Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 36

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 36
    Structural Analysis of Stiffened FGM Thick Walled Cylinders by Application of a New Cylindrical Super Element
    Structural behavior of ring stiffened thick walled cylinders made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is investigated in this paper. Functionally graded materials are inhomogeneous composites which are usually made from a mixture of metal and ceramic. The gradient compositional variation of the constituents from one surface to the other provides an elegant solution to the problem of high transverse shear stresses that are induced when two dissimilar materials with large differences in material properties are bonded. FGM formation of the cylinder is modeled by power-law exponent and the variation of characteristics is supposed to be in radial direction. A finite element formulation is derived for the analysis. According to the property variation of the constituent materials in the radial direction of the wall, it is not convenient to use conventional elements to model and analyze the structure of the stiffened FGM cylinders. In this paper a new cylindrical super-element is used to model the finite element formulation and analyze the static and modal behavior of stiffened FGM thick walled cylinders. By using this super-element the number of elements, which are needed for modeling, will reduce significantly and the process time is less in comparison with conventional finite element formulations. Results for static and modal analysis are evaluated and verified by comparison to finite element formulation with conventional elements. Comparison indicates a good conformity between results.
    Design and Analysis of a Novel 8-DOF Hybrid Manipulator
    This paper presents kinematic and dynamic analysis of a novel 8-DOF hybrid robot manipulator. The hybrid robot manipulator under consideration consists of a parallel robot which is followed by a serial mechanism. The parallel mechanism has three translational DOF, and the serial mechanism has five DOF so that the overall degree of freedom is eight. The introduced manipulator has a wide workspace and a high capability to reduce the actuating energy. The inverse and forward kinematic solutions are described in closed form. The theoretical results are verified by a numerical example. Inverse dynamic analysis of the robot is presented by utilizing the Iterative Newton-Euler and Lagrange dynamic formulation methods. Finally, for performing a multi-step arc welding process, results have indicated that the introduced manipulator is highly capable of reducing the actuating energy.
    System Identification and Performance Improvement to a Micro Gas Turbine Applying Biogas

    In this study, the effects of biogas fuels on the performance of an annular micro gas turbine (MGT) were assessed experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the proposed MGT system was operated successfully under each test condition; minimum composition to the fuel with the biogas was roughly 50% CH4 with 50% CO2. The power output was around 170W at 85,000 RPM as 90% CH4 with 10% CO2 was used and 70W at 65,000 RPM as 70% CH4 with 30% CO2 was used. When a critical limit of 60% CH4 was reached, the power output was extremely low. Furthermore, the theoretical Brayton cycle efficiency and electric efficiency of the MGT were calculated as 23% and 10%, respectively. Following the experiments, the measured data helped us identify the parameters of dynamic model in numerical simulation. Additionally, a numerical analysis of re-designed combustion chamber showed that the performance of MGT could be improved by raising the temperature at turbine inlet. This study presents a novel distributed power supply system that can utilize renewable biogas. The completed micro biogas power supply system is small, low cost, easy to maintain and suited to household use.

    Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid
    The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles
    LQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
    We present our ongoing work on the development of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle which has a tilt-wing mechanism. The vehicle is capable of take-off/landing in vertical flight mode (VTOL) and flying over long distances in horizontal flight mode. Full dynamic model of the vehicle is derived using Newton-Euler formulation. Linear and nonlinear controllers for the stabilization of attitude of the vehicle and control of its altitude have been designed and implemented via simulations. In particular, an LQR controller has been shown to be quite effective in the vertical flight mode for all possible yaw angles. A sliding mode controller (SMC) with recursive nature has also been proposed to stabilize the vehicle-s attitude and altitude. Simulation results show that proposed controllers provide satisfactory performance in achieving desired maneuvers.
    Influence of IMV on Space Station

    To study the impact of the inter-module ventilation (IMV) on the space station, the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model under the influence of IMV, the mathematical model, boundary conditions and calculation method are established and determined to analyze the influence of IMV on cabin air flow characteristics and velocity distribution firstly; and then an integrated overall thermal mathematical model of the space station is used to consider the impact of IMV on thermal management. The results show that: the IMV has a significant influence on the cabin air flow, the flowrate of IMV within a certain range can effectively improve the air velocity distribution in cabin, if too much may lead to its deterioration; IMV can affect the heat deployment of the different modules in space station, thus affecting its thermal management, the use of IMV can effectively maintain the temperature levels of the different modules and help the space station to dissipate the waste heat.

