Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 19

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 19
    Identifying the Kinematic Parameters of Hexapod Machine Tool
    Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT) is a parallel robot mostly based on Stewart platform. Identification of kinematic parameters of HMT is an important step of calibration procedure. In this paper an algorithm is presented for identifying the kinematic parameters of HMT using inverse kinematics error model. Based on this algorithm, the calibration procedure is simulated. Measurement configurations with maximum observability are decided as the first step of this algorithm for a robust calibration. The errors occurring in various configurations are illustrated graphically. It has been shown that the boundaries of the workspace should be searched for the maximum observability of errors. The importance of using configurations with sufficient observability in calibrating hexapod machine tools is verified by trial calibration with two different groups of randomly selected configurations. One group is selected to have sufficient observability and the other is in disregard of the observability criterion. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed identification algorithm.
    The Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration of Workpiece in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISIH13 Tool Steel

    In the present work, a study has been made on the combination of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) with ultrasonic vibrations to improve the machining efficiency. In experiments the graphite used as tool electrode and material of workpiece was AISIH13 tool steel. The parameters such as discharge peak current and pulse duration were changed to explore their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), relative tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness. From the experimental result it can be seen that ultrasonic vibration of the workpiece can significantly reduces the inactive pulses and improves the stability of process. It was found that ultrasonic assisted EDM (US-EDM) is effective in attaining a high material removal rate (MRR) in finishing regime.

    An Experimental Study on the Effect of Premixed and Equivalence Ratios on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
    In this study, effects of premixed and equivalence ratios on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature results in better HCCI combustion due to formation of a homogeneous mixture, therefore, all tests were carried out over the optimum intake temperature of 110-115 ºC. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge and plays an important role in HCCI combustion phasing. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Varying the coolant temperature in a range of 40 to 70 ºC, better HCCI combustion was achieved at 50 ºC. Therefore, coolant temperature was maintained 50 ºC during all tests. Simultaneous investigation of effective parameters on HCCI combustion was conducted to determine optimum parameters resulting in fast transition to HCCI combustion. One of the advantages of the method studied in this study is feasibility of easy and fast transition of typical diesel engine to a dual fuel HCCI engine. Results show that increasing premixed ratio, while keeping EGR rate constant, increases unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to quenching phenomena and trapping of premixed fuel in crevices, but CO emission decreases due to increase in CO to CO2 reactions.
    Modeling of Surface Roughness in Vibration Cutting by Artificial Neural Network
    Development of artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction of aluminum workpieces' surface roughness in ultrasonicvibration assisted turning (UAT) has been the subject of the present study. Tool wear as the main cause of surface roughness was also investigated. ANN was trained through experimental data obtained on the basis of full factorial design of experiments. Various influential machining parameters were taken into consideration. It was illustrated that a multilayer perceptron neural network could efficiently model the surface roughness as the response of the network, with an error less than ten percent. The performance of the trained network was verified by further experiments. The results of UAT were compared with the results of conventional turning experiments carried out with similar machining parameters except for the vibration amplitude whence considerable reduction was observed in the built-up edge and the surface roughness.
    A Study on the Heading of Spur Gears: Numerical Analysis and Experiments
    In this study, the precision heading process of spur gears has been investigated by means of numerical analysis. The effect of some parameters such as teeth number and module on the forming force and material flow were presented. The simulation works were performed rigid-plastic finite element method using DEFORM 3D software. In order to validate the estimated numerical results, they were compared with those obtained experimentally during heading of spur gear using lead as a model material. Results showed that the optimum number of gear teeth is between 10 to 20, that is because of being the specific pressure in its minimum value.
    Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect
    The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.
    Experimental Investigation of the Maximum Axial Force in the Folding Process of Aluminum Square Columns

    In this paper, a semi empirical formula is presented based on the experimental results to predict the first pick (maximum force) value in the instantaneous folding force- axial distance diagram of a square column. To achieve this purpose, the maximum value of the folding force was assumed to be a function of the average folding force. Using the experimental results, the maximum value of the force necessary to initiate the first fold in a square column was obtained with respect to the geometrical quantities and material properties. Finally, the results obtained from the semi empirical relation in this paper, were compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.

