Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 26

Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • 26
    Numerical Solution of a Laminar Viscous Flow Boundary Layer Equation Using Uniform Haar Wavelet Quasi-linearization Method

    In this paper, we have proposed a Haar wavelet quasilinearization method to solve the well known Blasius equation. The method is based on the uniform Haar wavelet operational matrix defined over the interval [0, 1]. In this method, we have proposed the transformation for converting the problem on a fixed computational domain. The Blasius equation arises in the various boundary layer problems of hydrodynamics and in fluid mechanics of laminar viscous flows. Quasi-linearization is iterative process but our proposed technique gives excellent numerical results with quasilinearization for solving nonlinear differential equations without any iteration on selecting collocation points by Haar wavelets. We have solved Blasius equation for 1≤α ≤ 2 and the numerical results are compared with the available results in literature. Finally, we conclude that proposed method is a promising tool for solving the well known nonlinear Blasius equation.

    A Comparison of Experimental Data with Monte Carlo Calculations for Optimisation of the Sourceto- Detector Distance in Determining the Efficiency of a LaBr3:Ce (5%) Detector

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide LaBr3:Ce(5%) crystals are considered to be one of the most advanced scintillator materials used in PET scanning, combining a high light yield, fast decay time and excellent energy resolution. Apart from the correct choice of scintillator, it is also important to optimise the detector geometry, not least in terms of source-to-detector distance in order to obtain reliable measurements and efficiency. In this study a commercially available 25 mm x 25 mm BrilLanCeTM 380 LaBr3: Ce (5%) detector was characterised in terms of its efficiency at varying source-to-detector distances. Gamma-ray spectra of 22Na, 60Co, and 137Cs were separately acquired at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm. As a result of the change in solid angle subtended by the detector, the geometric efficiency reduced in efficiency with increasing distance. High efficiencies at low distances can cause pulse pile-up when subsequent photons are detected before previously detected events have decayed. To reduce this systematic error the source-to-detector distance should be balanced between efficiency and pulse pile-up suppression as otherwise pile-up corrections would need to be necessary at short distances. In addition to the experimental measurements Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the same setup, allowing a comparison of results. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been highlighted.

    Deformation of Water Waves by Geometric Transitions with Power Law Function Distribution

    In this work, we analyze the deformation of surface waves in shallow flows conditions, propagating in a channel of slowly varying cross-section. Based on a singular perturbation technique, the main purpose is to predict the motion of waves by using a dimensionless formulation of the governing equations, considering that the longitudinal variation of the transversal section obey a power-law distribution. We show that the spatial distribution of the waves in the varying cross-section is a function of a kinematic parameter,κ , and two geometrical parameters εh and w ε . The above spatial behavior of the surface elevation is modeled by an ordinary differential equation. The use of single formulas to model the varying cross sections or transitions considered in this work can be a useful approximation to natural or artificial geometrical configurations.

    Estimation of the Spent Fuel Pool Water Temperature at a Loss-of-Pool-Cooling Accident

    Accident in spent fuel pool (SFP) of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 showed the importance of continuous monitoring of the key environmental parameters such as water temperature, water level, and radiation level in the SFP at accident conditions. Because the SFP water temperature is one of the key parameters indicating SFP conditions, its behavior at accident conditions shall be understood to prepare appropriate measures. This study estimated temporal change in the SFP water temperature at Kori Unit 1 with 587 MWe for 1 hour after initiation of a loss-of-pool-cooling accident. For the estimation, ANSYS CFX 13.0 code was used. The estimation showed that the increasing rate of the water temperature was 3.90C per hour and the SFP water temperature could reach 1000C in 25.6 hours after the initiation of loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

    The Influence of Gravity on The Temporal Instability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curved Jets

    A liquid curved jet has many applications in different industrial and engineering processes, such as the prilling process for generating small spherical pellets (fertilizer or magnesium). The liquids used are usually molten and contain small quantities of polymers and therefore can be modelled as non-Newtonian liquids. In this paper, we model the viscoelastic liquid jet by using the Oldroyd- B model. An asymptotic analysis has been used to simplify the governing equations. Furthermore, the trajectory and a linear temporal stability in the presence of gravity and rotation have been determined.

    Characterization of HD-V2 Gafchromic Film for Measurement of Spatial Dose Distribution from Alpha Particle of 5.5 MeV

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the newly released Gafchromic HD-V2 film for alpha particle of 5.5 MeV. Gafchromic HD-V2 was exposed to alpha particles of energy 5 MeV from 241Am for different durations. Then the films were scanned with a flatbed scanner. The dose response curve up to 2200 Gy has been achieved. The film’s reproducibility and sensitivity were evaluated. The results obtained show that the net optical density increases almost exponentially with the increase in the exposure time, and it becomes saturated after prolonged exposure times. The red channel shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 4 x 10-3 Gy-1 at netOD of 0.4. The inter-film reproducibility was measured and the relative uncertainty found was 1.7 %, 2.1 % and 2.3 % for grey, red and green channels, respectively.

