Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 36

Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • 36
    Source Optimisation of Laser-Plasma Bremmstrahlung for Applications in Engineering Imaging
    High Power Lasers produce an intense burst of Bremmstrahlung radiation which has potential applications in broadband x-ray radiography. Since the radiation produced is through the interaction of accelerated electrons with the remaining laser target, these bursts are extremely short – in the region of a few ps. As a result, the laser-produced x-rays are capable of imaging complex dynamic objects with zero motion blur.
    Exploiting Silicon-on-Insulator Microring Resonator Bistability Behavior for All Optical Set-Reset Flip-Flop

    We propose an all optical flip-flop circuit composedof two Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators coupled to straightwaveguides by exploiting the optical bistability behavior due to thenonlinear Kerr effect. We used the transfer matrix analysis toinvestigate continuous wave propagation through microrings, as wellwe considered the nonlinear switching characteristics of an opticaldevice using a double-coupler silicon ring resonator in presence ofthe Kerr nonlinearity, thus obtaining the bistability behavior of theoutput port, the drop port and also inside the silicon microringresonator. It is shown that the bistability behavior depends on thecontrol of the input wavelength.KeywordsAll optical flip-flops, Kerr effect, microringresonator, optical bistability.

    Connectivity Estimation from the Inverse Coherence Matrix in a Complex Chaotic Oscillator Network

    We present on the method of inverse coherence matrix for the estimation of network connectivity from multivariate time series of a complex system. In a model system of coupled chaotic oscillators, it is shown that the inverse coherence matrix defined as the inverse of cross coherence matrix is proportional to the network connectivity. Therefore the inverse coherence matrix could be used for the distinction between the directly connected links from indirectly connected links in a complex network. We compare the result of network estimation using the method of the inverse coherence matrix with the results obtained from the coherence matrix and the partial coherence matrix.

    About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath

    The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.

    Using Fractional Factorial Designs for Variable Importance in Random Forest Models

    Random Forests are a powerful classification technique, consisting of a collection of decision trees. One useful feature of Random Forests is the ability to determine the importance of each variable in predicting the outcome. This is done by permuting each variable and computing the change in prediction accuracy before and after the permutation. This variable importance calculation is similar to a one-factor-at a time experiment and therefore is inefficient. In this paper, we use a regular fractional factorial design to determine which variables to permute. Based on the results of the trials in the experiment, we calculate the individual importance of the variables, with improved precision over the standard method. The method is illustrated with a study of student attrition at Monash University.

    Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

    In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

    Energy Density Increasing in the Channel of Super-High Pressure Megaampere Discharge due to Resonance of Different Type Oscillations of the Channel

    Discharges in hydrogen, ignited by wire explosion, with current amplitude up to 1.5 MA were investigated. Channel diameter oscillations were observed on the photostreaks. Voltage and current curves correlated with the photostreaks. At initial gas pressure of 5-35 MPa the oscillation period was proportional to square root of atomic number of the initiating wire material. These oscillations were associated with aligned magnetic and gas-kinetic pressures. At initial pressure of 80-160 MPa acoustic pressure fluctuations on the discharge chamber wall were increased up to 150 MPa and there were the growth of voltage fluctuations on the discharge gap up to 3 kV simultaneously with it. In some experiments it was observed abrupt increase in the oscillation amplitude, which can be caused by the resonance of the acoustic oscillations in discharge chamber volume and the oscillations connected with alignment of the gaskinetic pressure and the magnetic pressure, as far as frequencies of these oscillations are close to each other in accordance with the estimates and the experimental data. Resonance of different type oscillations can produce energy density increasing in the discharge channel. Thus, the appropriate initial conditions in the experiment allow to increase the energy density in the discharge channel

    The Emission Spectra Due to Exciton-Exciton Collisions in GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well System

    Optical emission based on excitonic scattering processes becomes important in dense exciton systems in which the average distance between excitons is of the order of a few Bohr radii but still below the exciton screening threshold. The phenomena due to interactions among excited states play significant role in the emission near band edge of the material. The theory of two-exciton collisions for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well systems is a mild attempt to understand the physics associated with the optical spectra due to excitonic scattering processes in these novel systems. The four typical processes considered give different spectral shape, peak position and temperature dependence of the emission spectra. We have used the theory of scattering together with the second order perturbation theory to derive the radiative power spontaneously emitted at an energy ħω by these processes. The results arrived at are purely qualitative in nature. The intensity of emitted light in quantum well systems varies inversely to the square of temperature, whereas in case of bulk materials it simply decreases with the  temperature.