    Controlling 6R Robot by Visionary System
    In the visual servoing systems, the data obtained by Visionary is used for controlling robots. In this project, at first the simulator which was proposed for simulating the performance of a 6R robot before, was examined in terms of software and test, and in the proposed simulator, existing defects were obviated. In the first version of simulation, the robot was directed toward the target object only in a Position-based method using two cameras in the environment. In the new version of the software, three cameras were used simultaneously. The camera which is installed as eye-inhand on the end-effector of the robot is used for visual servoing in a Feature-based method. The target object is recognized according to its characteristics and the robot is directed toward the object in compliance with an algorithm similar to the function of human-s eyes. Then, the function and accuracy of the operation of the robot are examined through Position-based visual servoing method using two cameras installed as eye-to-hand in the environment. Finally, the obtained results are tested under ANSI-RIA R15.05-2 standard.
    Risk Quantification for Tunnel Excavation Process
    Construction of tunnels is connected with high uncertainty in the field of costs, construction period, safety and impact on surroundings. Risk management became therefore a common part of tunnel projects, especially after a set of fatal collapses occurred in 1990's. Such collapses are caused usually by combination of factors that can be divided into three main groups, i.e. unfavourable geological conditions, failures in the design and planning or failures in the execution. This paper suggests a procedure enabling quantification of the excavation risk related to extraordinary accidents using FTA and ETA tools. It will elaborate on a common process of risk analysis and enable the transfer of information and experience between particular tunnel construction projects. Further, it gives a guide for designers, management and other participants, how to deal with risk of such accidents and how to make qualified decisions based on a probabilistic approach.
    Design Considerations of Scheduling Systems Suitable for PCB Manufacturing
    This paper identifies five key design characteristics of production scheduling software systems in printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. The authors consider that, in addition to an effective scheduling engine, a scheduling system should be able to process a preventative maintenance calendar, to give the user the flexibility to handle data using a variety of electronic sources, to run simulations to support decision-making, and to have simple and customisable graphical user interfaces. These design considerations were the result of a review of academic literature, the evaluation of commercial applications and a compilation of requirements of a PCB manufacturer. It was found that, from those systems that were evaluated, those that effectively addressed all five characteristics outlined in this paper were the most robust of all and could be used in PCB manufacturing.
    Nonlinear Effects in Stiffness Modeling of Robotic Manipulators
    The paper focuses on the enhanced stiffness modeling of robotic manipulators by taking into account influence of the external force/torque acting upon the end point. It implements the virtual joint technique that describes the compliance of manipulator elements by a set of localized six-dimensional springs separated by rigid links and perfect joints. In contrast to the conventional formulation, which is valid for the unloaded mode and small displacements, the proposed approach implicitly assumes that the loading leads to the non-negligible changes of the manipulator posture and corresponding amendment of the Jacobian. The developed numerical technique allows computing the static equilibrium and relevant force/torque reaction of the manipulator for any given displacement of the end-effector. This enables designer detecting essentially nonlinear effects in elastic behavior of manipulator, similar to the buckling of beam elements. It is also proposed the linearization procedure that is based on the inversion of the dedicated matrix composed of the stiffness parameters of the virtual springs and the Jacobians/Hessians of the active and passive joints. The developed technique is illustrated by an application example that deals with the stiffness analysis of a parallel manipulator of the Orthoglide family
    Identification, Prediction and Detection of the Process Fault in a Cement Rotary Kiln by Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Technique
    In this paper, we use nonlinear system identification method to predict and detect process fault of a cement rotary kiln. After selecting proper inputs and output, an input-output model is identified for the plant. To identify the various operation points in the kiln, Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy (LLNF) model is used. This model is trained by LOLIMOT algorithm which is an incremental treestructure algorithm. Then, by using this method, we obtained 3 distinct models for the normal and faulty situations in the kiln. One of the models is for normal condition of the kiln with 15 minutes prediction horizon. The other two models are for the two faulty situations in the kiln with 7 minutes prediction horizon are presented. At the end, we detect these faults in validation data. The data collected from White Saveh Cement Company is used for in this study.
    Order Partitioning in Hybrid MTS/MTO Contexts using Fuzzy ANP
    A novel concept to balance and tradeoff between make-to-stock and make-to-order has been hybrid MTS/MTO production context. One of the most important decisions involved in the hybrid MTS/MTO environment is determining whether a product is manufactured to stock, to order, or hybrid MTS/MTO strategy. In this paper, a model based on analytic network process is developed to tackle the addressed decision. Since the regarded decision deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of data as well as experts- and managers- linguistic judgments, the proposed model is equipped with fuzzy sets theory. An important attribute of the model is its generality due to diverse decision factors which are elicited from the literature and developed by the authors. Finally, the model is validated by applying to a real case study to reveal how the proposed model can actually be implemented.
    Maintenance Function's Performance Evaluation Using Adapted Balanced Scorecard Model