    The Self-Energy of an Ellectron Bound in a Coulomb Field

    Recent progress in calculation of the one-loop selfenergy of the electron bound in the Coulomb field is summarized. The relativistic multipole expansion is introduced. This expansion is based on a single assumption: except for the part of the time component of the electron four-momentum corresponding to the electron rest mass, the exchange of four-momentum between the virtual electron and photon can be treated perturbatively. For non Sstates and normalized difference n3En −E1 of the S-states this itself yields very accurate results after taking the method to the third order. For the ground state the perturbation treatment of the electron virtual states with very high three-momentum is to be avoided. For these states one can always rearrange the pertinent expression in such a way that free-particle approximation is allowed. Combination of the relativistic multipole expansion and free-particle approximation yields very accurate result after taking the method to the ninth order. These results are in very good agreement with the previous results obtained by the partial wave expansion and definitely exclude the possibility that the uncertainity in determination of the proton radius comes from the uncertainity in the calculation of the one-loop selfenergy.

    Implementation of Vertical Neutron Camera (VNC) for ITER Fusion Plasma Neutron Source Profile Reconstruction

    In present work the problem of the ITER fusion plasma neutron source parameter reconstruction using only the Vertical Neutron Camera data was solved. The possibility of neutron source parameter reconstruction was estimated by the numerical simulations and the analysis of adequateness of mathematic model was performed. The neutron source was specified in a parametric form. The numerical analysis of solution stability with respect to data distortion was done. The influence of the data errors on the reconstructed parameters is shown: • is reconstructed with errors less than 4% at all examined values of δ (until 60%); • is determined with errors less than 10% when δ do not overcome 5%; • is reconstructed with relative error more than 10 %; • integral intensity of the neutron source is determined with error 10% while δ error is less than 15%; where -error of signal measurements, (R0,Z0), the plasma center position,- /parameter of neutron source profile.

    Energetic Considerations for Sputter Deposition Processes

    Sputter deposition processes, especially for sputtering from metal targets, are well investigated. For practical reasons, i.e. for industrial processes, energetic considerations for sputter deposition are useful in order to optimize the sputtering process. In particular, for substrates at floating conditions it is required to obtain energetic conditions during film growth that enables sufficient dense metal films of good quality. The influence of ion energies, energy density and momentum transfer is thus examined both for sputtering at the target as well as during film growth. Different regimes dominated by ion energy, energy density and momentum transfer were identified by using different plasma sources and by varying power input, pressure and bias voltage.

    Re-Optimization MVPP Using Common Subexpression for Materialized View Selection

    A Data Warehouses is a repository of information integrated from source data. Information stored in data warehouse is the form of materialized in order to provide the better performance for answering the queries. Deciding which appropriated views to be materialized is one of important problem. In order to achieve this requirement, the constructing search space close to optimal is a necessary task. It will provide effective result for selecting view to be materialized. In this paper we have proposed an approach to reoptimize Multiple View Processing Plan (MVPP) by using global common subexpressions. The merged queries which have query processing cost not close to optimal would be rewritten. The experiment shows that our approach can help to improve the total query processing cost of MVPP and sum of query processing cost and materialized view maintenance cost is reduced as well after views are selected to be materialized.

    Negative Temperature Dependence of a Gravity - A Reality

    Temperature dependence of force of gravitation is one of the fundamental problems of physics. This problem has got special value in connection with that the general theory of relativity, supposing the weakest positive influence of a body temperature on its weight, actually rejects an opportunity of measurement of negative influence of temperature on gravity in laboratory conditions. Really, the recognition of negative temperature dependence of gravitation, for example, means basic impossibility of achievement of a singularity («a black hole») at a gravitational collapse. Laboratory experiments with exact weighing the heated up metal samples, indicating negative influence temperatures of bodies on their physical weight are described. Influence of mistakes of measurements is analyzed. Calculations of distribution of temperature in volume of the bar, agreed with experimental data of time dependence of weight of samples are executed. The physical substantiation of negative temperature dependence of weight of the bodies, based on correlation of acceleration at thermal movement of micro-particles of a body and its absolute temperature, are given.

