Detailed Phenomenological Study of 14N Elastically Scattered on 12C in a wide Energy Range
An experiment was performed with a 24.5 MeV 14N
beam on a 12C target in the cyclotron DC-60 located in Astana,
Kazakhstan, to study the elastic scattering of 14N on 12C; the
scattering was also analyzed at different energies for tracking the
phenomenon of remarkable structure at large angles. Its aims were to
extend the measurements to very large angles, and attempt to
uniquely identify the elastic scattering potential. Good agreement
between the theoretical and experimental data has been obtained with
suitable optical potential parameters. Optical model calculations with
l -dependent imaginary potentials were also applied to the data and
relatively good agreement was found.
Oscillation Theorems for Second-order Nonlinear Neutral Dynamic Equations with Variable Delays and Damping
In this paper, we study the oscillation of a class of second-order nonlinear neutral damped variable delay dynamic equations on time scales. By using a generalized Riccati transformation technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of the equations. The results of this paper improve and extend some known results. We also illustrate our main results with some examples.
Preliminary Results of In-Vitro Skin Tissue Soldering using Gold Nanoshells and ICG Combination
Laser soldering is based on applying some soldering material (albumin) onto the approximated edges of the cut and heating the solder (and the underlying tissues) by a laser beam. Endogenous and exogenous materials such as indocyanine green (ICG) are often added to solders to enhance light absorption. Gold nanoshells are new materials which have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was use combination of ICG and different concentration of gold nanoshells for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different combinations of ICG and gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells in solder, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the tradeoff between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1800 gr/cm2 at I~ 47 Wcm-2, T ~ 85ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.3mms-1.
Existence of Solution for Singular Two-point Boundary Value Problem of Second-order Differential Equation
In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point theory in coin, we study the existence of solution of singular two point’s boundary value problem for second-order differential equation, which improved and generalize the result of related paper.
Time and Distance Dependence of Protons Energy Loss for Laser (pw-ps) Fusion Driven Ion Acceleration
The anomalous generation of plasma blocks by
interaction of petawatt-picosecond laser pulses permits side-on
ignition of uncompressed solid fusion fuel following an improved
application of the hydrodynamic Chu-model for deuterium-tritium.
The new possibility of side-on laser ignition depends on accelerated
ions and produced ions beams of high energy particles by the
nonlinear ponderomotive force of the laser pulse in the plasma block,
a re-evaluation of the early hydrodynamic analysis for ignition of
inertial fusion by including inhibition factor, collective effect of
stopping power of alpha particles and the energy loss rate
reabsorption to plasma by the protons of plasma blocks being
reduced by about a factor 40.
Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)
Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.
Further Investigation of Elastic Scattering of 16O on 12C at Different Energies
The aim of this work is to study the elastic transfer
phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 16O on 12C
at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Where, the angular distribution
decrease steadily with increasing the scattering angle, then the cross
section will increase at backward angles due to the α-transfer process.
This reaction was also studied at different energies for tracking the
nuclear rainbow phenomenon. The experimental data of the angular
distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation
predictions. The optical potential codes such as SPIVAL and
Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5) were used in
The Effect of Increment in Simulation Samples on a Combined Selection Procedure
Statistical selection procedures are used to select the
best simulated system from a finite set of alternatives. In this paper,
we present a procedure that can be used to select the best system
when the number of alternatives is large. The proposed procedure
consists a combination between Ranking and Selection, and Ordinal
Optimization procedures. In order to improve the performance of Ordinal
Optimization, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation technique
is used to determine the best simulation lengths for all simulation
systems and to reduce the total computation time. We also argue
the effect of increment in simulation samples for the combined
procedure. The results of numerical illustration show clearly the effect
of increment in simulation samples on the proposed combination of
Study of the Elastic Scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on the Nucleus of 27Al at Different Energies near the Coulomb Barrier
the measurement of the angular distribution for the
elastic scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on 27Al has been done at energy
1.75 MeV/nucleon. The optical potential code SPIVAL used in this
work to analyze the experimental results. A good agreement between
the experimental and theoretical results was obtained.
Banach Lattices with Weak Dunford-Pettis Property
We introduce and study the class of weak almost Dunford-Pettis operators. As an application, we characterize Banach lattices with the weak Dunford-Pettis property. Also, we establish some sufficient conditions for which each weak almost Dunford-Pettis operator is weak Dunford-Pettis. Finally, we derive some interesting results.
Surface Plasmon Polariton Excitation by a Phase Shift Grating
We focus on the excitation and propagation properties
of surface plasmon polariton (SPP). We have developed a SPP
excitation device in combination with a grating structures fabricated
by using the scanning probe lithography. Perturbation approach was
used to investigate the coupling properties of SPP with a spatial
harmonic wave supported by a metallic grating. A phase shift grating
SPP coupler has been fabricated and the optical property was
evaluated by the Fraunhofer diffraction formula. We have been
experimentally confirmed the induced stop band by diffraction
measurement. We have also observed the wavenumber shift of the
resonance condition of SPP owing to effect of a phase shift.
