Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 22
    FT-IR Study of Stabilized PAN Fibers for Fabrication of Carbon Fibers
    In this investigation, types of commercial and special polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers contain sodium 2-methyl-2- acrylamidopropane sulfonate (SAMPS) and itaconic acid (IA) comonomers were studied by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The study of FT-IR spectra of PAN fibers samples with different comonomers shows that during stabilization of PAN fibers, the peaks related to C≡N bonds and CH2 are reduced sharply. These reductions are related to cyclization of nitrile groups and stabilization procedure. This reduction in PAN fibers contain IA comonomer is very intense in comparison with PAN fibers contain SAMPS comonomer. This fact indicates the cycling and stabilization for sample contain IA comonomer have been conducted more completely. Therefore the carbon fibers produced from this material have higher tensile strength due to suitable stabilization.
    Designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller to Enhance Directional Stability of Vehicles under Difficult Maneuvers
    Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is capable of developing the required lateral forces at the tire-ground patch contact to attain the desired lateral acceleration for the vehicle to follow the desired path without slippage. This simulation model is our reference model. The logic for keeping the vehicle on the desired track in the cornering or maneuvering state is to have some braking forces on the inner or outer tires based on the direction of vehicle deviation from the desired path. The inputs to our vehicle simulation model is steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V , and the outputs can be any kinematical parameters like yaw rate, yaw acceleration, side slip angle, rate of side slip angle and so on. The proposed fuzzy controller is a feed forward controller. This controller has two inputs which are steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V, and the output of the controller is the correcting moment M, which guides the vehicle back to the desired track. To develop the membership functions for the controller inputs and output and the fuzzy rules, the vehicle simulation has been run for 1000 times and the correcting moment have been determined by trial and error. Results of the vehicle simulation with fuzzy controller are very promising and show the vehicle performance is enhanced greatly over the vehicle without the controller. In fact the vehicle performance with the controller is very near the performance of the reference ideal model.
    Straightness Error Compensation Servo-system for Single-axis Linear Motor Stage
    Since straightness error of linear motor stage is hardly dependent upon machining accuracy and assembling accuracy, there is limit on maximum realizable accuracy. To cope with this limitation, this paper proposed a servo system to compensate straightness error of a linear motor stage. The servo system is mounted on the slider of the linear motor stage and moves in the direction of the straightness error so as to compensate the error. From position dependency and repeatability of the straightness error of the slider, a feedforward compensation control is applied to the platform servo control. In the consideration of required fine positioning accuracy, a platform driven by an electro-magnetic actuator is suggested and a sliding mode control was applied. The effectiveness of the sliding mode control was verified along with some experimental results.
    Model Predictive Control of Gantry Crane with Input Nonlinearity Compensation
    This paper proposed a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) method for the control of gantry crane. One of the main motivations to apply MPC to control gantry crane is based on its ability to handle control constraints for multivariable systems. A pre-compensator is constructed to compensate the input nonlinearity (nonsymmetric dead zone with saturation) by using its inverse function. By well tuning the weighting function matrices, the control system can properly compromise the control between crane position and swing angle. The proposed control algorithm was implemented for the control of gantry crane system in System Control Lab of University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), and achieved desired experimental results.
    Stress Analysis for Two Fitted Thin Walled Cylinder with High Angular Velocity
    In this paper stress and strain for two rotating thin wall cylinder fitted together with initial interference and overlap are computed. Also stress value for variation of initial interference is calculated. At first problem is considered without rotation and next angular velocity increased from 0 to 50000 rev/min and stress in each stage is calculated. The important point is that when stress become very small in magnitude the angular velocity is critical and two cylinders will separate. The critical speed i.e. speed of separation is calculated in each step.
    Robust Nonlinear Control of Two Links Robot Manipulator and Computing Maximum Load

    A new robust nonlinear control scheme of a manipulator is proposed in this paper which is robust against modeling errors and unknown disturbances. It is based on the principle of variable structure control, with sliding mode control (SMC) method. The variable structure control method is a robust method that appears to be well suited for robotic manipulators because it requers only bounds on the robotic arm parameters. But there is no single systematic procedure that is guaranteed to produce a suitable control law. Also, to reduce chattring of the control signal, we replaced the sgn function in the control law by a continuous approximation such as tangant function. We can compute the maximum load with regard to applied torque into joints. The effectivness of the proposed approach has been evaluated analitically demonstrated through computer simulations for the cases of variable load and robot arm parameters.