    Economic Load Dispatch with Daily Load Patterns and Generator Constraints by Particle Swarm Optimization

    This paper presents an optimization technique to economic load dispatch (ELD) problems with considering the daily load patterns and generator constraints using a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective is to minimize the fuel cost. The optimization problem is subject to system constraints consisting of power balance and generation output of each units. The application of a constriction factor into PSO is a useful strategy to ensure convergence of the particle swarm algorithm. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total constraint cost function is minimized. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated by case studies in test system of fifteen-generation units. The results show that the proposed algorithm scan give the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction

    Water Vapor Plasma Torch: Design, Characteristics and Applications
    The atmospheric pressure plasma torch with a direct current arc discharge stabilized by water vapor vortex was experimentally investigated. Overheated up to 450K water vapor was used as plasma forming gas. Plasma torch design is one of the most important factors leading to a stable operation of the device. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the plasma torch were determined during the experimental investigations. The design and the basic characteristics of the water vapor plasma torch are presented in the paper. Plasma torches with the electric arc stabilized by water vapor vortex provide special performance characteristics in some plasma processing applications such as thermal plasma neutralization and destruction of organic wastes enabling to extract high caloric value synthesis gas as by-product of the process. Syngas could be used as a surrogate fuel partly replacing the dependence on the fossil fuels or used as a feedstock for hydrogen, methanol production.
    On Use of Semiconductor Detector Arrays on COMPASS Tokamak
    Semiconductor detector arrays are widely used in high-temperature plasma diagnostics. They have a fast response, which allows observation of many processes and instabilities in tokamaks. In this paper, there are reviewed several diagnostics based on semiconductor arrays as cameras, AXUV photodiodes (referred often as fast “bolometers") and detectors of both soft X-rays and visible light installed on the COMPASS tokamak recently. Fresh results from both spring and summer campaigns in 2012 are introduced. Examples of the utilization of the detectors are shown on the plasma shape determination, fast calculation of the radiation center, two-dimensional plasma radiation tomography in different spectral ranges, observation of impurity inflow, and also on investigation of MHD activity in the COMPASS tokamak discharges.
    Direct Measurement of Electromagnetic Thrust of Electrodeless Helicon Plasma Thruster Using Magnetic Nozzle
    In order to realize long-lived electric propulsion systems, we have been investigating an electrodeless plasma thruster. In our concept, a helicon plasma is accelerated by the magnetic nozzle for the thrusts production. In addition, the electromagnetic thrust can be enhanced by the additional radio-frequency rotating electric field (REF) power in the magnetic nozzle. In this study, a direct measurement of the electromagnetic thrust and a probe measurement have been conducted using a laboratory model of the thruster under the condition without the REF power input. Fromthrust measurement, it is shown that the thruster produces a sub-milli-newton order electromagnetic thrust force without the additional REF power. The thrust force and the density jump are observed due to the discharge mode transition from the inductive coupled plasma to the helicon wave excited plasma. The thermal thrust is theoretically estimated, and the total thrust force, which is a sum of the electromagnetic and the thermal thrust force and specific impulse are calculated to be up to 650 μN (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 1.0 mg/s) and 210 s (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 0.2 mg/s), respectively.
    A New Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Discrete-Time Switched Linear Systems Using Vector Norms Approach

    In this paper, we aim to investigate a new stability analysis for discrete-time switched linear systems based on the comparison, the overvaluing principle, the application of Borne-Gentina criterion and the Kotelyanski conditions. This stability conditions issued from vector norms correspond to a vector Lyapunov function. In fact, the switched system to be controlled will be represented in the Companion form. A comparison system relative to a regular vector norm is used in order to get the simple arrow form of the state matrix that yields to a suitable use of Borne-Gentina criterion for the establishment of sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability. This proposed approach could be a constructive solution to the state and static output feedback stabilization problems.