    PT XYZ is a bottled drinking water company. To preserve production resources owned by the company so that the resources could be utilized well, it has implemented maintenance management system, which has important role in company's profitability, and is one of the factors influenced overall company's performance. Yet, up to now the company has never measured maintenance activities' contribution to company's performance. Performance evaluation is done according to adapted Balanced Scorecard model fitted to maintenance function context. This model includes six perspectives: innovation and growth, production, maintenance, environment, costumer, and finance. Actual performance measurement is done through Analytic Hierarchy Process and Objective Matrix. From the research done, we can conclude that the company's maintenance function is categorized in moderate performance. But, there are some indicators which has high priority but low performance, which are: costumers' complain rate, work lateness rate, and Return on Investment.

    Computer-Aided Analysis of Flow in a Rotating Single Disk
    In this study a two dimensional axisymmetric, steady state and incompressible laminar flow in a rotating single disk is numerically investigated. The finite volume method is used for solving the momentum equations. The numerical model and results are validated by comparing it to previously reported experimental data for velocities, angles and moment coefficients. It is demonstrated that increasing the axial distance increases the value of axial velocity and vice versa for tangential and total velocities. However, the maximum value of nondimensional radial velocity occurs near the disk wall. It is also found that with increase rotational Reynolds number, moment coefficient decreases.
    An MADM Framework toward Hierarchical Production Planning in Hybrid MTS/MTO Environments
    This paper proposes a new decision making structure to determine the appropriate product delivery strategy for different products in a manufacturing system among make-to-stock, make-toorder, and hybrid strategy. Given product delivery strategies for all products in the manufacturing system, the position of the Order Penetrating Point (OPP) can be located regarding the delivery strategies among which location of OPP in hybrid strategy is a cumbersome task. In this regard, we employ analytic network process, because there are varieties of interrelated driving factors involved in choosing the right location. Moreover, the proposed structure is augmented with fuzzy sets theory in order to cope with the uncertainty of judgments. Finally, applicability of the proposed structure is proven in practice through a real industrial case company. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed decision making structure in order partitioning and OPP location.
    Investigation of Self-Similarity Solution for Wake Flow of a Cylinder
    The data measurement of mean velocity has been taken for the wake of single circular cylinder with three different diameters for two different velocities. The effects of change in diameter and in velocity are studied in self-similar coordinate system. The spatial variations of velocity defect and that of the half-width have been investigated. The results are compared with those published by H.Schlichting. In the normalized coordinates, it is also observed that all cases except for the first station are self-similar. By attention to self-similarity profiles of mean velocity, it is observed for all the cases at the each station curves tend to zero at a same point.
    A Hybrid Overset Algorithm for Aerodynamic Problems with Moving Objects

    A two-dimensional moving mesh algorithm is developed to simulate the general motion of two rotating bodies with relative translational motion. The grid includes a background grid and two sets of grids around the moving bodies. With this grid arrangement rotational and translational motions of two bodies are handled separately, with no complications. Inter-grid boundaries are determined based on their distances from two bodies. In this method, the overset concept is applied to hybrid grid, and flow variables are interpolated using a simple stencil. To evaluate this moving mesh algorithm unsteady Euler flow is solved for different cases using dual-time method of Jameson. Numerical results show excellent agreement with experimental data and other numerical results. To demonstrate the capability of present algorithm for accurate solution of flow fields around moving bodies, some benchmark problems have been defined in this paper.