    Large-Eddy Simulation of Hypersonic Configuration Aerodynamics
    LES with mixed subgrid-scale model has been used to simulate aerodynamic performance of hypersonic configuration. The simulation was conducted to replicate conditions and geometry of a model which has been previously tested. LES Model has been successful in predict pressure coefficient with the max error 1.5% besides afterbody. But in the high Mach number condition, it is poor in predict ability and product 12.5% error. The calculation error are mainly conducted by the distribution swirling. The fact of poor ability in the high Mach number and afterbody region indicated that the mixed subgrid-scale model should be improved in large eddied especially in hypersonic separate region. In the condition of attach and sideslip flight, the calculation results have waves. LES are successful in the prediction the pressure wave in hypersonic flow.
    A Hybrid Multi Objective Algorithm for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling
    Scheduling for the flexible job shop is very important in both fields of production management and combinatorial optimization. However, it quit difficult to achieve an optimal solution to this problem with traditional optimization approaches owing to the high computational complexity. The combining of several optimization criteria induces additional complexity and new problems. In this paper, a Pareto approach to solve the multi objective flexible job shop scheduling problems is proposed. The objectives considered are to minimize the overall completion time (makespan) and total weighted tardiness (TWT). An effective simulated annealing algorithm based on the proposed approach is presented to solve multi objective flexible job shop scheduling problem. An external memory of non-dominated solutions is considered to save and update the non-dominated solutions during the solution process. Numerical examples are used to evaluate and study the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be applied easily in real factory conditions and for large size problems. It should thus be useful to both practitioners and researchers.
    Vibration Damping of High-Chromium Ferromagnetic Steel

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of annealing on the vibration damping capacity of high-chromium (16%) ferromagnetic steel. The alloys were prepared from raw materials of 99.9% purity melted in a high frequency induction furnace under high vacuum. The samples were heat-treated in vacuum at various temperatures (800 to 1200ºC) for 1 hour followed by slow cooling (120ºC/h). The inverted torsional pendulum method was used to evaluate the vibration damping capacity. The results indicated that the vibration damping capacity of the alloys is influenced by annealing and there exists a critical annealing temperature after 1000ºC. The damping capacity increases quickly below the critical temperature since the magnetic domains move more easily.

    Design and Implementation of TMS320C31 DSP and FPGA for Conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction Machines
    This paper introduces a new digital logic design, which combines the DSP and FPGA to implement the conventional DTC of induction machine. The DSP will be used for floating point calculation whereas the FPGA main task is to implement the hysteresis-based controller. The emphasis is on FPGA digital logic design. The simulation and experimental results are presented and summarized.
    Lower energy Gait Pattern Generation in 5-Link Biped Robot Using Image Processing
    The purpose of this study is to find natural gait of biped robot such as human being by analyzing the COG (Center Of Gravity) trajectory of human being's gait. It is discovered that human beings gait naturally maintain the stability and use the minimum energy. This paper intends to find the natural gait pattern of biped robot using the minimum energy as well as maintaining the stability by analyzing the human's gait pattern that is measured from gait image on the sagittal plane and COG trajectory on the frontal plane. It is not possible to apply the torques of human's articulation to those of biped robot's because they have different degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, human and 5-link biped robots are similar in kinematics. For this, we generate gait pattern of the 5-link biped robot by using the GA algorithm of adaptation gait pattern which utilize the human's ZMP (Zero Moment Point) and torque of all articulation that are measured from human's gait pattern. The algorithm proposed creates biped robot's fluent gait pattern as that of human being's and to minimize energy consumption because the gait pattern of the 5-link biped robot model is modeled after consideration about the torque of human's each articulation on the sagittal plane and ZMP trajectory on the frontal plane. This paper demonstrate that the algorithm proposed is superior by evaluating 2 kinds of the 5-link biped robot applied to each gait patterns generated both in the general way using inverse kinematics and in the special way in which by considering visuality and efficiency.
    Neuro Fuzzy and Self Tunging Fuzzy Controller to Improve Pitch and Yaw Control Systems Resposes of Twin Rotor MIMO System
    In this paper, Neuro-Fuzzy based Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering Method (FSCM) and Self Tuning Fuzzy PD-like Controller (STFPDC) were used to solve non-linearity and trajectory problems of pitch AND yaw angles of Twin Rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The control objective is to make the beams of TRMS reach a desired position quickly and accurately. The proposed method could achieve control objectives with simpler controller. To simplify the complexity of STFPDC, ANFIS based FSCM was used to simplify the controller and improve the response. The proposed controllers could achieve satisfactory objectives under different input signals. Simulation results under MATLAB/Simulink® proved the improvement of response and superiority of simplified STFPDC on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC).
    Experimental Study on Damping Ratios of in-situ Buildings

