Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 15
    126
    Effect of L/D Ratio on the Performance of a Four-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing
    Abstract:
    A four-lobe pressure dam bearing which is produced by cutting two pressure dams on the upper two lobes and two relief-tracks on the lower two lobes of an ordinary four-lobe bearing is found to be more stable than a conventional four-lobe bearing. In this paper a four-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting rigid and flexible rotors is analytically investigated to determine its performance when L/D ratio is varied in the range 0.75 to 1.5. The static and dynamic characteristics are studied at various L/D ratios. The results show that the stability of a four-lobe pressure dam bearing increases with decrease in L/D ratios both for rigid as well as flexible rotors.
    14
    1626
    CQAR: Closed Quarter Aerial Robot Design for Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition Tasks in Urban Areas
    Abstract:
    This paper describes a prototype aircraft that can fly slowly, safely and transmit wireless video for tasks like reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition. The aircraft is designed to fly in closed quarters like forests, buildings, caves and tunnels which are often spacious but GPS reception is poor. Envisioned is that a small, safe and slow flying vehicle can assist in performing dull, dangerous and dirty tasks like disaster mitigation, search-and-rescue and structural damage assessment.
    13
    2328
    Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Airbending Using Hyperform LS-DYNA
    Abstract:
    Air bending is one of the important metal forming processes, because of its simplicity and large field application. Accuracy of analytical and empirical models reported for the analysis of bending processes is governed by simplifying assumption and do not consider the effect of dynamic parameters. Number of researches is reported on the finite element analysis (FEA) of V-bending, Ubending, and air V-bending processes. FEA of bending is found to be very sensitive to many physical and numerical parameters. FE models must be computationally efficient for practical use. Reported work shows the 3D FEA of air bending process using Hyperform LSDYNA and its comparison with, published 3D FEA results of air bending in Ansys LS-DYNA and experimental results. Observing the planer symmetry and based on the assumption of plane strain condition, air bending problem was modeled in 2D with symmetric boundary condition in width. Stress-strain results of 2D FEA were compared with 3D FEA results and experiments. Simplification of air bending problem from 3D to 2D resulted into tremendous reduction in the solution time with only marginal effect on stressstrain results. FE model simplification by studying the problem symmetry is more efficient and practical approach for solution of more complex large dimensions slow forming processes.
    12
    5633
    Bendability Analysis for Bending of C-Mn Steel Plates on Heavy Duty 3-Roller Bending Machine
    Abstract:
    Bendability is constrained by maximum top roller load imparting capacity of the machine. Maximum load is encountered during the edge pre-bending stage of roller bending. Capacity of 3-roller plate bending machine is specified by maximum thickness and minimum shell diameter combinations that can be pre-bend for given plate material of maximum width. Commercially available plate width or width of the plate that can be accommodated on machine decides the maximum rolling width. Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) provide the machine capacity chart based on reference material considering perfectly plastic material model. Reported work shows the bendability analysis of heavy duty 3-roller plate bending machine. The input variables for the industry are plate thickness, shell diameter and material property parameters, as it is fixed by the design. Analytical models of equivalent thickness, equivalent width and maximum width based on power law material model were derived to study the bendability. Equation of maximum width provides bendability for designed configuration i.e. material property, shell diameter and thickness combinations within the machine limitations. Equivalent thicknesses based on perfectly plastic and power law material model were compared for four different materials grades of C-Mn steel in order to predict the bend-ability. Effect of top roller offset on the bendability at maximum top roller load imparting capacity is reported.
    11
    6059
    Accurate Control of a Pneumatic System using an Innovative Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling Pattern
    Abstract:
    Due to their high power-to-weight ratio and low cost, pneumatic actuators are attractive for robotics and automation applications; however, achieving fast and accurate control of their position have been known as a complex control problem. A methodology for obtaining high position accuracy with a linear pneumatic actuator is presented. During experimentation with a number of PID classical control approaches over many operations of the pneumatic system, the need for frequent manual re-tuning of the controller could not be eliminated. The reason for this problem is thermal and energy losses inside the cylinder body due to the complex friction forces developed by the piston displacements. Although PD controllers performed very well over short periods, it was necessary in our research project to introduce some form of automatic gain-scheduling to achieve good long-term performance. We chose a fuzzy logic system to do this, which proved to be an easily designed and robust approach. Since the PD approach showed very good behaviour in terms of position accuracy and settling time, it was incorporated into a modified form of the 1st order Tagaki- Sugeno fuzzy method to build an overall controller. This fuzzy gainscheduler uses an input variable which automatically changes the PD gain values of the controller according to the frequency of repeated system operations. Performance of the new controller was significantly improved and the need for manual re-tuning was eliminated without a decrease in performance. The performance of the controller operating with the above method is going to be tested through a high-speed web network (GRID) for research purposes.