    Anthropomorphism in Robotics Engineering for Disabled People
    In its attempt to offer new ways into autonomy for a large population of disabled people, assistive technology has largely been inspired by robotics engineering. Recent human-like robots carry new hopes that it seems to us necessary to analyze by means of a specific theory of anthropomorphism. We propose to distinguish a functional anthropomorphism which is the one of actual wheelchairs from a structural anthropomorphism based on a mimicking of human physiological systems. If functional anthropomorphism offers the main advantage of eliminating the physiological systems interdependence issue, the highly link between the robot for disabled people and their human-built environment would lead to privilege in the future the anthropomorphic structural way. In this future framework, we highlight a general interdependence principle : any partial or local structural anthropomorphism generates new anthropomorphic needs due to the physiological systems interdependency, whose effects can be evaluated by means of specific anthropomorphic criterions derived from a set theory-based approach of physiological systems.
    A Study on the Quality of Hexapod Machine Tool's Workspace
    One of the main concerns about parallel mechanisms is the presence of singular points within their workspaces. In singular positions the mechanism gains or loses one or several degrees of freedom. It is impossible to control the mechanism in singular positions. Therefore, these positions have to be avoided. This is a vital need especially in computer controlled machine tools designed and manufactured on the basis of parallel mechanisms. This need has to be taken into consideration when selecting design parameters. A prerequisite to this is a thorough knowledge about the effect of design parameters and constraints on singularity. In this paper, quality condition index was introduced as a criterion for evaluating singularities of different configurations of a hexapod mechanism obtainable by different design parameters. It was illustrated that this method can effectively be employed to obtain the optimum configuration of hexapod mechanism with the aim of avoiding singularity within the workspace. This method was then employed to design the hexapod table of a CNC milling machine.
    Injection Forging of Splines Using Numerical and Experimental Study
    Injection forging is a Nett-shape manufacturing process in which one or two punches move axially causing a radial flow into a die cavity in a form which is prescribed by the exitgeometry, such as pulley, flanges, gears and splines on a shaft. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the injection forging of splines in terms of load requirement and material flow. Three dimensional finite element analyses are used to investigate the effect of some important parameters in this process. The experiment has been carried out using solid commercial lead billets with two different billet diameters and four different dies.
    Three-phases Model of the Induction Machine Taking Account the Stator Faults
    In this work we present the modelling of the induction machine, taking into consideration the stator defects of the induction machine. It is based on the theory of electromagnetic coupling of electrical circuits. In fact, for the modelling of stationary defects such as short circuit between turns in the same phase, we introduce only in the matrix the coefficients of resistance and inductance of stator and in the mutual inductance stator-rotor. These coefficients take account the number of turns in short-circuit deducted from the total number of turns in the same phase; in this way we obtain the number of useful turns. In addition, all these faults involved, will be used for the creation of the database that will be used to develop an automated system failures of the induction machine.
    Mathematical Modeling of Machining Parameters in Electrical Discharge Machining of FW4 Welded Steel
    FW4 is a newly developed hot die material widely used in Forging Dies manufacturing. The right selection of the machining conditions is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration in the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of FW4. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models for relating the Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra) to machining parameters (current, pulse-on time and voltage). Furthermore, a study was carried out to analyze the effects of machining parameters in respect of listed technological characteristics. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicate that the proposed mathematical models, can adequately describe the performance within the limits of the factors being studied.
    An Experimental Study on the Effect of EGR and Engine Speed on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
    In this study, effects of EGR on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI-DI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature was 110-115ºC due to better formation of a homogeneous mixture causing HCCI combustion. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge in HCCI combustion. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Coolant temperature was maintained 50ºC during the tests. Results show that increasing engine speed at a constant EGR rate leads to increase in CO and UHC emissions due to the incomplete combustion caused by shorter combustion duration and less homogeneous mixture. Results also show that increasing EGR reduces the amount of oxygen and leads to incomplete combustion and therefore increases CO emission due to lower combustion temperature. HC emission also increases as a result of lower combustion temperatures.
    An Aggregate Production Planning Model for Brass Casting Industry in Fuzzy Environment
    In this paper, we propose a fuzzy aggregate production planning (APP) model for blending problem in a brass factory which is the problem of computing optimal amounts of raw materials for the total production of several types of brass in a period. The model has deterministic and imprecise parameters which follows triangular possibility distributions. The brass casting APP model can not always be solved by using common approaches used in the literature. Therefore a mathematical model is presented for solving this problem. In the proposed model, the Lai and Hwang-s fuzzy ranking concept is relaxed by using one constraint instead of three constraints. An application of the brass casting APP model in a brass factory shows that the proposed model successfully solves the multi-blend problem in casting process and determines the optimal raw material purchasing policies.
    Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies: Making Decisions Based on ANOVA Method
    In a competitive production environment, critical decision making are based on data resulted by random sampling of product units. Efficiency of these decisions depends on data quality and also their reliability scale. This point leads to the necessity of a reliable measurement system. Therefore, the conjecture process and analysing the errors contributes to a measurement system known as Measurement System Analysis (MSA). The aim of this research is on determining the necessity and assurance of extensive development in analysing measurement systems, particularly with the use of Repeatability and Reproducibility Gages (GR&R) to improve physical measurements. Nowadays in productive industries, repeatability and reproducibility gages released so well but they are not applicable as well as other measurement system analysis methods. To get familiar with this method and gain a feedback in improving measurement systems, this survey would be on “ANOVA" method as the most widespread way of calculating Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R).
    Cable Tension Control and Analysis of Reel Transparency for 6-DOF Haptic Foot Platform on a Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface
    A Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface provides a low inertia haptic interface and is used as a way of enabling the user to walk and interact with virtual surfaces. These surfaces generate Cartesian wrenches which must be optimized for each motorized reel in order to reproduce a haptic sensation in both feet. However, the use of wrench control requires a measure of the cable tensions applied to the moving platform. The latter measure may be inaccurate if it is based on sensors located near the reel. Moreover, friction hysteresis from the reel moving parts needs to be compensated for with an evaluation of low angular velocity of the motor shaft. Also, the pose of the platform is not known precisely due to cable sagging and mechanical deformation. This paper presents a non-ideal motorized reel design with its corresponding control strategy that aims at overcoming the aforementioned issues. A transfert function of the reel based on frequency responses in function of cable tension and cable length is presented with an optimal adaptative PIDF controller. Finally, an hybrid position/tension control is discussed with an analysis of the stability for achieving a complete functionnality of the haptic platform.
    Efficient Real-time Remote Data Propagation Mechanism for a Component-Based Approach to Distributed Manufacturing

