|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 11 |
Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering
Convective Heat Transfer of Internal Electronic Components in a Headlight Geometry
A numerical study is presented on convective heat transfer in enclosures. The results are addressed to automotive headlights containing new-age light sources like Light Emitting Diodes (LED). The heat transfer from the heat source (LED) to the enclosure walls is investigated for mixed convection as interaction of the forced convection flow from an inlet and an outlet port and the natural convection at the heat source. Unlike existing studies, inlet and outlet port are thermally coupled and do not serve to remove hot fluid. The input power of the heat source is expressed by the Rayleigh number. The internal position of the heat source, the aspect ratio of the enclosure, and the inclination angle of one wall are varied. The results are given in terms of the global Nusselt number and the enclosure Nusselt number that characterize the heat transfer from the source and from the interior fluid to the enclosure walls, respectively. It is found that the heat transfer from the source to the fluid can be maximized if the source is placed in the main stream from the inlet to the outlet port. In this case, the Reynolds number and heat source position have the major impact on the heat transfer. A disadvantageous position has been found where natural and forced convection compete each other. The overall heat transfer from the source to the wall increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing aspect ratio and decreasing inclination angle. The heat transfer from the interior fluid to the enclosure wall increases upon decreasing the aspect ratio and increasing the inclination angle. This counteracting behaviour is caused by the variation of the area of the enclosure wall. All mixed convection results are compared to the natural convection limit.
Interaction Effect of Feed Rate and Cutting Speed in CNC-Turning on Chip Micro-Hardness of 304- Austenitic Stainless Steel
The present work is concerned with the effect of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) and distance from the center of work piece as input variables on the chip micro-hardness as response or output. Three experiments were conducted; they were used to investigate the chip micro-hardness behavior at diameter of work piece for 30[mm], 40[mm], and 50[mm]. Response surface methodology (R.S.M) is used to determine and present the cause and effect of the relationship between true mean response and input control variables influencing the response as a two or three dimensional hyper surface. R.S.M has been used for designing a three factor with five level central composite rotatable factors design in order to construct statistical models capable of accurate prediction of responses. The results obtained showed that the application of R.S.M can predict the effect of machining parameters on chip micro-hardness. The five level factorial designs can be employed easily for developing statistical models to predict chip micro-hardness by controllable machining parameters. Results obtained showed that the combined effect of cutting speed at it?s lower level, feed rate and depth of cut at their higher values, and larger work piece diameter can result increasing chi micro-hardness.
Kinematic Modelling and Maneuvering of A 5-Axes Articulated Robot Arm
This paper features the kinematic modelling of a 5-axis stationary articulated robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. To start with, a 5-axes articulated robot was designed entirely from scratch and from indigenous components and a brief kinematic modelling was performed and using this kinematic model, the pick and place task was performed successfully in the work space of the robot. A user friendly GUI was developed in C++ language which was used to perform the successful robotic manipulation task using the developed mathematical kinematic model. This developed kinematic model also incorporates the obstacle avoiding algorithms also during the pick and place operation.
Simultaneous Determination of Reference Free-Stream Temperature and Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
It is very important to determine reference temperature when convective temperature because it should be used to calculate the temperature potential. This paper deals with the development of a new method that can determine heat transfer coefficient and reference free stream temperature simultaneously, based on transient heat transfer experiments with using two narrow band thermo-tropic liquid crystals (TLC's). The method is validated through error analysis in terms of the random uncertainties in the measured temperatures. It is shown how the uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient and free stream temperature can be reduced. The general method described in this paper is applicable to many heat transfer models with unknown free stream temperature.
Collaborative Design System based on Object-Oriented Modeling of Supply Chain Simulation: A Case Study of Thai Jewelry Industry
The paper proposes a new concept in developing
collaborative design system. The concept framework involves
applying simulation of supply chain management to collaborative
design called – 'SCM–Based Design Tool'. The system is developed
particularly to support design activities and to integrate all facilities
together. The system is aimed to increase design productivity and
creativity. Therefore, designers and customers can collaborate by the
system since conceptual design. JAG: Jewelry Art Generator based
on artificial intelligence techniques is integrated into the system.
Moreover, the proposed system can support users as decision tool
and data propagation. The system covers since raw material supply
until product delivery. Data management and sharing information are
visually supported to designers and customers via user interface. The
system is developed on Web–assisted product development
environment. The prototype system is presented for Thai jewelry
industry as a system prototype demonstration, but applicable for
Performance Improvement in Internally Finned Tube by Shape Optimization
Predictions of flow and heat transfer characteristics and shape optimization in internally finned circular tubes have been performed on three-dimensional periodically fully developed turbulent flow and thermal fields. For a trapezoidal fin profile, the effects of fin height h, upper fin widths d1, lower fin widths d2, and helix angle of fin ? on transport phenomena are investigated for the condition of fin number of N = 30. The CFD and mathematical optimization technique are coupled in order to optimize the shape of internally finned tube. The optimal solutions of the design variables (i.e., upper and lower fin widths, fin height and helix angle) are numerically obtained by minimizing the pressure loss and maximizing the heat transfer rate, simultaneously, for the limiting conditions of d1 = 0.5~1.5 mm, d2 = 0.5~1.5 mm, h= 0.5~1.5mm, ? = 10~30 degrees. The fully developed flow and thermal fields are predicted using the finite volume method and the optimization is carried out by means of the multi-objective genetic algorithm that is widely used in the constrained nonlinear optimization problem.
