Quantum Computation using Two Component Bose-Einstein Condensates
Quantum computation using qubits made of two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is analyzed. We construct a general framework for quantum algorithms to be executed using the collective states of the BECs. The use of BECs allows for an increase of energy scales via bosonic enhancement, resulting in two qubit gate operations that can be performed at a time reduced by a factor of N, where N is the number of bosons per qubit. We illustrate the scheme by an application to Deutsch-s and Grover-s algorithms, and discuss possible experimental implementations. Decoherence effects are analyzed under both general conditions and for the experimental implementation proposed.
Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics
A mathematical model for the Dynamics of Economic
Profit is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential oneform
for this dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian
dynamics). After processing this form with exterior calculus, a pair of
characteristic differential equations is generated and solved for the
rate of change of profit P as a function of revenue R (t) and cost C (t).
By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with a vortex
vector, the Lagrangian is obtained for the Dynamics of Economic
A New Sufficient Conditions of Stability for Discrete Time Non-autonomous Delayed Hopfield Neural Networks
In this paper, we consider the uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete Hopfield neural networks with delays. Some new stability criteria for system are derived by using the Lyapunov functional method and the linear matrix inequality approach, for estimating the upper bound of Lyapunov functional derivative.
Solution of The KdV Equation with Asymptotic Degeneracy
Recently T. C. Au-Yeung, C.Au, and P. C. W. Fung  have given the solution of the KdV equation  to the boundary condition , where b is a constant. We have further extended the method of  to find the solution of the KdV equation with asymptotic degeneracy. Via simulations we find both bright and dark Solitons (i.e. Solitons with opposite phases).
The Data Processing Electronics of the METIS Coronagraph aboard the ESA Solar Orbiter Mission
METIS is the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging
and Spectroscopy, a Coronagraph aboard the European Space
Agency-s Solar Orbiter Mission aimed at the observation of the solar
corona via both VIS and UV/EUV narrow-band imaging and spectroscopy. METIS, with its multi-wavelength capabilities, will
study in detail the physical processes responsible for the corona heating and the origin and properties of the slow and fast solar wind.
METIS electronics will collect and process scientific data thanks to its detectors proximity electronics, the digital front-end subsystem
electronics and the MPPU, the Main Power and Processing Unit,
hosting a space-qualified processor, memories and some rad-hard
FPGAs acting as digital controllers.This paper reports on the overall
METIS electronics architecture and data processing capabilities
conceived to address all the scientific issues as a trade-off solution between requirements and allocated resources, just before the
Preliminary Design Review as an ESA milestone in April 2012.
Photon Localization inside a Waveguide Modeled by Uncertainty Principle
In the present work, an attempt is made to understand
electromagnetic field confinement in a subwavelength waveguide
structure using concepts of quantum mechanics. Evanescent field in
the waveguide is looked as inability of the photon to get confined in
the waveguide core and uncertainty of position is assigned to it. The
momentum uncertainty is calculated from position uncertainty.
Schrödinger wave equation for the photon is written by incorporating
position-momentum uncertainty. The equation is solved and field
distribution in the waveguide is obtained. The field distribution and
power confinement is compared with conventional waveguide theory.
They were found in good agreement with each other.
Numerical Study of a Class of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations
In this work, we derive two numerical schemes for
solving a class of nonlinear partial differential equations. The first
method is of second order accuracy in space and time directions, the
scheme is unconditionally stable using Von Neumann stability
analysis, the scheme produced a nonlinear block system where
Newton-s method is used to solve it. The second method is of fourth
order accuracy in space and second order in time. The method is
unconditionally stable and Newton's method is used to solve the
nonlinear block system obtained. The exact single soliton solution
and the conserved quantities are used to assess the accuracy and to
show the robustness of the schemes. The interaction of two solitary
waves for different parameters are also discussed.
Magnetic Properties of NiO and MnO by LSDA+U
The spin (ms) and orbital (mo) magnetic moment of
the antiferromagnetic NiO and MnO have been studied in the local
spin density approximation (LSDA+U) within full potential linear
muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO method with in the coulomb interaction
U varying from 0 to 10eV, exchange interaction J, from 0 to 1.0eV,
and volume compression VC in range of 0 to 80%. Our calculated
results shown that the spin magnetic moments and the orbital
magnetic moments increase linearly with increasing U and J. While
the interesting behaviour appears when volume compression is
greater than 70% for NiO and 50% for MnO at which ms collapses.
