistical Features of an Image for Texture Image Recognition System

    Traditional object segmentation methods are time consuming and computationally difficult. In this paper, onedimensional object detection along the secant lines is applied. Statistical features of texture images are computed for the recognition process. Example matrices of these features and formulae for calculation of similarities between two feature patterns are expressed. And experiments are also carried out using these features.

    Sensory Evaluation of the Selected Coffee Products Using Fuzzy Approach
    Knowing consumers' preferences and perceptions of the sensory evaluation of drink products are very significant to manufacturers and retailers alike. With no appropriate sensory analysis, there is a high risk of market disappointment. This paper aims to rank the selected coffee products and also to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation using fuzzy decision making model. Three products of coffee drinks were used for sensory evaluation. Data were collected from thirty judges at a hypermarket in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The judges were asked to specify their sensory evaluation in linguistic terms of the quality attributes of colour, smell, taste and mouth feel for each product and also the weight of each quality attribute. Five fuzzy linguistic terms represent the quality attributes were introduced prior analysing. The judgment membership function and the weights were compared to rank the products and also to determine the best quality attribute. The product of Indoc was judged as the first in ranking and 'taste' as the best quality attribute. These implicate the importance of sensory evaluation in identifying consumers- preferences and also the competency of fuzzy approach in decision making.
    Constructing Approximate and Exact Solutions for Boussinesq Equations using Homotopy Perturbation Padé Technique
    Based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Padé approximants (PA), approximate and exact solutions are obtained for cubic Boussinesq and modified Boussinesq equations. The obtained solutions contain solitary waves, rational solutions. HPM is used for analytic treatment to those equations and PA for increasing the convergence region of the HPM analytical solution. The results reveal that the HPM with the enhancement of PA is a very effective, convenient and quite accurate to such types of partial differential equations.
    An Overview of Some High Order and Multi-Level Finite Difference Schemes in Computational Aeroacoustics

    In this paper, we have combined some spatial derivatives with the optimised time derivative proposed by Tam and Webb in order to approximate the linear advection equation which is given by = 0. Ôêé Ôêé + Ôêé Ôêé x f t u These spatial derivatives are as follows: a standard 7-point 6 th -order central difference scheme (ST7), a standard 9-point 8 th -order central difference scheme (ST9) and optimised schemes designed by Tam and Webb, Lockard et al., Zingg et al., Zhuang and Chen, Bogey and Bailly. Thus, these seven different spatial derivatives have been coupled with the optimised time derivative to obtain seven different finite-difference schemes to approximate the linear advection equation. We have analysed the variation of the modified wavenumber and group velocity, both with respect to the exact wavenumber for each spatial derivative. The problems considered are the 1-D propagation of a Boxcar function, propagation of an initial disturbance consisting of a sine and Gaussian function and the propagation of a Gaussian profile. It is known that the choice of the cfl number affects the quality of results in terms of dissipation and dispersion characteristics. Based on the numerical experiments solved and numerical methods used to approximate the linear advection equation, it is observed in this work, that the quality of results is dependent on the choice of the cfl number, even for optimised numerical methods. The errors from the numerical results have been quantified into dispersion and dissipation using a technique devised by Takacs. Also, the quantity, Exponential Error for Low Dispersion and Low Dissipation, eeldld has been computed from the numerical results. Moreover, based on this work, it has been found that when the quantity, eeldld can be used as a measure of the total error. In particular, the total error is a minimum when the eeldld is a minimum.

    Acceleration Analysis of a Rotating Body

    The velocity of a moving point in a general path is the vector quantity, which has both magnitude and direction. The magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector can change over time as a result of acceleration that the time rate of velocity changes. Acceleration analysis is important because inertial forces and inertial torques are proportional to rectilinear and angular accelerations accordingly. The loads must be determined in advance to ensure that a machine is adequately designed to handle these dynamic loads. For planar motion, the vector direction of acceleration is commonly separated into two elements: tangential and centripetal or radial components of a point on a rotating body. All textbooks in physics, kinematics and dynamics of machinery consider the magnitude of a radial acceleration at condition when a point rotates with a constant angular velocity and it means without acceleration. The magnitude of the tangential acceleration considered on a basis of acceleration for a rotating point. Such condition of presentation of magnitudes for two components of acceleration logically and mathematically is not correct and may cause further confusion in calculation. This paper presents new analytical expressions of the radial and absolute accelerations of a rotating point with acceleration and covers the gap in theoretical study of acceleration analysis.

    Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with a Deformable Free Surface

    The stability analysis of Marangoni convection in porous media with a deformable upper free surface is investigated. The linear stability theory and the normal mode analysis are applied and the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The Darcy law and the Brinkman model are used to describe the flow in the porous medium heated from below. The effect of the Crispation number, Bond number and the Biot number are analyzed for the stability of the system. It is found that a decrease in the Crispation number and an increase in the Bond number delay the onset of convection in porous media. In addition, the system becomes more stable when the Biot number is increases and the Daeff number is decreases.

    The Effect of the Initial Stresses on the Reflection and Transmission of Plane Quasi-Vertical Transverse Waves in Piezoelectric Materials

    This study deals with the phenomena of reflection and transmission (refraction) of qSV-waves, for an incident of quasi transverse vertically waves, at a plane interface of two semi-infinite piezoelectric elastic media under the influence of the initial stresses. The relations governing the reflection and transmission coefficients of these reflected waves for various suitable boundary conditions are derived. We have shown analytically that reflection and transmission coefficients of (qP) and (qSV) waves depend upon the angle of incidence, the parameters of electric potential, the material constants of the medium as will as the initial stresses presented in the media. The numerical calculations of the reflection and transmission amplitude ratios for different values of initial stresses have been carried out by computer for different materials as examples and the results are given in the form of graphs. Finally, some of particular cases are considered.

    Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Onset of Marangoni Convection in a Micropolar Fluid

    With the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field and suspended particles, thermocapillary instability in a horizontal liquid layer is investigated. The resulting eigenvalue is solved by the Galerkin technique for various basic temperature gradients. It is found that the presence of magnetic field always has a stability effect of increasing the critical Marangoni number.

    A New Application of Stochastic Transformation
    In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are very important to get confidentiality and privacy of message in block ciphers and stream ciphers. There are two types of network to provide confusion and diffusion properties of message in block ciphers. They are Substitution- Permutation network (S-P network), and Feistel network. NLFS (Non-Linear feedback stream cipher) is a fast and secure stream cipher for software application. NLFS have two modes basic mode that is synchronous mode and self synchronous mode. Real random numbers are non-deterministic. R-box (random box) based on the dynamic properties and it performs the stochastic transformation of data that can be used effectively meet the challenges of information is protected from international destructive impacts. In this paper, a new implementation of stochastic transformation will be proposed.
    A New Variant of RC4 Stream Cipher

    RC4 was used as an encryption algorithm in WEP(Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol that is a standardized for 802.11 wireless network. A few attacks followed, indicating certain weakness in the design. In this paper, we proposed a new variant of RC4 stream cipher. The new version of the cipher does not only appear to be more secure, but its keystream also has large period, large complexity and good statistical properties.

    Weakly Generalized Closed Map

    In this paper we introduce a new class of mg-continuous mapping and studied some of its basic properties.We obtain some characterizations of such functions. Moreover we define sub minimal structure and further study certain properties of mg-closed sets.

    A Comparative Study of Rigid and Modified Simplex Methods for Optimal Parameter Settings of ACO for Noisy Non-Linear Surfaces