Application of He’s Parameter-Expansion Method to a Coupled Van Der Pol oscillators with Two Kinds of Time-delay Coupling
In this paper, the dynamics of a system of two van der Pol oscillators with delayed position and velocity is studied. We provide an approximate solution for this system using parameterexpansion method. Also, we obtain approximate values for frequencies of the system. The parameter-expansion method is more efficient than the perturbation method for this system because the method is independent of perturbation parameter assumption.
Nonstational Dual Wavelet Frames in Sobolev Spaces
In view of the good properties of nonstationary wavelet frames and the better flexibility of wavelets in Sobolev spaces, the nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces are studied in this paper. We mainly give the oblique extension principle and the mixed extension principle for nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces Hs(Rd) and H-s(Rd).
High Accuracy Eigensolutions in Elasticity for Boundary Integral Equations by Nyström Method
Elastic boundary eigensolution problems are converted
into boundary integral equations by potential theory. The kernels of
the boundary integral equations have both the logarithmic and Hilbert
singularity simultaneously. We present the mechanical quadrature
methods for solving eigensolutions of the boundary integral equations
by dealing with two kinds of singularities at the same time. The methods
possess high accuracy O(h3) and low computing complexity. The
convergence and stability are proved based on Anselone-s collective
compact theory. Bases on the asymptotic error expansion with odd
powers, we can greatly improve the accuracy of the approximation,
and also derive a posteriori error estimate which can be used for
constructing self-adaptive algorithms. The efficiency of the algorithms
are illustrated by numerical examples.
Li4SiO4 Prepared by Sol-gel Method as Potential Host for LISICON Structured Solid Electrolytes
In this study, Li4SiO4 powder was successfully
synthesized via sol gel method followed by drying at 150oC. Lithium
oxide, Li2O and silicon oxide, SiO2 were used as the starting
materials with citric acid as the chelating agent. The obtained powder
was then sintered at various temperatures. Crystallographic phase
analysis, morphology and ionic conductivity were investigated
systematically employing X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform
Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy and AC impedance
spectroscopy. XRD result showed the formation of pure monoclinic
Li4SiO4 crystal structure with lattice parameters a = 5.140 Å, b =
6.094 Å, c = 5.293 Å, β = 90o in the sample sintered at 750oC. This
observation was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The bulk conductivity
of this sample at room temperature was 3.35 × 10-6 S cm-1 and the
highest bulk conductivity of 1.16 × 10-4 S cm-1 was obtained at
100°C. The results indicated that, the Li4SiO4 compound has
potential to be used as host for LISICON structured solid electrolyte
for low temperature application.
Bifurcation Method for Solving Positive Solutions to a Class of Semilinear Elliptic Equations and Stability Analysis of Solutions
Semilinear elliptic equations are ubiquitous in natural sciences. They give rise to a variety of important phenomena in quantum mechanics, nonlinear optics, astrophysics, etc because they have rich multiple solutions. But the nontrivial solutions of semilinear equations are hard to be solved for the lack of stabilities, such as Lane-Emden equation, Henon equation and Chandrasekhar equation. In this paper, bifurcation method is applied to solving semilinear elliptic equations which are with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions in 2D. Using this method, nontrivial numerical solutions will be computed and visualized in many different domains (such as square, disk, annulus, dumbbell, etc).
Approximately Jordan Maps and Their Stability
In this paper we consider the approximate Jordan maps and boundedness of these maps. Also we investigate the stability of approximate Jordan maps and prove some stability properties for approximate Jordan maps.
Systematic Study of the p, d and 3He Elastic Scattering on 6Li
the elastic scattering of protons, deuterons and 3He on 6Li at different incident energies have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model using ECIS88 as well as SPI GENOA codes. The potential parameters were extracted in the phenomenological treatment of measured by us angular distributions and literature data. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental differential cross sections was obtained in whole angular range. Parameters for real part of potential have been also calculated microscopically with singleand double-folding model for the p and d, 3He scattering, respectively, using DFPOT code. For best agreement with experiment the normalization factor N for the potential depth is obtained in the range of 0.7-0.9.
Extending Global Full Orthogonalization method for Solving the Matrix Equation AXB=F
In the present work, we propose a new method for
solving the matrix equation AXB=F . The new method can
be considered as a generalized form of the well-known global full
orthogonalization method (Gl-FOM) for solving multiple linear
systems. Hence, the method will be called extended Gl-FOM (EGl-
FOM). For implementing EGl-FOM, generalized forms of block
Krylov subspace and global Arnoldi process are presented. Finally,
some numerical experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency of
our new method.
Heat and Mass Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Surface Embedded in a Porous Medium in the Presence of Variable Chemical Reaction
The effect of variable chemical reaction on heat and mass transfer characteristics over unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porus medium is studied. The governing time dependent boundary layer equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations containing chemical reaction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. These equations have been transformed into a system of first order differential equations. MATHEMATICA has been used to solve this system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. The velocity gradient, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed and discussed in details for various values of the different parameters.