    Identification of Nonlinear Predictor and Simulator Models of a Cement Rotary Kiln by Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Technique
    One of the most important parts of a cement factory is the cement rotary kiln which plays a key role in quality and quantity of produced cement. In this part, the physical exertion and bilateral movement of air and materials, together with chemical reactions take place. Thus, this system has immensely complex and nonlinear dynamic equations. These equations have not worked out yet. Only in exceptional case; however, a large number of the involved parameter were crossed out and an approximation model was presented instead. This issue caused many problems for designing a cement rotary kiln controller. In this paper, we presented nonlinear predictor and simulator models for a real cement rotary kiln by using nonlinear identification technique on the Locally Linear Neuro- Fuzzy (LLNF) model. For the first time, a simulator model as well as a predictor one with a precise fifteen minute prediction horizon for a cement rotary kiln is presented. These models are trained by LOLIMOT algorithm which is an incremental tree-structure algorithm. At the end, the characteristics of these models are expressed. Furthermore, we presented the pros and cons of these models. The data collected from White Saveh Cement Company is used for modeling.
    Numerical Simulation of Thermoreversible Polymer Gel Filtration

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of filtration of abnormal thermoviscous fluid on an example of thermo reversible polymer gel.

    Approximate Method of Calculation of Inviscid Hypersonic Flow
    In the present work steady inviscid hypersonic flows are calculated by approximate Method. Maslens' inverse method is the chosen approximate method. For the inverse problem, parabolic shock shape is chosen for the two-dimensional flow, and the body shape and flow field are calculated using Maslen's method. For the axisymmetric inverse problem paraboloidal shock is chosen and the surface distribution of pressure is obtained.
    Engine Power Effects on Support Interference
    Renewed interest in propeller propulsion on aircraft configurations combined with higher propeller loads lead to the question how the effects of the propulsion on model support disturbances should be accounted for. In this paper, the determination of engine power effects on support interference of sting-mounted models is demonstrated by a measurement on a four-engine turboprop aircraft. CFD results on a more generic model are presented in order to clarify the possible mechanism behind engine power effects on support interference. The engine slipstream induces a local change in angle of sideslip at the model sting thereby influencing the sting near-field and far-field effects. Whether or not the net result of these changes in the disturbance pattern leads to a significant engine power effect depends on the configuration of the wind tunnel model and the test setup.
    Using Stresses Obtained from a Low Detailed FE Model and Located at a Reference Point to Quickly Calculate the Free-edge Stress Intensity Factors of Bonded Joints

    The present study focuses on methods allowing a convenient and quick calculation of the SIFs in order to predict the static adhesive strength of bonded joints. A new SIF calculation method is proposed, based on the stresses obtained from a FE model at a reference point located in the adhesive layer at equal distance of the free-edge and of the two interfaces. It is shown that, even limiting ourselves to the two main modes, i.e. the opening and the shearing modes, and using the values of the stresses resulting from a low detailed FE model, an efficient calculation of the peeling stress at adhesive-substrate corners can be obtained by this way. The proposed method is interesting in that it can be the basis of a prediction tool that will allow the designer to quickly evaluate the SIFs characterizing a particular application without developing a detailed analysis.