    Prediction of the Total Decay Heat from Fast Neutron Fission of 235U and 239Pu
    The analytical prediction of the decay heat results from the fast neutron fission of actinides was initiated under a project, 10-MAT1134-3, funded by king Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KASCT), Long-Term Comprehensive National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovations, managed by a team from King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia, and supervised by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has collaborated with KAU's team to assist in the computational analysis. In this paper, the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe the decays and buildups of minor fission product MFA, has been used to predict the total decay heat and its components from the fast neutron fission of 235U and 239Pu. The reliability of the present approach is illustrated via systematic comparisons with the measurements reported by the University of Tokyo, in YAYOI reactor.
    Plasma Density Distribution in Asymmetric Geometry Capacitive Coupled Plasma Discharge System
    In this work, we used the single Langmuir probe to measure the plasma density distribution in an geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma discharge system. Because of the frame structure of powered electrode, the plasma density was not homogeneous in the discharge volume. It was higher under the frame, but lower in the centre. Finite element simulation results showed a good agreement with the experiment results. To increase the electron density in the central volume and improve the homogeneity of the plasma, we added an auxiliary electrode, powered by DC voltage, in the simulation geometry. The simulation results showed that the auxiliary electrode could alter the potential distribution and improve the density homogeneity effectively.
    Identification of MIMO Systems Using Neuro-Fuzzy Models with a Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm
    In this paper, a TSK-type Neuro-fuzzy Inference System that combines the features of fuzzy sets and neural networks has been applied for the identification of MIMO systems. The procedure of adapting parameters in TSK model employs a Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) which is inspired from the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking for food. To demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed controller, two nonlinear systems have been considered as the MIMO plant, and results have been compared with other learning methods based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA).
    Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Heat and Moisture Transfer in Frozen Soil

    Although water only takes a little percentage in the total mass of soil, it indeed plays an important role to the strength of structure. Moisture transfer can be carried out by many different mechanisms which may involve heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic phase change, and the interplay of various forces such as viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces. The continuum models are not well suited for describing those phenomena in which the connectivity of the pore space or the fracture network, or that of a fluid phase, plays a major role. However, Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) are especially well suited to simulate flows around complex geometries. Lattice Boltzmann methods were initially invented for solving fluid flows. Recently, fluid with multicomponent and phase change is also included in the equations. By comparing the numerical result with experimental result, the Lattice Boltzmann methods with phase change will be optimized.

    Experiment Study on the Plasma Parameters Measurement in Backflow Region of Ion Thruster

    The charge-exchange xenon (CEX) ion generated by ion thruster can backflow to the surface of spacecraft and threaten to the safety of spacecraft operation. In order to evaluate the effects of the induced plasma environment in backflow regions on the spacecraft, we designed a spherical single Langmuir probe of 5.8cm in diameter for measuring low-density plasma parameters in backflow region of ion thruster. In practice, the tests are performed in a two-dimensional array (40cm×60cm) composed of 20 sites. The experiment results illustrate that the electron temperature ranges from 3.71eV to 3.96eV, with the mean value of 3.82eV and the standard deviation of 0.064eV. The electron density ranges from 8.30×1012/m3 to 1.66×1013/m3, with the mean value of 1.30×1013/m3 and the standard deviation of 2.15×1012/m3. All data is analyzed according to the “ideal" plasma conditions of Maxwellian distributions.

    A Note on Negative Hypergeometric Distribution and Its Approximation
    In this paper, at first we explain about negative hypergeometric distribution and its properties. Then we use the w-function and the Stein identity to give a result on the poisson approximation to the negative hypergeometric distribution in terms of the total variation distance between the negative hypergeometric and poisson distributions and its upper bound.
    Study of Some Innovant Reactors without on- Site Refueling with Triso and Cermet Fuel
    The evaluation of unit cell neutronic parameters and lifetime for some innovant reactors without on sit-refuling will be held in this work. the behavior of some small and medium reactors without on site refueling with triso and cermet fuel. For the FBNR long life except we propose to change the enrichment of the Cermet MFE to 9%. For the AFPR reactor we can see that the use of the Cermet MFE can extend the life of this reactor but to maintain the same life period for AFPR-SC we most use burnup poison to have the same slope for Kinf (Burnup). PFPWR50 cell behaves almost in same way using both fuels Cermet and TRISO. So we can conclude that PFPWR50 reactor, with CERMET Fuel, is kept among the long cycle reactors and with the new configuration we avoid subcriticality at the beginning of cycle. The evaluation of unit cell neutronic parameters reveals a good agreement with the goal of BWR-PB concept. It is found out that the Triso fuel assembly lifetime can be extended for a reasonably long period without being refueled, approximately up to 48GWd/t burnup. Using coated particles fuels with the Cermet composition can be more extended the fuel assembly life time, approximately 52 GWd/t.
    Systematic Unit-Memory Binary Convolutional Codes from Linear Block Codes over F2r + vF2r
    Two constructions of unit-memory binary convolutional codes from linear block codes over the finite semi-local ring F2r +vF2r , where v2 = v, are presented. In both cases, if the linear block code is systematic, then the resulting convolutional encoder is systematic, minimal, basic and non-catastrophic. The Hamming free distance of the convolutional code is bounded below by the minimum Hamming distance of the block code. New examples of binary convolutional codes that meet the Heller upper bound for systematic codes are given.
    Synchronization of Non-Identical Chaotic Systems with Different Orders Based On Vector Norms Approach