Further increase of volume compression to be at 80% leads to the
disappearance of both magnetic moments.
Numerical Analysis on Rapid Decompression in Conventional Dry Gases using One- Dimensional Mathematical Modeling
The paper presents a one-dimensional transient
mathematical model of compressible thermal multi-component gas
mixture flows in pipes. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy
conservation equations for gas phase is solved. Thermo-physical
properties of multi-component gas mixture are calculated by solving
the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong
(SRK-EOS) model is chosen. Gas mixture viscosity is calculated on
the basis of the Lee-Gonzales-Eakin (LGE) correlation. Numerical
analysis on rapid decompression in conventional dry gases is
performed by using the proposed mathematical model. The model is
validated on measured values of the decompression wave speed in
dry natural gas mixtures. All predictions show excellent agreement
with the experimental data at high and low pressure. The presented
model predicts the decompression in dry natural gas mixtures much
better than GASDECOM and OLGA codes, which are the most
frequently-used codes in oil and gas pipeline transport service.
Application of Genetic Algorithms for Evolution of Quantum Equivalents of Boolean Circuits
Due to the non- intuitive nature of Quantum
algorithms, it becomes difficult for a classically trained person to
efficiently construct new ones. So rather than designing new
algorithms manually, lately, Genetic algorithms (GA) are being
implemented for this purpose. GA is a technique to automatically
solve a problem using principles of Darwinian evolution. This has
been implemented to explore the possibility of evolving an n-qubit
circuit when the circuit matrix has been provided using a set of
single, two and three qubit gates. Using a variable length population
and universal stochastic selection procedure, a number of possible
solution circuits, with different number of gates can be obtained for
the same input matrix during different runs of GA. The given
algorithm has also been successfully implemented to obtain two and
three qubit Boolean circuits using Quantum gates. The results
demonstrate the effectiveness of the GA procedure even when the
search spaces are large.
Numerical Analysis of Oil-Water Transport in Horizontal Pipes Using 1D Transient Mathematical Model of Thermal Two-Phase Flows
The paper presents a one-dimensional transient
mathematical model of thermal oil-water two-phase emulsion flows
in pipes. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation
equations for the continuous fluid and droplet phases are solved. Two
friction correlations for the continuous fluid phase to wall friction are
accounted for in the model and tested. The aerodynamic drag force
between the continuous fluid phase and droplets is modeled, too. The
density and viscosity of both phases are assumed to be constant due
to adiabatic experimental conditions. The proposed mathematical
model is validated on the experimental measurements of oil-water
emulsion flows in horizontal pipe [1,2]. Numerical analysis on
single- and two-phase oil-water flows in a pipe is presented in the
paper. The continuous oil flow having water droplets is simulated.
Predictions, which are performed by using the presented model, show
excellent agreement with the experimental data if the water fraction is
equal or less than 10%. Disagreement between simulations and
measurements is increased if the water fraction is larger than 10%.
Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes
A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group
structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous
number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure,
the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating
quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability
of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of
quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword
operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie
algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some
of these quantum codes can be rendered.
Globally Exponential Stability for Hopfield Neural Networks with Delays and Impulsive Perturbations
In this paper, we consider the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Hopfield neural networks with delays and impulsive perturbation. Some new exponential stability criteria of the system are derived by using the Lyapunov functional method and the linear matrix inequality approach for estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. Finally, we illustrate two numerical examples showing the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup
For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having
scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a
preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from
photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification
the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel
analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical
signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons
in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of
each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel
analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The
exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in
biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid
holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)
Multi-Stakeholder Road Pricing Game: Solution Concepts
A road pricing game is a game where various stakeholders and/or regions with different (and usually conflicting) objectives compete for toll setting in a given transportation network to satisfy their individual objectives. We investigate some classical game theoretical solution concepts for the road pricing game. We establish results for the road pricing game so that stakeholders and/or regions playing such a game will beforehand know what is obtainable. This will save time and argument, and above all, get rid of the feelings of unfairness among the competing actors and road users. Among the classical solution concepts we investigate is Nash equilibrium. In particular, we show that no pure Nash equilibrium exists among the actors, and further illustrate that even “mixed Nash equilibrium" may not be achievable in the road pricing game. The paper also demonstrates the type of coalitions that are not only reachable, but also stable and profitable for the actors involved.