The Partial Non-combinatorially Symmetric N10 -Matrix Completion Problem
An n×n matrix is called an N1 0 -matrix if all principal minors are non-positive and each entry is non-positive. In this paper, we study the partial non-combinatorially symmetric N1 0 -matrix completion problems if the graph of its specified entries is a transitive tournament or a double cycle. In general, these digraphs do not have N1 0 -completion. Therefore, we have given sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence of the N1 0 -completion for these digraphs.
Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices
In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type
splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b,
where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems
to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type
splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting
iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate
Bridged Quantum Cellular Automata based on Si/SiO2 Superlattices
The new architecture for quantum cellular
automata is offered. A QCA cell includes two layers nc-Si,
divided by a dielectric. Among themselves cells are connected
by the bridge from a conductive material. The comparison is
made between this and QCA, offered earlier by C. Lent's
Design and Simulation of Electromagnetic Flow Meter for Circular Pipe Type
Electromagnetic flow meter by measuring the varying of magnetic flux, which is related to the velocity of conductive flow, can measure the rate of fluids very carefully and precisely. Electromagnetic flow meter operation is based on famous Faraday's second Law. In these equipments, the constant magnetostatic field is produced by electromagnet (winding around the tube) outside of pipe and inducting voltage that is due to conductive liquid flow is measured by electrodes located on two end side of the pipe wall. In this research, we consider to 2-dimensional mathematical model that can be solved by numerical finite difference (FD) solution approach to calculate induction potential between electrodes. The fundamental concept to design the electromagnetic flow meter, exciting winding and simulations are come out by using MATLAB and PDE-Tool software. In the last stage, simulations results will be shown for improvement and accuracy of technical provision.
High Optical Properties and Rectifying Behavior of ZnO (Nano and Microstructures)/Si Heterostructures
We investigated a modified thermal evaporation
method in the growth process of ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires
were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates without using a metal
catalyst. A simple horizontal double-tube system along with
chemical vapor diffusion of the precursor was used to grow the ZnO
nanowires. The substrates were placed in different temperature
zones, and ZnO nanowires with different diameters were obtained for
the different substrate temperatures. In addition to the nanowires,
ZnO microdiscs with different diameters were obtained on another
substrate, which was placed at a lower temperature than the other
substrates. The optical properties and crystalline quality of the ZnO
nanowires and microdiscs were characterized by room temperature
photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrometers. The PL and
Raman studies demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs
grown using such set-up had good crystallinity with excellent optical
properties. Rectifying behavior of ZnO/Si heterostructures was
characterized by a simple DC circuit.
The Buffer Gas Influence Rate on Absolute Cu Atoms Density with regard to Deposition
The absolute Cu atoms density in Cu(2S1/2ÔåÉ2P1/2)
ground state has been measured by Resonance Optical Absorption
(ROA) technique in a DC magnetron sputtering deposition with
argon. We measured these densities under variety of operation
conditions: pressure from 0.6 μbar to 14 μbar, input power from
10W to 200W and N2 mixture from 0% to 100%. For measuring the
gas temperature, we used the simulation of N2 rotational spectra
with a special computer code. The absolute number density of Cu
atoms decreases with increasing the N2 percentage of buffer gas at
any conditions of this work. But the deposition rate, is not decreased
with the same manner. The deposition rate variation is very small
and in the limit of quartz balance measuring equipment accuracy. So
we conclude that decrease in the absolute number density of Cu
atoms in magnetron plasma has not a big effect on deposition rate,
because the diffusion of Cu atoms to the chamber volume and
deviation of Cu atoms from direct path (towards the substrate)
decreases with increasing of N2 percentage of buffer gas. This is
because of the lower mass of N2 atoms compared to the argon ones.
Periodic Solutions in a Delayed Competitive System with the Effect of Toxic Substances on Time Scales
In this paper, the existence of periodic solutions of a delayed competitive system with the effect of toxic substances is investigated by using the Gaines and Mawhin,s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory on time scales. New sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of periodic solutions. The approach is unified to provide the existence of the desired solutions for the continuous differential equations and discrete difference equations. Moreover, The approach has been widely applied to study existence of periodic solutions in differential equations and difference equations.
An eighth order Backward Differentiation Formula with Continuous Coefficients for Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations
A block backward differentiation formula of uniform
order eight is proposed for solving first order stiff initial value
problems (IVPs). The conventional 8-step Backward Differentiation
Formula (BDF) and additional methods are obtained from the same
continuous scheme and assembled into a block matrix equation which
is applied to provide the solutions of IVPs on non-overlapping
intervals. The stability analysis of the method indicates that the
method is L0-stable. Numerical results obtained using the proposed
new block form show that it is attractive for solutions of stiff problems
and compares favourably with existing ones.
Numerical Calculation of the Ionization Energy of Donors in a Cubic Quantum well and Wire
The ionization energy in semiconductor
systems in nano scale was investigated by using effective mass
approximation. By introducing the Hamiltonian of the system, the
variational technique was employed to calculate the ground state and
the ionization energy of a donor at the center and in the case that the
impurities are randomly distributed inside a cubic quantum well. The
numerical results for GaAs/GaAlAs show that the ionization energy
strongly depends on the well width for both cases and it decreases as
the well width increases. The ionization energy of a quantum wire
was also calculated and compared with the results for the well.