    A new strategy of control is formulated for chaos synchronization of non-identical chaotic systems with different orders using the Borne and Gentina practical criterion associated with the Benrejeb canonical arrow form matrix, to drift the stability property of dynamic complex systems. The designed controller ensures that the state variables of controlled chaotic slave systems globally synchronize with the state variables of the master systems, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

    Expansion of A Finit Size Partially Ionized Laser-Plasma

    The expansion mechanism of a partially ionized plasma produced by laser interaction with solid target (copper) is studied. For this purpose we use a hydrodynamical model which includes a source term combined with Saha's equation. The obtained self-similar solution in the limit of quasi-neutrality shows that the expansion, at the earlier stage, is driven by the combination of thermal pressure and electrostatic potential. They are of the same magnitude. The initial ionized fraction and the temperature are the leading parameters of the expanding profiles,

    Shell Closures in Exotic Nuclei
    Inspired by the recent experiments [1]-[3] indicating unusual doubly magic nucleus 24O which lies just at the neutron drip-line and encouraged by the success of our relativistic mean-field (RMF) plus state dependent BCS approach for the description of the ground state properties of the drip-line nuclei [23]-[27], we have further employed this approach, across the entire periodic table, to explore the unusual shell closures in exotic nuclei. In our RMF+BCS approach the single particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive energy states for the calculations of pairing energy. Detailed analysis of the single particle spectrum, pairing energies and densities of the nuclei predict the unusual proton shell closures at Z = 6, 14, 16, 34, and unusual neutron shell closures at N = 6, 14, 16, 34, 40, 70, 112.
    Ultra-Precise Hybrid Lens Distortion Correction
    A new hybrid method to realise high-precision distortion determination for optical ultra-precision 3D measurement systems based on stereo cameras using active light projection is introduced. It consists of two phases: the basic distortion determination and the refinement. The refinement phase of the procedure uses a plane surface and projected fringe patterns as calibration tools to determine simultaneously the distortion of both cameras within an iterative procedure. The new technique may be performed in the state of the device “ready for measurement" which avoids errors by a later adjustment. A considerable reduction of distortion errors is achieved and leads to considerable improvements of the accuracy of 3D measurements, especially in the precise measurement of smooth surfaces.
    Heating of High-Density Hydrogen by High- Current Arc Radiation
    The investigation results of high-density hydrogen heating by high-current electric arc are presented at initial pressure from 5 MPa to 160 MPa with current amplitude up to 1.6 MA and current rate of rise 109-1011 A/s. When changing the initial pressure and current rate of rise, channel temperature varies from several electronvolts to hundreds electronvolts. Arc channel radius is several millimeters. But the radius of the discharge chamber greater than the radius of the arc channel on approximately order of magnitude. High efficiency of gas heating is caused by radiation absorption of hydrogen surrounding the arc. Current channel consist from vapor of the initiating wire. At current rate of rise of 109 A/s and relatively small current amplitude gas heating occurs due to radiation absorption in the band transparency of hydrogen by the wire vapours with photon energies less than 13.6 eV. At current rate of rise of 1011 A/s gas heating is due to hydrogen absorption of soft X-rays from discharge channel.
    Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

    Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

    Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements and for all motions. This approach can help describe, quantify, measure, manage, design and predict future behavior of complex systems to achieve the highest rates of self organization to improve their quality. It can be applied to other complex systems from Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Economics, Cities, network theory and others where complex systems are present.

    Theory of Nanowire Radial p-n-Junction
    We have developed an analytic model for the radial pn-junction in a nanowire (NW) core-shell structure utilizing as a new building block in different semiconductor devices. The potential distribution through the p-n-junction is calculated and the analytical expressions are derived to compute the depletion region widths. We show that the widths of space charge layers, surrounding the core, are the functions of core radius, which is the manifestation of so called classical size effect. The relationship between the depletion layer width and the built-in potential in the asymptotes of infinitely large core radius transforms to square-root dependence specific for conventional planar p-n-junctions. The explicit equation is derived to compute the capacitance of radial p-n-junction. The current-voltage behavior is also carefully determined taking into account the “short base" effects.
    Preparation of Vanadium Powder by Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation
    Low oxygen content vanadium powder was prepared by hydrogenation dehydrogenization (HDH). The effect of purification treatment on hydrogen absorption kinetics of dendritic vanadium was tested, and the effects of milling technique on powder yield and grain size were studied. The crystal phase, oxygen and nitrgen content, and grain size of prepared powder were characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen and nitrogen analyzer and grain size analyzer. The results show that the alkaline cleaning can improve the hydrogen absorption of vanadium. The yield of vanadium hydride powder can reach as high as 90% by 4h ball-milling, The resultant product also have an oxygen content less than 600μg/g, and the grain size is smaller than 37μm. Meanwhile, the XRD results show that the phase of hydride vanadium powder is mainly VH0.81. After a hydrogen desorption treatment in vacuum at 700Ôäâ, the phase of the powder converts into V and a little of V2H.
    Fluorescent-Core Microcavities Based On Silicon Quantum Dots for Oil Sensing Applications