    10
    6250
    A Large-Eddy Simulation of Vortex Cell flow with Incoming Turbulent Boundary Layer
    Abstract:
    We present a Large-Eddy simulation of a vortex cell with circular shaped. The results show that the flow field can be sub divided into four important zones, the shear layer above the cavity, the stagnation zone, the vortex core in the cavity and the boundary layer along the wall of the cavity. It is shown that the vortex core consits of solid body rotation without much turbulence activity. The vortex is mainly driven by high energy packets that are driven into the cavity from the stagnation point region and by entrainment of fluid from the cavity into the shear layer. The physics in the boundary layer along the cavity-s wall seems to be far from that of a canonical boundary layer which might be a crucial point for modelling this flow.
    9
    8130
    Application of RP Technology with Polycarbonate Material for Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication
    Abstract:
    Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database development.
    8
    10095
    Information System Life Cycle: Applications in Construction and Manufacturing
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we present the information life cycle, and analyze the importance of managing the corporate application portfolio across this life cycle. The approach presented here does not correspond just to the extension of the traditional information system development life cycle. This approach is based in the generic life cycle employed in other contexts like manufacturing or marketing. In this paper it is proposed a model of an information system life cycle, supported in the assumption that a system has a limited life. But, this limited life may be extended. This model is also applied in several cases; being reported here two examples of the framework application in a construction enterprise, and in a manufacturing enterprise.

    7
    11584
    Reliability-Based Topology Optimization Based on Evolutionary Structural Optimization
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a Reliability-Based Topology Optimization (RBTO) based on Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO). An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load and dimensional variation. Deterministic Topology Optimization (DTO) is obtained without considering of the uncertainties related to the uncertainty parameters. However, RBTO involves evaluation of probabilistic constraints, which can be done in two different ways, the reliability index approach (RIA) and the performance measure approach (PMA). Limit state function is approximated using Monte Carlo Simulation and Central Composite Design for reliability analysis. ESO, one of the topology optimization techniques, is adopted for topology optimization. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DTO with RBTO.
    6
    12086
    A Study on the Performance Characteristics of Variable Valve for Reverse Continuous Damper
    Abstract:
    Nowadays, a passenger car suspension must has high performance criteria with light weight, low cost, and low energy consumption. Pilot controlled proportional valve is designed and analyzed to get small pressure change rate after blow-off, and to get a fast response of the damper, a reverse damping mechanism is adapted. The reverse continuous variable damper is designed as a HS-SH damper which offers good body control with reduced transferred input force from the tire, compared with any other type of suspension system. The damper structure is designed, so that rebound and compression damping forces can be tuned independently, of which the variable valve is placed externally. The rate of pressure change with respect to the flow rate after blow-off becomes smooth when the fixed orifice size increases, which means that the blow-off slope is controllable using the fixed orifice size. Damping forces are measured with the change of the solenoid current at the different piston velocities to confirm the maximum hysteresis of 20 N, linearity, and variance of damping force. The damping force variance is wide and continuous, and is controlled by the spool opening, of which scheme is usually adapted in proportional valves. The reverse continuous variable damper developed in this study is expected to be utilized in the semi-active suspension systems in passenger cars after its performance and simplicity of the design is confirmed through a real car test.
    5
    13268
    Thermal Stability Boundary of FG Panel under Aerodynamic Load
    Abstract:
    In this study, it is investigated the stability boundary of Functionally Graded (FG) panel under the heats and supersonic airflows. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and a simple power law distribution is taken. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) of plate is applied to model the panel, and the von-Karman strain- displacement relations are adopted to consider the geometric nonlinearity due to large deformation. Further, the first-order piston theory is used to model the supersonic aerodynamic load acting on a panel and Rayleigh damping coefficient is used to present the structural damping. In order to find a critical value of the speed, linear flutter analysis of FG panels is performed. Numerical results are compared with the previous works, and present results for the temperature dependent material are discussed in detail for stability boundary of the panel with various volume fractions, and aerodynamic pressures.