    Accurate evaluation of damping ratios involving soilstructure interaction (SSI) effects is the prerequisite for seismic design of in-situ buildings. This study proposes a combined approach to identify damping ratios of SSI systems based on ambient excitation technique. The proposed approach is illustrated with main test process, sampling principle and algorithm steps through an engineering example, as along with its feasibility and validity. The proposed approach is employed for damping ratio identification of 82 buildings in Xi-an, China. Based on the experimental data, the variation range and tendency of damping ratios of these SSI systems, along with the preliminary influence factor, are shown and discussed. In addition, a fitting curve indicates the relation between the damping ratio and fundamental natural period of SSI system.

    Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete
    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the shrinkage of High Strength Concrete. High Strength Concrete is made by partially replacement of cement by flyash and silica fume. The shrinkage of High Strength Concrete has been studied using the different types of coarse and fine aggregates i.e. Sandstone and Granite of 12.5 mm size and Yamuna and Badarpur Sand. The Mix proportion of concrete is 1:0.8:2.2 with water cement ratio as 0.30. Superplasticizer dose @ of 2% by weight of cement is added to achieve the required degree of workability in terms of compaction factor. From the test results of the above investigation it can be concluded that the shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete increases with age. The shrinkage strain of concrete with replacement of cement by 10% of Flyash and Silica fume respectively at various ages are more (6 to 10%) than the shrinkage strain of concrete without Flyash and Silica fume. The shrinkage strain of concrete with Badarpur sand as Fine aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (10%) than that of concrete with Yamuna Sand. Further, the shrinkage strain of concrete with Granite as Coarse aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (6 to 7%) than that of concrete with Sand stone as aggregate of same size. The shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete is also compared with that of normal strength concrete. Test results show that the shrinkage strain of high strength concrete is less than that of normal strength concrete.
    Flow Characteristics Impeller Change of an Axial Turbo Fan
    In this paper, three dimensional flow characteristic was presented by a revision of an impeller of an axial turbo fan for improving the airflow rate and the static pressure. TO consider an incompressible steady three-dimensional flow, the RANS equations are used as the governing equations, and the standard k-ε turbulence model is chosen. The pitch angles of 44°, 54°, 59°, and 64° are implemented for the numerical model. The numerical results show that airflow rates of each pitch angle are 1,175 CMH, 1,270 CMH, 1,340 CMH, and 800 CMH, respectively. The difference of the static pressure at impeller inlet and outlet are 120 Pa, 214 Pa, 242 Pa, and 60 Pa according to respective pitch angles. It means that the 59° of the impeller pitch angle is optimal to improve the airflow rate and the static pressure.
    Reliability of Chute-Feeders in Automatic Machines of High Production Capacity
    Modern highly automated production systems faces problems of reliability. Machine function reliability results in changes of productivity rate and efficiency use of expensive industrial facilities. Predicting of reliability has become an important research and involves complex mathematical methods and calculation. The reliability of high productivity technological automatic machines that consists of complex mechanical, electrical and electronic components is important. The failure of these units results in major economic losses of production systems. The reliability of transport and feeding systems for automatic technological machines is also important, because failure of transport leads to stops of technological machines. This paper presents reliability engineering on the feeding system and its components for transporting a complex shape parts to automatic machines. It also discusses about the calculation of the reliability parameters of the feeding unit by applying the probability theory. Equations produced for calculating the limits of the geometrical sizes of feeders and the probability of sticking the transported parts into the chute represents the reliability of feeders as a function of its geometrical parameters.
    Analysis of Normal Penetration of Ogive -Nose Projectiles into Thin Metallic Plates
    In this note, a theoretical model for analyzing of normal penetration of the ogive – nose projectile into metallic targets is presented .The failure is assumed to be asymmetry petalling and the analysis is performed by using the energy balance and work done .The work done consist of the work required for plastic deformation Wp, the work for transferring the matter to new position Wd and the work for bending of the petals Wb. In several studies, it has been shown that we can neglect the loss of energy by temperature. In this present study, in first, by assuming the crater formation after perforation, the value of work done is calculated during the normal penetration of conical projectiles into thin metallic targets. Then the value of residual velocity and ballistic limit of the projectile is predicated by using the energy balance. In final, theoretical and experimental results is compared.
    Significance of Splitting Method in Non-linear Grid system for the Solution of Navier-Stokes Equation