    Application of Spreadsheet and Queuing Network Model to Capacity Optimization in Product Development
    Modeling of a manufacturing system enables one to identify the effects of key design parameters on the system performance and as a result to make correct decision. This paper proposes a manufacturing system modeling approach using a spreadsheet model based on queuing network theory, in which a static capacity planning model and stochastic queuing model are integrated. The model was used to improve the existing system utilization in relation to product design. The model incorporates few parameters such as utilization, cycle time, throughput, and batch size. The study also showed that the validity of developed model is good enough to apply and the maximum value of relative error is 10%, far below the limit value 32%. Therefore, the model developed in this study is a valuable alternative model in evaluating a manufacturing system
    The Accuracy of the Flight Derivative Estimates Derived from Flight Data
    The accuracy of estimated stability and control derivatives of a light aircraft from flight test data were evaluated. The light aircraft, named ChangGong-91, is the first certified aircraft from the Korean government. The output error method, which is a maximum likelihood estimation technique and considers measurement noise only, was used to analyze the aircraft responses measures. The multi-step control inputs were applied in order to excite the short period mode for the longitudinal and Dutch-roll mode for the lateral-directional motion. The estimated stability/control derivatives of Chan Gong-91 were analyzed for the assessment of handling qualities comparing them with those of similar aircraft. The accuracy of the flight derivative estimates derived from flight test measurement was examined in engineering judgment, scatter and Cramer-Rao bound, which turned out to be satisfactory with minor defects..
    Introducing Fast Robot Roller Hemming Process in Automotive Industry
    As product life cycle becomes less and less every day, having flexible manufacturing processes for any companies seems more demanding. In the assembling of closures, i.e. opening parts in car body, hemming process is the one which needs more attention. This paper focused on the robot roller hemming process and how to reduce its cycle time by introducing a fast roller hemming process. A robot roller hemming process of a tailgate of Saab 93 SportCombi model is investigated as a case study in this paper. By applying task separation, robot coordination, and robot cell configuration principles in the roller hemming process, three alternatives are proposed, developed, and remarkable reduction in cycle times achieved [1].
    New Hybrid Method to Correct for Wind Tunnel Wall- and Support Interference On-line
    Because support interference corrections are not properly understood, engineers mostly rely on expensive dummy measurements or CFD calculations. This paper presents a method based on uncorrected wind tunnel measurements and fast calculation techniques (it is a hybrid method) to calculate wall interference, support interference and residual interference (when e.g. a support member closely approaches the wind tunnel walls) for any type of wind tunnel and support configuration. The method provides with a simple formula for the calculation of the interference gradient. This gradient is based on the uncorrected measurements and a successive calculation of the slopes of the interference-free aerodynamic coefficients. For the latter purpose a new vortex-lattice routine is developed that corrects the slopes for viscous effects. A test case of a measurement on a wing proves the value of this hybrid method as trends and orders of magnitudes of the interference are correctly determined.
    Design and Characteristics of New Test Facility for Flat Plate Boundary Layer Research
    Preliminary results for a new flat plate test facility are presented here in the form of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), flow visualisation, pressure measurements and thermal anemometry. The results from the CFD and flow visualisation show the effectiveness of the plate design, with the trailing edge flap anchoring the stagnation point on the working surface and reducing the extent of the leading edge separation. The flow visualization technique demonstrates the two-dimensionality of the flow in the location where the thermal anemometry measurements are obtained. Measurements of the boundary layer mean velocity profiles compare favourably with the Blasius solution, thereby allowing for comparison of future measurements with the wealth of data available on zero pressure gradient Blasius flows. Results for the skin friction, boundary layer thickness, frictional velocity and wall shear stress are shown to agree well with the Blasius theory, with a maximum experimental deviation from theory of 5%. Two turbulence generating grids have been designed and characterized and it is shown that the turbulence decay downstream of both grids agrees with established correlations. It is also demonstrated that there is little dependence of turbulence on the freestream velocity.
    Sensorless Control of a Six-Phase Induction Motors Drive Using FOC in Stator Flux Reference Frame
    In this paper, a direct torque control - space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) scheme is presented for a six-phase speed and voltage sensorless induction motor (IM) drive. The decoupled torque and stator flux control is achieved based on IM stator flux field orientation. The rotor speed is detected by on-line estimating of the rotor angular slip speed and stator vector flux speed. In addition, a simple method is introduced to estimate the stator resistance. Moreover in this control scheme the voltage sensors are eliminated and actual motor phase voltages are approximated by using PWM inverter switching times and the dc link voltage. Finally, some simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness and capability of the proposed control scheme.
    Worker Behavior Interpretation for Flexible Production
    This paper addresses the problem of recognizing and interpreting the behavior of human workers in industrial environments for the purpose of integrating humans in software controlled manufacturing environments. In this work we propose a generic concept in order to derive solutions for task-related manual production applications. Thus, we are able to use a versatile concept providing flexible components and being less restricted to a specific problem or application. We instantiate our concept in a spot welding scenario in which the behavior of a human worker is interpreted when performing a welding task with a hand welding gun. We acquire signals from inertial sensors, video cameras and triggers and recognize atomic actions by using pose data from a marker based video tracking system and movement data from inertial sensors. Recognized atomic actions are analyzed on a higher evaluation level by a finite state machine.
    Air flow and Heat Transfer Modeling of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machines require effective cooling due to their high power density. The detrimental effects of overheating such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnets demagnetization, and increase of Joule losses are well known. This paper describes the CFD simulations performed on a test rig model of an air cooled Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator built at Durham University to identify the temperatures and heat transfer coefficient on the stator. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and the Energy equations are solved and the flow pattern and heat transfer developing inside the machine are described. The Nusselt number on the stator surfaces has been found. The dependency of the heat transfer on the flow field is described temperature field obtained. Tests on an experimental are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.