    The compatibility of optical resonators with microfluidic systems may be relevant for chemical and biological applications. Here, a fluorescent-core microcavity (FCM) is investigated as a refractometric sensor for heavy oils. A high-index film of silicon quantum dots (QDs) was formed inside the capillary, supporting cylindrical fluorescence whispering gallery modes (WGMs). A set of standard refractive index oils was injected into a capillary, causing a shift of the WGM resonances toward longer wavelengths. A maximum sensitivity of 240 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) was found for a nominal oil index of 1.74. As well, a sensitivity of 22 nm/RIU was obtained for a lower index of 1.48, more typical of fuel hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the observed spectra and sensitivities were compared to theoretical predictions and reproduced via FDTD simulations, showing in general an excellent agreement. This work demonstrates the potential use of FCMs for oil sensing applications and the more generally for detecting liquid solutions with a high refractive index or high viscosity.

    The Localised Wrinkling of a Stretched Bi-Annular Thin Plate

    The wrinkling of a thin elastic bi-annular plate with piecewise-constant mechanical properties, subjected to radial stretching, is considered. The critical wrinkling stretching loading and the corresponding wrinkling patterns are extensively investigated, together with the roles played by both the geometrical and mechanical parameters.

    On Adaptive Optimization of Filter Performance Based on Markov Representation for Output Prediction Error
    This paper addresses the problem of how one can improve the performance of a non-optimal filter. First the theoretical question on dynamical representation for a given time correlated random process is studied. It will be demonstrated that for a wide class of random processes, having a canonical form, there exists a dynamical system equivalent in the sense that its output has the same covariance function. It is shown that the dynamical approach is more effective for simulating and estimating a Markov and non- Markovian random processes, computationally is less demanding, especially with increasing of the dimension of simulated processes. Numerical examples and estimation problems in low dimensional systems are given to illustrate the advantages of the approach. A very useful application of the proposed approach is shown for the problem of state estimation in very high dimensional systems. Here a modified filter for data assimilation in an oceanic numerical model is presented which is proved to be very efficient due to introducing a simple Markovian structure for the output prediction error process and adaptive tuning some parameters of the Markov equation.
    Investigation of Monochromatization Light Effect at Molecular/Atomic Level in Electronegative-Electropositive Gas Mixtures Plasma

    In electronegative-electropositive gas mixtures plasma, at a total pressure varying in the range of ten to hundred Torr, the appearance of a quasi-mochromatization effect of the emitted radiation was reported. This radiation could be the result of the generating mechanisms at molecular level, which is the case of the excimer radiation but also at atomic level. Thus, in the last case, in (Ne+1%Ar/Xe+H2) gas mixtures plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge, this effect, called M-effect, consists in the reduction of the discharge emission spectrum practice at one single, strong spectral line with λ = 585.3 nm. The present paper is concerned with the characteristics comparative investigation of the principal reaction mechanisms involved in the quasi-monochromatization effect existence in the case of the excimer radiation, respectively of the Meffect. Also, the paper points out the role of the metastable electronegative atoms in the appearance of the monochromatization – effect at atomic level.

    Active Control for Reduction of Noise Passing through Enclosure and Optimization of Microphone Position
    In this study, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed in an effort to reduce noise passing through an opening of an enclosure surrounding the structure that generates noise. Enclosures are essential measure to protect noise propagation from operating machinery. Access openings of the enclosures are important path of noise leakage. First, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed and feed-forward noise control was performed using simulation in order to reduce noise passing through the opening of enclosure, which surrounds a structure generating noise. We then implemented a feed-forward controller to actively control the acoustic power through the opening. Finally, we conducted optimization of placement of the reference sensors for several cases of the number of sensors. Good control performances were achieved using the minimum number of microphones arranged an optimal placement.
    Rate of Convergence for Generalized Baskakov-Durrmeyer Operators

    In the present paper, we consider the generalized form of Baskakov Durrmeyer operators to study the rate of convergence, in simultaneous approximation for functions having derivatives of bounded variation.