Hull Separation Optimization of Catamaran Unmanned Surface Vehicle Powered with Hydrogen Fuel Cell
This paper presents an optimization of the hull
separation, i.e. transverse clearance. The main objective is to identify
the feasible speed ranges and find the optimum transverse clearance
considering the minimum wave-making resistance. The dimensions
and the weight of hardware systems installed in the catamaran
structured fuel cell powered USV (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) were
considered as constraints. As the CAE (Computer Aided Engineering)
platform FRIENDSHIP-Framework was used. The hull surface
modeling, DoE (Design of Experiment), Tangent search optimization,
tool integration and the process automation were performed by
FRIENDSHIP-Framework. The hydrodynamic result was evaluated
by XPAN the potential solver of SHIPFLOW.
Single-qubit Quantum Gates using Magneto-optic Kerr Effect
We propose the use of magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) to realize single-qubit quantum gates. We consider longitudinal and polar MOKE in reflection geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to both the plane of incidence and surface of the film. MOKE couples incident TE and TM polarized photons and the Hamiltonian that represents this interaction is isomorphic to that of a canonical two-level quantum system. By varying the phase and amplitude of the magnetic field, we can realize Hadamard, NOT, and arbitrary phase-shift single-qubit quantum gates. The principal advantage is operation with magnetically non-transparent materials.
Speckle Characterization in Laser Projector Display
Speckle phenomena results from when coherent
radiation is reflected from a rough surface. Characterizing the speckle
strongly depends on the measurement condition and experimental
setup. In this paper we report the experimental results produced with
different parameters in the setup. We investigated the factors which
affects the speckle contrast, such as, F-number, gamma value and
exposure time of the camera, rather than geometric factors like the
distance between the projector lens to the screen, the viewing distance,
etc. The measurement results show that the speckle contrast decreases
by decreasing F-number, by increasing gamma value, and slightly
affects by exposure time of the camera and the gain value of the
On the Numerical Approach for Simulating Thermal Hydraulics under Seismic Condition
The two-phase flow field and the motion of the free
surface in an oscillating channel are simulated numerically to assess
the methodology for simulating nuclear reacotr thermal hydraulics
under seismic conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one
is to model the oscillating channel directly using the moving grid of
the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, and the other is to simulate
the effect of channel motion using the oscillating acceleration acting
on the fluid in the stationary channel. The two-phase flow field in the
oscillating channel is simulated using the level set method in both
cases. The calculated results using the oscillating acceleration are
found to coinside with those using the moving grid, and the theoretical
back ground and the limitation of oscillating acceleration are discussed.
It is shown that the change in the interfacial area between liquid and
gas phases under seismic conditions is important for nuclear reactor
Alignment of Emission Gamma Ray Sources with Nai(Ti) Scintillation Detectors by Two Laser Beams to Pre-Operation using Alternating Minimization Technique
Accurate timing alignment and stability is important
to maximize the true counts and minimize the random counts in
positron emission tomography So signals output from detectors must
be centering with the two isotopes to pre-operation and fed signals
into four units of pulse-processing units, each unit can accept up to
eight inputs. The dual source computed tomography consist two units
on the left for 15 detector signals of Cs-137 isotope and two units on
the right are for 15 detectors signals of Co-60 isotope. The gamma
spectrum consisting of either single or multiple photo peaks. This
allows for the use of energy discrimination electronic hardware
associated with the data acquisition system to acquire photon counts
data with a specific energy, even if poor energy resolution detectors
are used. This also helps to avoid counting of the Compton scatter
counts especially if a single discrete gamma photo peak is emitted by
the source as in the case of Cs-137. In this study the polyenergetic
version of the alternating minimization algorithm is applied to the
dual energy gamma computed tomography problem.
Decoy-pulse Protocol for Frequency-coded Quantum Key Distribution
We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.
Convergence of a One-step Iteration Scheme for Quasi-asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings
In this paper, we use a one-step iteration scheme to approximate common fixed points of two quasi-asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. We prove weak and strong convergence theorems in a uniformly convex Banach space. Our results generalize the corresponding results of Yao and Chen  to a wider class of mappings while extend those of Khan, Abbas and Khan  to an improved one-step iteration scheme without any condition and improve upon many others in the literature.