    Orbit Propagator and Geomagnetic Field Estimator for NanoSatellite: The ICUBE Mission

    This research contribution is drafted to present the orbit design, orbit propagator and geomagnetic field estimator for the nanosatellites specifically for the upcoming CUBESAT, ICUBE-1 of the Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad, Pakistan. The ICUBE mission is designed for the low earth orbit at the approximate height of 700KM. The presented research endeavor designs the Keplarian elements for ICUBE-1 orbit while incorporating the mission requirements and propagates the orbit using J2 perturbations, The attitude determination system of the ICUBE-1 consists of attitude determination sensors like magnetometer and sun sensor. The Geomagnetic field estimator is developed according to the model of International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for comparing the magnetic field measurements by the magnetometer for attitude determination. The output of the propagator namely the Keplarians position and velocity vectors and the magnetic field vectors are compared and verified with the same scenario generated in the  Satellite Tool Kit (STK).

    Designing Early Warning System: Prediction Accuracy of Currency Crisis by Using k-Nearest Neighbour Method

    Developing a stable early warning system (EWS) model that is capable to give an accurate prediction is a challenging task. This paper introduces k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) method which never been applied in predicting currency crisis before with the aim of increasing the prediction accuracy. The proposed k-NN performance depends on the choice of a distance that is used where in our analysis; we take the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan as a consideration. For the comparison, we employ three other methods which are logistic regression analysis (logit), back-propagation neural network (NN) and sequential minimal optimization (SMO). The analysis using datasets from 8 countries and 13 macro-economic indicators for each country shows that the proposed k-NN method with k = 4 and Manhattan distance performs better than the other methods.

    Deterministic Random Number Generators for Online Applications

    Cryptography, Image watermarking and E-banking are filled with apparent oxymora and paradoxes. Random sequences are used as keys to encrypt information to be used as watermark during embedding the watermark and also to extract the watermark during detection. Also, the keys are very much utilized for 24x7x365 banking operations. Therefore a deterministic random sequence is very much useful for online applications. In order to obtain the same random sequence, we need to supply the same seed to the generator. Many researchers have used Deterministic Random Number Generators (DRNGs) for cryptographic applications and Pseudo Noise Random sequences (PNs) for watermarking. Even though, there are some weaknesses in PN due to attacks, the research community used it mostly in digital watermarking. On the other hand, DRNGs have not been widely used in online watermarking due to its computational complexity and non-robustness. Therefore, we have invented a new design of generating DRNG using Pi-series to make it useful for online Cryptographic, Digital watermarking and Banking applications.

    Numerical Simulation of the Transient Shape Variation of a Rotating Liquid Droplet

    Transient shape variation of a rotating liquid dropletis simulated numerically. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved by using the level set method. The shape variation from the sphere to the rotating ellipsoid, and to the two-robed shapeare simulated, and the elongation of the two-robed droplet is discussed. The two-robed shape after the initial transient is found to be stable and the elongation is almost the same for the cases with different initial rotation rate. The relationship between the elongation and the rotation rate is obtained by averaging the transient shape variation. It is shown that the elongation of two-robed shape is in good agreement with the existing experimental data. It is found that the transient numerical simulation is necessary for analyzing the largely elongated two-robed shape of rotating droplet.

    A Modified Laplace Decomposition Algorithm Solution for Blasius’ Boundary Layer Equation of the Flat Plate in a Uniform Stream

    In this work, we apply the Modified Laplace decomposition algorithm in finding a numerical solution of Blasius’ boundary layer equation for the flat plate in a uniform stream. The series solution is found by first applying the Laplace transform to the differential equation and then decomposing the nonlinear term by the use of Adomian polynomials. The resulting series, which is exactly the same as that obtained by Weyl 1942a, was expressed as a rational function by the use of diagonal padé approximant.

    Laplace Decomposition Approximation Solution for a System of Multi-Pantograph Equations

    In this work we adopt a combination of Laplace transform and the decomposition method to find numerical solutions of a system of multi-pantograph equations. The procedure leads to a rapid convergence of the series to the exact solution after computing a few terms. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated in some examples by obtaining the exact solution and in others by computing the absolute error which decreases as the number of terms of the series increases.

    On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

    In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detection of the damaged section and then leak localization in this section special functions and equations have been constructed. Some results of calculations for compound pipelines having two, four and five sections are presented. Also a method and formula for the leak localization in the simple inclined section of the main gas pipeline are suggested. Some results of numerical calculations defining localization of gas escape for the inclined pipeline are presented.

