Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • 10
    Revival of the Modern Wing Sails for the Propulsion of Commercial Ships
    Over 90% of the world trade is carried by the international shipping industry. As most of the countries are developing, seaborne trade continues to expand to bring benefits for consumers across the world. Studies show that world trade will increase 70-80% through shipping in the next 15-20 years. Present global fleet of 70000 commercial ships consumes approximately 200 million tonnes of diesel fuel a year and it is expected that it will be around 350 million tonnes a year by 2020. It will increase the demand for fuel and also increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. So, it-s essential to control this massive fuel consumption and CO2 emission. The idea is to utilize a diesel-wind hybrid system for ship propulsion. Use of wind energy by installing modern wing-sails in ships can drastically reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. A huge amount of wind energy is available in oceans. Whenever wind is available the wing-sails would be deployed and the diesel engine would be throttled down and still the same forward speed would be maintained. Wind direction in a particular shipping route is not same throughout; it changes depending upon the global wind pattern which depends on the latitude. So, the wing-sail orientation should be such that it optimizes the use of wind energy. We have made a computer programme in which by feeding the data regarding wind velocity, wind direction, ship-motion direction; we can find out the best wing-sail position and fuel saving for commercial ships. We have calculated net fuel saving in certain international shipping routes, for instance, from Mumbai in India to Durban in South Africa. Our estimates show that about 8.3% diesel fuel can be saved by utilizing the wind. We are also developing an experimental model of the ship employing airfoils (small scale wingsail) and going to test it in National Wind Tunnel Facility in IIT Kanpur in order to develop a control mechanism for a system of airfoils.
    Exponential Stability and Periodicity of a Class of Cellular Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    The problem of exponential stability and periodicity for a class of cellular neural networks (DCNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated. By dividing the network state variables into subgroups according to the characters of the neural networks, some sufficient conditions for exponential stability and periodicity are derived via the methods of variation parameters and inequality techniques. These conditions are represented by some blocks of the interconnection matrices. Compared with some previous methods, the method used in this paper does not resort to any Lyapunov function, and the results derived in this paper improve and generalize some earlier criteria established in the literature cited therein. Two examples are discussed to illustrate the main results.

    Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric Techniques for Non-peak Traffic Forecasting
    Accurately predicting non-peak traffic is crucial to daily traffic for all forecasting models. In the paper, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) are investigated to solve such a practical problem. It is the first time to apply the approach and analyze the forecast performance in the domain. For comparison purpose, two parametric and two non-parametric techniques are selected because of their effectiveness proved in past research. Having good generalization ability and guaranteeing global minima, LS-SVMs perform better than the others. Providing sufficient improvement in stability and robustness reveals that the approach is practically promising.
    Linear Stability Characteristics of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows
    Linear stability of wake-shear layers in two-phase shallow flows is analyzed in the present paper. Stability analysis is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. Linear stability curves are obtained for different values of the particle loading parameter, the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. It is shown that the increase in the velocity ratio destabilizes the flow. The particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow. The role of the velocity deficit is also destabilizing: the increase of the velocity deficit leads to less stable flow.
    Estimation of Time -Varying Linear Regression with Unknown Time -Volatility via Continuous Generalization of the Akaike Information Criterion
    The problem of estimating time-varying regression is inevitably concerned with the necessity to choose the appropriate level of model volatility - ranging from the full stationarity of instant regression models to their absolute independence of each other. In the stationary case the number of regression coefficients to be estimated equals that of regressors, whereas the absence of any smoothness assumptions augments the dimension of the unknown vector by the factor of the time-series length. The Akaike Information Criterion is a commonly adopted means of adjusting a model to the given data set within a succession of nested parametric model classes, but its crucial restriction is that the classes are rigidly defined by the growing integer-valued dimension of the unknown vector. To make the Kullback information maximization principle underlying the classical AIC applicable to the problem of time-varying regression estimation, we extend it onto a wider class of data models in which the dimension of the parameter is fixed, but the freedom of its values is softly constrained by a family of continuously nested a priori probability distributions.
    Research on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints and Their Boolean Combination to Support Adaptive QoS
    Advances in computing applications in recent years have prompted the demand for more flexible scheduling models for QoS demand. Moreover, in practical applications, partly violated temporal constraints can be tolerated if the violation meets certain distribution. So we need extend the traditional Liu and Lanland model to adapt to these circumstances. There are two extensions, which are the (m, k)-firm model and Window-Constrained model. This paper researches on weakly hard real-time constraints and their combination to support QoS. The fact that a practical application can tolerate some violations of temporal constraint under certain distribution is employed to support adaptive QoS on the open real-time system. The experiment results show these approaches are effective compared to traditional scheduling algorithms.
    Numerical Analysis of Plate Heat Exchanger Performance in Co-Current Fluid Flow Configuration
    For many industrial applications plate heat exchangers are demonstrating a large superiority over the other types of heat exchangers. The efficiency of such a device depends on numerous factors the effect of which needs to be analysed and accurately evaluated. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of a cocurrent plate heat exchanger and the results of its numerical simulation. Knowing the hot and the cold fluid streams inlet temperatures, the respective heat capacities mCp and the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient, a 1-D mathematical model based on the steady flow energy balance for a differential length of the device is developed resulting in a set of N first order differential equations with boundary conditions where N is the number of channels.For specific heat exchanger geometry and operational parameters, the problem is numerically solved using the shooting method. The simulation allows the prediction of the temperature map in the heat exchanger and hence, the evaluation of its performances. A parametric analysis is performed to evaluate the influence of the R-parameter on the e-NTU values. For practical purposes effectiveness-NTU graphs are elaborated for specific heat exchanger geometry and different operating conditions.
    Statistical Process Optimization Through Multi-Response Surface Methodology
    In recent years, response surface methodology (RSM) has brought many attentions of many quality engineers in different industries. Most of the published literature on robust design methodology is basically concerned with optimization of a single response or quality characteristic which is often most critical to consumers. For most products, however, quality is multidimensional, so it is common to observe multiple responses in an experimental situation. Through this paper interested person will be familiarize with this methodology via surveying of the most cited technical papers. It is believed that the proposed procedure in this study can resolve a complex parameter design problem with more than two responses. It can be applied to those areas where there are large data sets and a number of responses are to be optimized simultaneously. In addition, the proposed procedure is relatively simple and can be implemented easily by using ready-made standard statistical packages.
    An Improved Phenomenological Model for Polymer Desorption
    We propose a phenomenological model for the process of polymer desorption. In so doing, we omit the usual theoretical approach of incorporating a fictitious viscoelastic stress term into the flux equation. As a result, we obtain a model that captures the essence of the phenomenon of trapping skinning, while preserving the integrity of the experimentally verified Fickian law for diffusion. An appropriate asymptotic analysis is carried out, and a parameter is introduced to represent the speed of the desorption front. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the desorption dynamics of the model. Recommendations are made for future modifications of the model, and provisions are made for the inclusion of experimentally determined frontal speeds.
    Mathematical Modelling for Separation of Binary Aqueous Solution using Hollow Fiber Reverse Osmosis Module
    The mathematical equation for Separation of the binary aqueous solution is developed by using the Spiegler- Kedem theory. The characteristics of a B-9 hollow fibre module of Du Pont are determined by using these equations and their results are compared with the experimental results of Ohya et al. The agreement between these results is found to be excellent.