    There are two common types of operational research techniques, optimisation and metaheuristic methods. The latter may be defined as a sequential process that intelligently performs the exploration and exploitation adopted by natural intelligence and strong inspiration to form several iterative searches. An aim is to effectively determine near optimal solutions in a solution space. In this work, a type of metaheuristics called Ant Colonies Optimisation, ACO, inspired by a foraging behaviour of ants was adapted to find optimal solutions of eight non-linear continuous mathematical models. Under a consideration of a solution space in a specified region on each model, sub-solutions may contain global or multiple local optimum. Moreover, the algorithm has several common parameters; number of ants, moves, and iterations, which act as the algorithm-s driver. A series of computational experiments for initialising parameters were conducted through methods of Rigid Simplex, RS, and Modified Simplex, MSM. Experimental results were analysed in terms of the best so far solutions, mean and standard deviation. Finally, they stated a recommendation of proper level settings of ACO parameters for all eight functions. These parameter settings can be applied as a guideline for future uses of ACO. This is to promote an ease of use of ACO in real industrial processes. It was found that the results obtained from MSM were pretty similar to those gained from RS. However, if these results with noise standard deviations of 1 and 3 are compared, MSM will reach optimal solutions more efficiently than RS, in terms of speed of convergence.

    On Generalized New Class of Matrix Polynomial Set

    New generalization of the new class matrix polynomial set have been obtained. An explicit representation and an expansion of the matrix exponential in a series of these matrix are given for these matrix polynomials.

    Traffic Flow on Road Junctions

    The paper deals with a mathematical model for fluid dynamic flows on road networks which is based on conservation laws. This nonlinear framework is based on the conservation of cars. We focus on traffic circle, which is a finite number of roads that meet at some junctions. The traffic circle with junctions having either one incoming and two outgoing or two incoming and one outgoing roads. We describe the numerical schemes with the particular boundary conditions used to produce approximated solutions of the problem.

    Control of A Cart-Ball System Using State-Feedback Controller
    A cart-ball system is a challenging system from the control engineering point of view. This is due to the nonlinearities, multivariable, and non-minimum phase behavior present in this system. This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and control of such system. The objective of control strategy is to place the cart at a desired position while balancing the ball on the top of the arc-shaped track fixed on the cart. A State-Feedback Controller (SFC) with a pole-placement method will be designed in order to control the system. At first, the mathematical model of a cart-ball system in the state-space form is developed. Then, the linearization of a model will be established in order to design a SFC. The integral control strategy will be performed as to control the cart position of a system. Simulation work is then performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software in order to study the performance of SFC when applied to the system.
    Algorithms for the Fast Computation of PWL and PHL Transforms

    In this paper, the construction of fast algorithms for the computation of Periodic Walsh Piecewise-Linear PWL transform and the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear PHL transform will be presented. Algorithms for the computation of the inverse transforms are also proposed. The matrix equation of the PWL and PHL transforms are introduced. Comparison of the computational requirements for the periodic piecewise-linear transforms and other orthogonal transforms shows that the periodic piecewise-linear transforms require less number of operations than some orthogonal transforms such as the Fourier, Walsh and the Discrete Cosine transforms.

    Visualization of Conway Polyhedron Notation
    This paper presents an interactive modeling system of polyhedra using the isomorphic graphs. Especially, Conway polyhedron notation is implemented. The notation can be observed as interactive animation.
    Optimization of Structure of Section-Based Automated Lines

    Automated production lines with so called 'hard structures' are widely used in manufacturing. Designers segmented these lines into sections by placing a buffer between the series of machine tools to increase productivity. In real production condition the capacity of a buffer system is limited and real production line can compensate only some part of the productivity losses of an automated line. The productivity of such production lines cannot be readily determined. This paper presents mathematical approach to solving the structure of section-based automated production lines by criterion of maximum productivity.

    Optimal Estimation of Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM Visible and Mid Infrared Data over Penang Island
    Retrieval of the surface reflectance is important in the remotely sensed data analysis to obtain the atmospheric reflectance or atmospheric correction. The relationship between visible and mid infrared reflectance over land was investigated and developed in this study. The surface reflectances of the two visible bands were measured using a handheld spectroradiometer collected around Penang Island. In this study, we use the assumption that the 2.1 μm band is not affected by aerosol and it is transparent to most aerosol types (except dust). Therefore the satellite observed signal is the same as the surface signal in 2.1 μm band. The correlation between the surface reflectance measured by the spectroradiometer in the blue and red region and the 2.1 μm observed by the satellite has been established. We investigate five dates of Landsat TM scenes in this study. The finding obtained by this study indicates that the surface reflectance can be retrieved from the 2.1 μm band.
    Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree
    This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.