    On the Multiplicity of Discriminants of Relative Quadratic Extensions of Quintic Fields

    According to Hermite there exists only a finite number of number fields having a given degree, and a given value of the discriminant, nevertheless this number is not known generally. The determination of a maximum number of number fields of degree 10 having a given discriminant that contain a subfield of degree 5 having a fixed class number, narrow class number and Galois group is the purpose of this work. The constructed lists of the first coincidences of 52 (resp. 50, 40, 48, 22, 6) nonisomorphic number fields with same discriminant of degree 10 of signature (6,2) (resp. (4,3), (8,1), (2,4), (0,5), (10,0)) containing a quintic field. For each field in the lists, we indicate its discriminant, the discriminant of its subfield, a relative polynomial generating the field over its quintic field and its relative discriminant, the corresponding polynomial over Q and its Galois closure are presented with concluding remarks.

    Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Furfural at the Liquid-Solid Interface

    The bonding configuration and the heat of adsorption of a furfural molecule on the Pd(111) surface were determined by ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. The dynamics of pure liquid water, the liquid-solid interface formed by liquid water and the Pd(111) surface, as well as furfural at the water-Pd interface, were investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures. Calculations and simulations suggest that the bonding configurations at the water-Pd interface promote decarbonylation of furfural.

    Characterization of the Energy Band Diagram of Fabricated SnO2/CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells

    A SnO2/CdS/CdTe heterojunction was fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The fabricated cells were annealed at 573K for periods of 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The structural properties of the solar cells have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. Capacitance- voltage measurements were studied for the as-prepared and annealed cells at a frequency of 102 Hz. The capacitance- voltage measurements indicated that these cells are abrupt. The capacitance decreases with increasing annealing time. The zero bias depletion region width and the carrier concentration increased with increasing annealing time. The carrier transport mechanism for the CdS/CdTe heterojunction in dark is tunneling recombination. The ideality factor is 1.56 and the reverse bias saturation current is 9.6×10-10A. The energy band lineup for the n- CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction was investigated using current - voltage and capacitance - voltage characteristics.

    One Some Effective Solutions of Stokes Axisymmetric Equation for a Viscous Fluid

    The Stokes equation connected with the fluid flow over the axisymmetric bodies in a cylindrical area is considered. The equation is studied in a moving coordinate system with the appropriate boundary conditions. Effective formulas for the velocity components are obtained. The graphs of the velocity components and velocity profile are plotted.

    Numerical Analysis of the SIR-SI Differential Equations with Application to Dengue Disease Mapping in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    The main aim of this study is to describe and introduce a method of numerical analysis in obtaining approximate solutions for the SIR-SI differential equations (susceptible-infectiverecovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) that represent a model for dengue disease transmission. Firstly, we describe the ordinary differential equations for the SIR-SI disease transmission models. Then, we introduce the numerical analysis of solutions of this continuous time, discrete space SIR-SI model by simplifying the continuous time scale to a densely populated, discrete time scale. This is followed by the application of this numerical analysis of solutions of the SIR-SI differential equations to the estimation of relative risk using continuous time, discrete space dengue data of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Finally, we present the results of the analysis, comparing and displaying the results in graphs, table and maps. Results of the numerical analysis of solutions that we implemented offers a useful and potentially superior model for estimating relative risks based on continuous time, discrete space data for vector borne infectious diseases specifically for dengue disease. 

    Parallelization of Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) for Oil Reservoirs with Time-lapse Seismic Data

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a parallel algorithm for data assimilation with ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for oil reservoir history matching problem. The use of large number of observations from time-lapse seismic leads to a large turnaround time for the analysis step, in addition to the time consuming simulations of the realizations. For efficient parallelization it is important to consider parallel computation at the analysis step. Our experiments show that parallelization of the analysis step in addition to the forecast step has good scalability, exploiting the same set of resources with some additional efforts.

    New Investigation of the Exchange Effects Role on the Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of α-Particles on 9Be

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles by 9Be nuclei at different incident energies have been analyzed. Optical model parameters (OMPs) of α-particles elastic scattering by 9Be at different energies have been obtained. Coupled Reaction Channel (CRC) of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and transfer reaction has been calculated using Fresco Code. The effect of involving CRC calculations on the analysis of differential cross section has been studied. The transfer reaction of (5He) in the reaction 9Be(α,9Be)α has been studied. The spectroscopic factor of 9Be≡α+5He has been extracted.

    Optical Properties of Some A2BCl4 Type Chlorides

    Efficient luminescence is reported for the first time in Eu2+ activated double Chlorides A2BCl4 (A=Alkali metal, B=Alkaline earth element). A simple wet-chemical preparation is described. Emission intensities are comparable to that of the commercial phosphor. Excitation covers near UV region. These phosphors may be useful for applications like solid state lighting, scintillation detectors and X-ray storage using photo-stimulable phosphors.