|Commenced in January 1999||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 20|
A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. Principal component analysis(PCA) has been widely used in multivariate data analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify subsequent analysis and allow for summarization of the data in a parsimonious manner. PCA, which can be implemented via a singular value decomposition(SVD), is useful for analysis of microarray data. For application of PCA using SVD we use the DNA microarray data for the small round blue cell tumors(SRBCT) of childhood by Khan et al.(2001). To decide the number of components which account for sufficient amount of information we draw scree plot. Biplot, a graphic display associated with PCA, reveals important features that exhibit relationship between variables and also the relationship of variables with observations.
Darcy’s Law is a well-known constitutive equation describing the flow of a fluid through a porous medium. The equation shows a relationship between the superficial or Darcy velocity and the pressure gradient which was first experimentally observed by Henry Darcy in 1855-1856. In this study, we apply homogenization method to Stokes equation in order to derive Darcy’s Law. The process of deriving the equation is complicated, especially in multidimensional domain. Thus, for the sake of simplicity, we use the indicial notation as well as the homogenization. This combination provides a smooth, simple and easy technique to derive Darcy’s Law.
This paper presents the finite difference scheme and the numerical simulation of suspended string. The vibration solutions when the various external forces are taken into account are obtained and compared with the solutions without external force. In addition, we also investigate how the external forces and their powers and coefficients affect the amplitude of vibration.
We introduced the notions of (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule as a generalization of prime ideal and jointly prime (R, S)-submodule, respectively. We provide a relationship between (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule. Characterizations of (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)- submodules are also given.
In this paper, we propose two new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation. One of new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation is constructed based on the pivotal statistic Z where Z is a standard normal distribution and another confidence interval is constructed based on the generalized confidence interval, presented by Weerahandi. We examine the performance of these confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities and average lengths via Monte Carlo simulation.
The aim of the study is evaluation of absorbed doses for thyroids by using neck phantoms. For this purpose, it was arranged the irradiation set with different phantoms. Three different materials were used for phantom materials as, water, parafine and wood. The phantoms were three different dimensions for simulation of different ages and human race for each material. Co-60 gammao source was used for irradiation and the experimental procedure applied rigorously with narrow beam geometry. As the results of the experiments the relative radiation doses are evaluated for therapic applications for thyroids and backscattering factors were calculated and shown that water, parafine and wood can appropriate for phantom material with the converge values of backscattering factors.
In many practical applications in various areas, such as engineering, science and social science, it is known that there exist bounds on the values of unknown parameters. For example, values of some measurements for controlling machines in an industrial process, weight or height of subjects, blood pressures of patients and retirement ages of public servants. When interval estimation is considered in a situation where the parameter to be estimated is bounded, it has been argued that the classical Neyman procedure for setting confidence intervals is unsatisfactory. This is due to the fact that the information regarding the restriction is simply ignored. It is, therefore, of significant interest to construct confidence intervals for the parameters that include the additional information on parameter values being bounded to enhance the accuracy of the interval estimation. Therefore in this paper, we propose a new confidence interval for the coefficient of variance where the population mean and standard deviation are bounded. The proposed interval is evaluated in terms of coverage probability and expected length via Monte Carlo simulation.
Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.
Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.
This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when a ratio of variance is known. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.
This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when one variance is unknown. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.
In this paper we proposed the new confidence interval for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. In practice, this situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture sciences where we know the standard deviation is proportional to the mean. As a result, the coefficient of variation of is known. We propose the new confidence interval based on the recent work of Khan  and this new confidence interval will compare with our previous work, see, e.g. Niwitpong . We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. A numerical method will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.
The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.
This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.
Sandwich plates are finding an increasing range of application in the aircraft industry. The inspection of honeycomb composite structure by conventional ultrasonic technique is complex and very time consuming. The present study demonstrates a technique using guided Lamb waves at low frequencies to predict de-bond defects in aluminum skin-honeycomb core sandwich structure used in aeronautics. The numerical method was investigated for drawing the dispersion and displacement curves of ultrasonic Lamb wave propagated in Aluminum plate. An experimental study was carried out to check the theoretical prediction. The detection of unsticking between the skin and the core was tested by the two first modes for a low frequency. It was found that A0 mode is more sensitive to delamination defect compared to S0 mode.
The present paper studies a structure consisting of a periodic metallic grating, coated on a dielectric spacer atop an opaque metal substrate, using coherent thermal emission source in the infrared region. It has been theoretically demonstrated that by exciting surface magnetic polaritons between metallic gratings and an opaque metallic film, separated by a dielectric spacer, large emissivity peaks are almost independent of the emission angle and they can be achieved at the resonance frequencies. The reflectance spectrum of the proposed structure shows two resonances dip, which leads to a sharp emissivity peak. The relations of the reflection and absorption properties and the influence of geometric parameters on the radiative properties are investigated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The proposed structure can be easily constructed, using micro/nanofabrication and can be used as the coherent thermal emission source.
Heat transfer behavior of three different types of nanofluids flowing through a horizontal tube under laminar regime has been investigated numerically. The wall of tube is maintained at constant temperature. Al2O3-water, CuO-water and TiO2-water are used with different Reynolds number and different volume fraction. The numerical results of heat transfer indicate that the Nusselt number of nanofluids is larger than that of the base fluid. The Pressure loss coefficient decreases by increasing Reynolds number for all types of nanofluids. Results of Nusselt number enhancement and pressure loss coefficient enhancement indicate that Al2O3 nanoparticules give the best results in term of thermal-hydrolic properties.
We are interested in this paper to the thermal effects occurring during the filling of hydrogen tanks. The consequence of this heating on the storage performance of these speakers was appreciated. The motivation comes from the fact that the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier of the future will require strong evolution in the field of storage modes to smaller, less expensive lighter, with a strong security interest and considerable autonomy.
In this paper, a one - dimensional microstructure tungsten grating (pyramids) is optimized for potential application as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) emitter. The influence of gratings geometric parameters on the spectral emittance are studied by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA).The results show that the spectral emittance is affected by the gratings geometrical parameters. The optimum parameters are grating period of 0.5µm, a filling ratio of 0.8 and grating height of h=0.2µm. A broad peak of high emittance is obtained at wavelengths between 0.5 and 1.8µm. The emittance drops below 0.2 at wavelengths above 1.8µm. This can be explained by the surface plasmon polaritons excitation coupled with the grating microstructures. At longer wavelengths, the emittance remains low and this is highly desired for thermophotovoltaic applications to reduce the thermal leakage due to low-energy photons that do not produce any photocurrent. The proposed structure can be used as a selective emitter for a narrow band gap cell such as GaSb. The performance of this simple 1-D emitter proved to be superior to that from more complicated structures. Almost all the radiation from the emitter incident, at angles up to 40°, on the cell, could be utilized to produce a photocurrent. There is no need for a filter.
The interaction of mass will determine the curvature of space-time, may determine that events proceed at different rates of time at each point in space, so each has a corresponding gravitational potential time. So we can find different values of gravity (g), corresponding to different times (t), thus making a "map of time in space." The space-time is curved by present mass, causing a force of attraction towards the body, but if you invest the curvature of space-time, we find that this field is repulsive: Obtaining negative gravitational forces and positive gravitational forces respectively.
Using calculated phase- shift values, for pp, nn, and np elastic scattering in the energy range 1MeV to 350MeV, the charge independence breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated. We have used Darboux transformation to calculate phase-shift for the first three values of