    4
    14039
    Investigation of Layer Thickness and Surface Roughness on Aerodynamic Coefficients of Wind Tunnel RP Models
    Abstract:

    Traditional wind tunnel models are meticulously machined from metal in a process that can take several months. While very precise, the manufacturing process is too slow to assess a new design's feasibility quickly. Rapid prototyping technology makes this concurrent study of air vehicle concepts via computer simulation and in the wind tunnel possible. This paper described the Affects layer thickness models product with rapid prototyping on Aerodynamic Coefficients for Constructed wind tunnel testing models. Three models were evaluated. The first model was a 0.05mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.1μm (Ra) second model was a 0.125mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.22μm (Ra) third model was a 0.15mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 4.6μm (Ra). These models were fabricated from somos 18420 by a stereolithography (SLA). A wing-body-tail configuration was chosen for the actual study. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9 at an angle-of-attack range of -2° to +12° at zero sideslip. Coefficients of normal force, axial force, pitching moment, and lift over drag are shown at each of these Mach numbers. Results from this study show that layer thickness does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics in general; the data differ between the three models by fewer than 5%. The layer thickness does have more effect on the aerodynamic characteristics when Mach number is decreased and had most effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of axial force and its derivative coefficients.

    3
    14188
    A Modularized Design for Multi-Drivers Off-Road Vehicle Driving-Line and its Performance Assessment
    Abstract:
    Modularized design approach can facilitate the modeling of complex systems and support behavior analysis and simulation in an iterative and thus complex engineering process, by using encapsulated submodels of components and of their interfaces. Therefore it can improve the design efficiency and simplify the solving complicated problem. Multi-drivers off-road vehicle is comparatively complicated. Driving-line is an important core part to a vehicle; it has a significant contribution to the performance of a vehicle. Multi-driver off-road vehicles have complex driving-line, so its performance is heavily dependent on the driving-line. A typical off-road vehicle-s driving-line system consists of torque converter, transmission, transfer case and driving-axles, which transfer the power, generated by the engine and distribute it effectively to the driving wheels according to the road condition. According to its main function, this paper puts forward a modularized approach for designing and evaluation of vehicle-s driving-line. It can be used to effectively estimate the performance of driving-line during concept design stage. Through appropriate analysis and assessment method, an optimal design can be reached. This method has been applied to the practical vehicle design, it can improve the design efficiency and is convenient to assess and validate the performance of a vehicle, especially of multi-drivers off-road vehicle.
    2
    14317
    Influence of Cyclic Thermal Loading on Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings
    Abstract:
    Thermally insulating ceramic coatings also known as thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been essential technologies to improve the performance and efficiency of advanced gas turbines in service at extremely high temperatures. The damage mechanisms of air-plasma sprayed YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBC) with various microstructures were studied by microscopic techniques after thermal cycling. The typical degradation of plasma TBCs that occurs during cyclic furnace testing of an YSZ and alumina coating on a Titanium alloy are analyzed. During the present investigation the effects of topcoat thickness, bond coat oxidation, thermal cycle lengths and test temperature are investigated using thermal cycling. These results were correlated with stresses measured by a spectroscopic technique in order to understand specific damage mechanism. The failure mechanism of former bond coats was found to involve fracture initiation at the thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface and at the TGO bond coat interface. The failure mechanism of the YZ was found to involve combination of fracture along the interface between TGO and bond coat.
    1
    14739
    Optimizing of Gas Consumption in Gas-burner Space Heater
    Abstract:

    Nowadays, the importance of energy saving is clearance to everyone. By attention to increasing price of fuels and also the problems of environment pollutions, there are the most efforts for using fuels littler and more optimum in everywhere. This essay studies optimizing of gas consumption in gas-burner space heaters. In oven of each gas-burner space heaters there is two snags to prevent the hot air (the result of combustion of natural gas) to go out of oven of the gas-burner space heaters directly without delivering its heat to the space of favorite environment like a room. These snags cause a excess circulating that helps hot air deliver its heat to the space of favorite environment. It means the exhaust air temperature will be decreased then when there are no snags. This is the aim of this essay to use maximum potential energy of the natural gas to make heat. In this study, by the help of a finite volume software (FLUENT) consumption of the gas-burner space heaters is simulated and optimized. At the end of this writing, by comparing the results of software and experimental results, it will be proved the authenticity of this method.