Coded Transmission in Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Method
The paper presents the study of synthetic transmit
aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical
ultrasound imaging. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the
total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak
pressure. Signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved
maintaining high ultrasound image resolution.
In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm
inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16-bit
Golay coded sequences at nominal frequencies 4 MHz was used.
Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical
wave covering the full image region and all the elements received the
echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the wire
phantom as well as of the tissue mimicking phantom is presented to
demonstrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were
obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and
receive signals correction based on a single element directivity
Engineering Study and Equipment Design: Effects of Temperature and design variables on Yield of a Multi-Stage Distillator
The distillation process in the general sense is a
relatively simple technique from the standpoints of its principles.
When dedicating distillation to water treatment and specifically
producing fresh water from sea, ocean and/ briny waters it is
interesting to notice that distillation has no limitations or domains of
applicability regarding the nature or the type of the feedstock water.
This is not the case however for other techniques that are
technologically quite complex, necessitate bigger capital investments
and are limited in their usability. In a previous paper we have
explored some of the effects of temperature on yield. In this paper,
we continue building onto that knowledge base and focus on the
effects of several additional engineering and design variables on
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Neutral Many Bosonic System
In this work, the condensation fraction and transition
temperature of neutral many bosonic system are studied within the
static fluctuation approximation (SFA). The effect of the potential
parameters such as the strength and range on the condensate fraction
was investigated. A model potential consisting of a repulsive step
potential and an attractive potential well was used. As the potential
strength or the core radius of the repulsive part increases, the
condensation fraction is found to be decreased at the same
temperature. Also, as the potential depth or the range of the attractive
part increases, the condensation fraction is found to be increased. The
transition temperature is decreased as the potential strength or the
core radius of the repulsive part increases, and it increases as the
potential depth or the range of the attractive part increases.
Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Full Scale CANDU Reactor Moderator to Study Temperature Fluctuations
Threedimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and Transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified.Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities.
Improved Neutron Leakage Treatment on Nodal Expansion Method for PWR Reactors
For a quick and accurate calculation of spatial neutron
distribution in nuclear power reactors 3D nodal codes are usually
used aiming at solving the neutron diffusion equation for a given
reactor core geometry and material composition. These codes use a
second order polynomial to represent the transverse leakage term. In
this work, a nodal method based on the well known nodal expansion
method (NEM), developed at COPPE, making use of this polynomial
expansion was modified to treat the transverse leakage term for the
external surfaces of peripheral reflector nodes.
The proposed method was implemented into a computational
system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the
burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material
compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the
effectiveness of this modified treatment of peripheral nodes for
practical purposes in PWR reactors.
Two Individual Genetic Algorithm
The particular interests of this paper is to explore if the simple Genetic Algorithms (GA) starts with population of only two individuals and applying different crossover technique over these parents to produced 104 children, each one has different attributes inherited from their parents; is better than starting with population of 100 individuals; and using only one type crossover (order crossover OX). For this reason we implement GA with 52 different crossover techniques; each one produce two children; which means 104 different children will be produced and this may discover more search space, also we implement classic GA with order crossover and many experiments were done over 3 Travel Salesman Problem (TSP) to find out which method is better, and according to the results we can say that GA with Multi-crossovers is much better.
CLASS, A New Tool for Nuclear Scenarios: Description and First Application
The presented work is motivated by a french law regarding nuclear waste management. In order to avoid the limitation coming with the usage of the existing scenario codes, as COSI, VISION or FAMILY, the Core Library for Advance Scenario Simulation (CLASS) is being develop. CLASS is an open source tool, which allows any user to simulate an electronuclear scenario. The main CLASS asset, is the possibility to include any type of reactor, even a complitely new concept, through the generation of its ACSII evolution database. In the present article, the CLASS working basis will be presented as well as a simple exemple in order to show his potentiel. In the considered exemple, the effect of the transmutation will be assessed on Minor Actinide Inventory produced by PWR reactors.