    Project Selection Using Fuzzy Group Analytic Network Process

    This paper deals with the project selection problem. Project selection problem is one of the problems arose firstly in the field of operations research following some production concepts from primary product mix problem. Afterward, introduction of managerial considerations into the project selection problem have emerged qualitative factors and criteria to be regarded as well as quantitative ones. To overcome both kinds of criteria, an analytic network process is developed in this paper enhanced with fuzzy sets theory to tackle the vagueness of experts- comments to evaluate the alternatives. Additionally, a modified version of Least-Square method through a non-linear programming model is augmented to the developed group decision making structure in order to elicit the final weights from comparison matrices. Finally, a case study is considered by which developed structure in this paper is validated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the response of the model with respect to the condition alteration.

    Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair
    Contact stress analysis between two spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. This programme was run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 cases. Each case was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical calculations, wherever available.
    Improvement of Gas Turbine Performance Test in Combine Cycle
    One of the important applications of gas turbines is their utilization for heat recovery steam generator in combine-cycle technology. Exhaust flow and energy are two key parameters for determining heat recovery steam generator performance which are mainly determined by the main gas turbine components performance data. For this reason a method was developed for determining the exhaust energy in the new edition of ASME PTC22. The result of this investigation shows that the method of standard has considerable error. Therefore in this paper a new method is presented for modifying of the performance calculation. The modified method is based on exhaust gas constituent analysis and combustion calculations. The case study presented here by two kind of General Electric gas turbine design data for validation of methodologies. The result shows that the modified method is more precise than the ASME PTC22 method. The exhaust flow calculation deviation from design data is 1.5-2 % by ASME PTC22 method so that the deviation regarding with modified method is 0.3-0.5%. Based on precision of analyzer instruments, the method can be suitable alternative for gas turbine standard performance test. In advance two methods are proposed based on known and unknown fuel in modified method procedure. The result of this paper shows that the difference between the two methods is below than %0.02. In according to reasonable esult of the second procedure (unknown fuel composition), the method can be applied to performance evaluation of gas turbine, so that the measuring cost and data gathering should be reduced.
    Stator-Flux-Oriented Based Encoderless Direct Torque Control for Synchronous Reluctance Machines Using Sliding Mode Approach
    In this paper a sliding-mode torque and flux control is designed for encoderless synchronous reluctance motor drive. The sliding-mode plus PI controllers are designed in the stator-flux field oriented reference frame which is able to track the mentioned reference signals with a minimum pulsations in the state condition. In addition, with these controllers a fast dynamic response is also achieved for the drive system. The proposed control scheme is robust subject to parameters variation except to stator resistance. To solve this problem a simple estimator is used for on-line detecting of this parameter. Moreover, the rotor position and speed are estimated by on-line obtaining of the stator-flux-space vector. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed control approach is verified by both the simulation and experimental results.
    Dynamic Optimization of Industrial Servomechanisms using Motion Laws Based On Bezier Curves

    The motion planning procedure described in this paper has been developed in order to eliminate or reduce the residual vibrations of electromechanical positioning systems, without augmenting the motion time (usually imposed by production requirements), nor introducing overtime for vibration damping. The proposed technique is based on a suitable choice of the motion law assigned to the servomotor that drives the mechanism. The reference profile is defined by a Bezier curve, whose shape can be easily changed by modifying some numerical parameters. By means of an optimization technique these parameters can be modified without altering the continuity conditions imposed on the displacement and on its time derivatives at the initial and final time instants.

    Effect of Initial Conditions on Aerodynamic and Acoustic Characteristics of High Subsonic Jets from Sharp Edged Circular Orifice
    The present work involves measurements to examine the effects of initial conditions on aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a Jet at M=0.8 by changing the orientation of sharp edged orifice plate. A thick plate with chamfered orifice presented divergent and convergent openings when it was flipped over. The centerline velocity was found to decay more rapidly for divergent orifice and that was consistent with the enhanced mass entrainment suggesting quicker spread of the jet compared with that from the convergent orifice. The mixing layer region elucidated this effect of initial conditions at an early stage – the growth was found to be comparatively more pronounced for the divergent orifice resulting in reduced potential core size. The acoustic measurements, carried out in the near field noise region outside the jet within potential core length, showed the jet from the divergent orifice to be less noisy. The frequency spectra of the noise signal exhibited that in the initial region of comparatively thin mixing layer for the convergent orifice, the peak registered a higher SPL and a higher frequency as well. The noise spectra and the mixing layer development suggested a direct correlation between the coherent structures developing in the initial region of the jet and the noise captured in the surrounding near field.