Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 18

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 18
    Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study

    In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed

    The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels
    Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to 1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.
    Graphical Programming of Programmable Logic Controllers -Case Study for a Punching Machine-
    The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) plays a vital role in automation and process control. Grafcet is used for representing the control logic, and traditional programming languages are used for describing the pure algorithms. Grafcet is used for dividing the process to be automated in elementary sequences that can be easily implemented. Each sequence represent a step that has associated actions programmed using textual or graphical languages after case. The programming task is simplified by using a set of subroutines that are used in several steps. The paper presents an example of implementation for a punching machine for sheets and plates. The use the graphical languages the programming of a complex sequential process is a necessary solution. The state of Grafcet can be used for debugging and malfunction determination. The use of the method combined with a set of knowledge acquisition for process application reduces the downtime of the machine and improve the productivity.
    Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics
    Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment. Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth equation are investigated.
    Design and Implementation of an Intelligent System for Detection of Hazardous Gases using PbPc Sensor Array
    The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the leadphathalocyanine vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes. Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as the sensors shoed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration of applied NO2 gas.
    Control of Commutation of SR Motor Using Its Magnetic Characteristics and Back-of-Core Saturation Effects
    The control of commutation of switched reluctance (SR) motor has nominally depended on a physical position detector. The physical rotor position sensor limits robustness and increases size and inertia of the SR drive system. The paper describes a method to overcome these limitations by using magnetization characteristics of the motor to indicate rotor and stator teeth overlap status. The method is using active current probing pulses of same magnitude that is used to simulate flux linkage in the winding being probed. A microprocessor is used for processing magnetization data to deduce rotor-stator teeth overlap status and hence rotor position. However, the back-of-core saturation and mutual coupling introduces overlap detection errors, hence that of commutation control. This paper presents the concept of the detection scheme and the effects of backof core saturation.
    A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles
    A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.
    Theoretical Investigation of the Instantaneous Folding Force during the First Fold Creation in a Square Column
    In this paper, a theoretical formula is presented to predict the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column under axial loading. Calculations are based on analysis of “Basic Folding Mechanism" introduced by Wierzbicki and Abramowicz. For this purpose, the sum of dissipated energy rate under bending around horizontal and inclined hinge lines and dissipated energy rate under extensional deformations are equated to the work rate of the external force on the structure. Final formula obtained in this research, reasonably predicts the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation versus folding distance and folding angle and also predicts the instantaneous folding force instead of the average value. Finally, according to the calculated theoretical relation, instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column was sketched versus folding distance and was compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.
    An Experimental Method for Measuring Clamping Force in Bolted Connections and Effect of Bolt Threads Lubrication on Its Value

    In this paper, the details of an experimental method to measure the clamping force value at bolted connections due to application of wrenching torque to tighten the nut have been presented. A simplified bolted joint including a holed plate with a single bolt was considered to carry out the experiments. This method was designed based on Hooke-s law by measuring compressive axial strain of a steel bush placed between the nut and the plate. In the experimental procedure, the values of clamping force were calculated for seven different levels of applied torque, and this process was repeated three times for each level of the torque. Moreover, the effect of lubrication of threads on the clamping value was studied using the same method. In both conditions (dry and lubricated threads), relation between the torque and the clamping force have been displayed in graphs.

    Development of A Jacobean Model for A 4-Axes Indigenously Developed SCARA System

    This paper deals with the development of a Jacobean model for a 4-axes indigenously developed scara robot arm in the laboratory. This model is used to study the relation between the velocities and the forces in the robot while it is doing the pick and place operation.

    Heat Exchanger Design

    This paper is intended to assist anyone with some general technical experience, but perhaps limited specific knowledge of heat transfer equipment. A characteristic of heat exchanger design is the procedure of specifying a design, heat transfer area and pressure drops and checking whether the assumed design satisfies all requirements or not. The purpose of this paper is how to design the oil cooler (heat exchanger) especially for shell-and-tube heat exchanger which is the majority type of liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger. General design considerations and design procedure are also illustrated in this paper and a flow diagram is provided as an aid of design procedure. In design calculation, the MatLAB and AutoCAD software are used. Fundamental heat transfer concepts and complex relationships involved in such exchanger are also presented in this paper. The primary aim of this design is to obtain a high heat transfer rate without exceeding the allowable pressure drop. This computer program is highly useful to design the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger and to modify existing deign.