Experimental Study on Temperature Dependence of Absorption and Emission Properties of Yb:YAG Crystal as a Disk Laser Medium
In this paper, the absorption and fluorescence
emission spectra of Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG)(25 at%) crystal as a disk
laser medium are measured at high temperature (300-450K). The
absorption and emission cross sections of Yb:YAG crystal are
determined using Reciprocity method. Temperature dependence of
941nm absorption cross section and 1031nm emission cross section
is extracted in the range of 300-450K. According to our experimental
results, an exponential temperature dependence between 300K and
450K is acquired for the 1031nm peak emission cross section and
also for 941nm peak absorption cross section of Yb:YAG crystal.
These results could be used for simulation and design of high power
highly doped Yb:YAG thin disk lasers.
The Robust Clustering with Reduction Dimension
A clustering is process to identify a homogeneous
groups of object called as cluster. Clustering is one interesting topic
on data mining. A group or class behaves similarly characteristics.
This paper discusses a robust clustering process for data images with
two reduction dimension approaches; i.e. the two dimensional
principal component analysis (2DPCA) and principal component
analysis (PCA). A standard approach to overcome this problem is
dimension reduction, which transforms a high-dimensional data into
a lower-dimensional space with limited loss of information. One of
the most common forms of dimensionality reduction is the principal
components analysis (PCA). The 2DPCA is often called a variant of
principal component (PCA), the image matrices were directly treated
as 2D matrices; they do not need to be transformed into a vector so
that the covariance matrix of image can be constructed directly using
the original image matrices. The decomposed classical covariance
matrix is very sensitive to outlying observations. The objective of
paper is to compare the performance of robust minimizing vector
variance (MVV) in the two dimensional projection PCA (2DPCA)
and the PCA for clustering on an arbitrary data image when outliers
are hiden in the data set. The simulation aspects of robustness and
the illustration of clustering images are discussed in the end of
Fast Calculation for Particle Interactions in SPH Simulations: Outlined Sub-domain Technique
A simple and easy algorithm is presented for a fast calculation of kernel functions which required in fluid simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. Present proposed algorithm improves the Linked-list algorithm and adopts the Pair-Wise Interaction technique, which are widely used for evaluating kernel functions in fluid simulations using the SPH method. The algorithm is easy to be implemented without any complexities in programming. Some benchmark examples are used to show the simulation time saved by using the proposed algorithm. Parametric studies on the number of divisions for sub-domains, smoothing length and total amount of particles are conducted to show the effectiveness of the present technique. A compact formulation is proposed for practical usage.
The MUST ADS Concept
The presented work is motivated by a French law
regarding nuclear waste management. A new conceptual Accelerator
Driven System (ADS) designed for the Minor Actinides (MA)
transmutation has been assessed by numerical simulation. The
MUltiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS combines high thermal power (up to 1.4 GWth) and high specific power. A 30 mA and 1
GeV proton beam is divided into three secondary beams transmitted on three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. Neutron and thermalhydraulic
simulations have been performed with the code MURE, based on the Monte-Carlo transport code MCNPX. A methodology has been developed to define characteristic of the MUST ADS concept according to a specific transmutation scenario. The reference
scenario is based on a MA flux (neptunium, americium and curium)
providing from European Fast Reactor (EPR) and a plutonium multireprocessing
strategy is accounted for. The MUST ADS reference
concept is a sodium cooled fast reactor. The MA fuel at equilibrium is mixed with MgO inert matrix to limit the core reactivity and
improve the fuel thermal conductivity. The fuel is irradiated over five
years. Five years of cooling and two years for the fuel fabrication are
taken into account. The MUST ADS reference concept burns about 50% of the initial MA inventory during a complete cycle. In term of
mass, up to 570 kg/year are transmuted in one concept. The methodology to design the MUST ADS and to calculate fuel
composition at equilibrium is precisely described in the paper. A detailed fuel evolution analysis is performed and the reference scenario is compared to a scenario where only americium transmutation is performed.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling
With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable for Power System in Macedonia
The deficit of power supply in Macedonia is almost 30% or reached up to 3000 GWh in a year. The existing thermal and hydro power plants are not enough to cover the power and energy, so the import increases every year. Therefore, in order to have more domestic energy supply, the new trends in renewable and energy efficiency should be implemented in power sector. The paper gives some perspectives for development of the power system in Macedonia, taking into account the growth of electricity demand and in the same time with implementation of renewable and energy efficiency. The development of power system is made for the period up to 2030 with the period of every 5 years.