Flow Modeling and Runner Design Optimization in Turgo Water Turbines
The incorporation of computational fluid dynamics in the design of modern hydraulic turbines appears to be necessary in order to improve their efficiency and cost-effectiveness beyond the traditional design practices. A numerical optimization methodology is developed and applied in the present work to a Turgo water turbine. The fluid is simulated by a Lagrangian mesh-free approach that can provide detailed information on the energy transfer and enhance the understanding of the complex, unsteady flow field, at very small computing cost. The runner blades are initially shaped according to hydrodynamics theory, and parameterized using Bezier polynomials and interpolation techniques. The use of a limited number of free design variables allows for various modifications of the standard blade shape, while stochastic optimization using evolutionary algorithms is implemented to find the best blade that maximizes the attainable hydraulic efficiency of the runner. The obtained optimal runner design achieves considerably higher efficiency than the standard one, and its numerically predicted performance is comparable to a real Turgo turbine, verifying the reliability and the prospects of the new methodology.
Conventional Design and Simulation of an Urban Hybrid Bus
Due to heightened concerns over environmental and economic issues the growing important of air pollution, and the importance of conserving fossil fuel resources in the world, the automotive industry is now forced to produce more fuel efficient, low emission vehicles and new drive system technologies. One of the most promising technologies to receive attention is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which consists of two or more energy sources that supply energy to electric traction motors that in turn drive the wheels. This paper presents the various structures of HEV systems, the basic theoretical knowledge for describing their operation and the general behaviour of the HEV in acceleration, cruise and deceleration phases. The conventional design and sizing of a series HEV is studied. A conventional bus and its series configuration are defined and evaluated using the ADVISOR. In this section the simulation of a standard driving cycle and prediction of its fuel consumption and emissions of the HEV are discussed. Finally the bus performance is investigated to establish whether it can satisfy the performance, fuel consumption and emissions requested. The validity of the simulation has been established by the close conformity between the fuel consumption of the conventional bus reported by the manufacturer to what has achieved from the simulation.
Customer Segmentation in Foreign Trade based on Clustering Algorithms Case Study: Trade Promotion Organization of Iran
The goal of this paper is to segment the countries
based on the value of export from Iran during 14 years ending at 2005. To measure the dissimilarity among export baskets of different countries, we define Dissimilarity Export Basket (DEB) function and
use this distance function in K-means algorithm. The DEB function
is defined based on the concepts of the association rules and the
value of export group-commodities. In this paper, clustering quality
function and clusters intraclass inertia are defined to, respectively,
calculate the optimum number of clusters and to compare the
functionality of DEB versus Euclidean distance. We have also study
the effects of importance weight in DEB function to improve
clustering quality. Lastly when segmentation is completed, a
designated RFM model is used to analyze the relative profitability of
Methodology of Realization for Supervisor and Simulator Dedicated to a Semiconductor Research and Production Factory
In the micro and nano-technology industry, the
«clean-rooms» dedicated to manufacturing chip, are equipped with
the most sophisticated equipment-tools. There use a large number of
resources in according to strict specifications for an optimum
working and result. The distribution of «utilities» to the production is
assured by teams who use a supervision tool.
The studies show the interest to control the various parameters of
production or/and distribution, in real time, through a reliable and
effective supervision tool. This document looks at a large part of the
functions that the supervisor must assure, with complementary
functionalities to help the diagnosis and simulation that prove very
useful in our case where the supervised installations are complexed
and in constant evolution.
Neural Network Based Icing Identification and Fault Tolerant Control of a 340 Aircraft
This paper presents a Neural Network (NN) identification of icing parameters in an A340 aircraft and a reconfiguration technique to keep the A/C performance close to the performance prior to icing. Five aircraft parameters are assumed to be considerably affected by icing. The off-line training for identifying the clear and iced dynamics is based on the Levenberg-Marquard Backpropagation algorithm. The icing parameters are located in the system matrix. The physical locations of the icing are assumed at the right and left wings. The reconfiguration is based on the technique known as the control mixer approach or pseudo inverse technique. This technique generates the new control input vector such that the A/C dynamics is not much affected by icing. In the simulations, the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of an Airbus A340 aircraft model are considered, and the stability derivatives affected by icing are identified. The simulation results show the successful NN identification of the icing parameters and the reconfigured flight dynamics having the similar performance before the icing. In other words, the destabilizing icing affect is compensated.