    Solution to unsteady Navier-Stokes equation by Splitting method in physical orthogonal algebraic curvilinear coordinate system, also termed 'Non-linear grid system' is presented. The linear terms in Navier-Stokes equation are solved by Crank- Nicholson method while the non-linear term is solved by the second order Adams-Bashforth method. This work is meant to bring together the advantage of Splitting method as pressure-velocity solver of higher efficiency with the advantage of consuming Non-linear grid system which produce more accurate results in relatively equal number of grid points as compared to Cartesian grid. The validation of Splitting method as a solution of Navier-Stokes equation in Nonlinear grid system is done by comparison with the benchmark results for lid driven cavity flow by Ghia and some case studies including Backward Facing Step Flow Problem.

    A Mixed Integer Programming for Port Anzali Development Plan

    This paper introduces a mixed integer programming model to find the optimum development plan for port Anzali. The model minimizes total system costs taking into account both port infrastructure costs and shipping costs. Due to the multipurpose function of the port, the model consists of 1020 decision variables and 2490 constraints. Results of the model determine the optimum number of berths that should be constructed in each period and for each type of cargo. In addition to, the results of sensitivity analysis on port operation quantity provide useful information for managers to choose the best scenario for port planning with the lowest investment risks. Despite all limitations-due to data availability-the model offers a straightforward decision tools to port planners aspiring to achieve optimum port planning steps.

    On the Standardizing the Metal Die of Punchand Matrix by Mechanical Desktop Software
    In industry, on of the most important subjects is die and it's characteristics in which for cutting and forming different mechanical pieces, various punch and matrix metal die are used. whereas the common parts which form the main frame die are not often proportion with pieces and dies therefore using a part as socalled common part for frames in specified dimension ranges can decrease the time of designing, occupied space of warehouse and manufacturing costs. Parts in dies with getting uniform in their shape and dimension make common parts of dies. Common parts of punch and matrix metal die are as bolster, guide bush, guide pillar and shank. In this paper the common parts and effective parameters in selecting each of them as the primary information are studied, afterward for selection and design of mechanical parts an introduction and investigation based on the Mech. Desk. software is done hence with developing this software can standardize the metal common parts of punch and matrix. These studies will be so useful for designer in their designing and also using it has with very much advantage for manufactures of products in decreasing occupied spaces by dies.
    Analytical and Experimental Methods of Design for Supersonic Two-Stage Ejectors
    In this paper the supersonic ejectors are experimentally and analytically studied. Ejector is a device that uses the energy of a fluid to move another fluid. This device works like a vacuum pump without usage of piston, rotor or any other moving component. An ejector contains an active nozzle, a passive nozzle, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. Since the fluid viscosity is large, and the flow is turbulent and three dimensional in the mixing chamber, the numerical methods consume long time and high cost to analyze the flow in ejectors. Therefore this paper presents a simple analytical method that is based on the precise governing equations in fluid mechanics. According to achieved analytical relations, a computer code has been prepared to analyze the flow in different components of the ejector. An experiment has been performed in supersonic regime 1.5
    Evaluation of Model and Performance of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle in Different Drive Cycles
    In recent years fuel cell vehicles are rapidly appearing all over the globe. In less than 10 years, fuel cell vehicles have gone from mere research novelties to operating prototypes and demonstration models. At the same time, government and industry in development countries have teamed up to invest billions of dollars in partnerships intended to commercialize fuel cell vehicles within the early years of the 21st century. The purpose of this study is evaluation of model and performance of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle in different drive cycles. A fuel cell system model developed in this work is a semi-experimental model that allows users to use the theory and experimental relationships in a fuel cell system. The model can be used as part of a complex fuel cell vehicle model in advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR). This work reveals that the fuel consumption and energy efficiency vary in different drive cycles. Arising acceleration and speed in a drive cycle leads to Fuel consumption increase. In addition, energy losses in drive cycle relates to fuel cell system power request. Parasitic power in different parts of fuel cell system will increase when power request increases. Finally, most of energy losses in drive cycle occur in fuel cell system because of producing a lot of energy by fuel cell stack.