    Microwave Drying System with High-Tech Phase Controller: A Modified Applicator

    Microwave energy can be used for drying purpose. It is unique process. It is distinctly different from conventional drying process. It is advantageous over conventional drying / heating processes. When microwave energy is used for drying purpose, the process can be accelerated with a better control to achieve uniform heating, more conversion efficiency, selective drying and ultimately improved product quality of the output. Also, less floor space and compact system are the added advantages. Existing low power microwave drying system is to be modified with suitable applicator. Appropriate sensors are to be used to measure parameters like moisture, temperature, weight of sample. Suitable high tech controller is to be used to control microwave power continuously from minimum to maximum. Phase - controller, cycle - controller and PWM - controller are some of the advanced power control techniques. It has been proposed to work on turmeric using high-tech phase controller to control the microwave power conveniently. The drying of turmeric with microwave energy employing phase controller gives better results as formulated in this paper and hence new approach of processing turmeric will open future doors of profit making to allied industries and the farmers.

    An Empirical Model to Calculate the Threads Stripping of a Bolt Installed in a Tapped Part

    To determine the length of engagement threads of a bolt installed in a tapped part in order to avoid the threads stripping remains a very current problem in the design of the thread assemblies. It does not exist a calculation method formalized for the cases where the bolt is screwed directly in a ductile material. In this article, we study the behavior of the threads stripping of a loaded assembly by using a modelling by finite elements and a rupture criterion by damage. This modelling enables us to study the different parameters likely to influence the behavior of this bolted connection. We study in particular, the influence of couple of materials constituting the connection, of the bolt-s diameter and the geometrical characteristics of the tapped part, like the external diameter and the length of engagement threads. We established an experiments design to know the most significant parameters. That enables us to propose a simple expression making possible to calculate the resistance of the threads whatever the metallic materials of the bolt and the tapped part. We carried out stripping tests in order to validate our model. The estimated results are very close to those obtained by the tests.

    Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators
    Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller design.
    Optimizing Turning Parameters for Cylindrical Parts Using Simulated Annealing Method

    In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm has been developed to optimize machining parameters in turning operation on cylindrical workpieces. The turning operation usually includes several passes of rough machining and a final pass of finishing. Seven different constraints are considered in a non-linear model where the goal is to achieve minimum total cost. The weighted total cost consists of machining cost, tool cost and tool replacement cost. The computational results clearly show that the proposed optimization procedure has considerably improved total operation cost by optimally determining machining parameters.

    Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor
    This paper presents a controller design technique for Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error. The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine, the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.
    Performance Characteristics of a Closed Circuit Cooling Tower with Multi Path
    The experimental thermal performance of two heat exchangers in closed-wet cooling tower (CWCT) was investigated in this study. The test sections are heat exchangers which have multi path that is used as the entrance of cooling water and are consisting of bare-type copper tubes between 15.88mm and 19.05mm. The process fluids are the cooling water that flows from top part of heat exchanger to bottom side in the inner side of tube, and spray water that flows gravitational direction in the outer side of it. Air contacts its outer side of that as it counterflows. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity were calculated with variations of process fluids, multi path and different diameter tubes to figure out the performance of characteristics of CWCT. The main results were summarized as follows: The results show this experiment is reliable with values of heat and mass transfer coefficients comparing to values of correlations. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity of two paths are higher than these with one path using 15.88 and 19.05mm tubes. Cooling capacity per unit volume with 15.88mm tube using one and two paths are higher than 19.05mm tube due to increase of surface area per unit volume.
    Effects of Mach Number and Angle of Attack on Mass Flow Rates and Entropy Gain in a Supersonic Inlet
    A parametric study of a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is performed and reported. The effects of inlet Mach Numbers, varying from 4 to 10, and angle of attack, varying from 0 to 10, are reported for a constant inlet dynamic pressure. The paper looked at the variations of mass flow rates through the inlet, gain in entropy through the inlet, and the angles of the external oblique shocks. The mass flow rates were found to decrease monotonically with Mach numbers and increase with angle of attacks. On the other hand the entropy gain through the inlet increased with increasing Mach number and angle of attack. The variation in static pressure was found to be identical from the inlet throat to the exit for Mach number values higher than 6.