    Manufacturing Industries face a crucial change as products and processes are required to, easily and efficiently, be reconfigurable and reusable. In order to stay competitive and flexible, situations also demand distribution of enterprises globally, which requires implementation of efficient communication strategies. A prototype system called the “Broadcaster" has been developed with an assumption that the control environment description has been engineered using the Component-based system paradigm. This prototype distributes information to a number of globally distributed partners via an adoption of the circular-based data processing mechanism. The work highlighted in this paper includes the implementation of this mechanism in the domain of the manufacturing industry. The proposed solution enables real-time remote propagation of machine information to a number of distributed supply chain client resources such as a HMI, VRML-based 3D views and remote client instances regardless of their distribution nature and/ or their mechanisms. This approach is presented together with a set of evaluation results. Authors- main concentration surrounds the reliability and the performance metric of the adopted approach. Performance evaluation is carried out in terms of the response times taken to process the data in this domain and compared with an alternative data processing implementation such as the linear queue mechanism. Based on the evaluation results obtained, authors justify the benefits achieved from this proposed implementation and highlight any further research work that is to be carried out.

    Determination of Measurement Uncertainty in Extracting of Forming Limit Diagrams
    In this research, Forming Limit Diagrams for supertension sheet metals which are using in automobile industry have been obtained. The exerted strains to sheet metals have been measured with four different methods and the errors of each method have also been represented. These methods have been compared with together and the most efficient and economic way of extracting of the exerted strains to sheet metals has been introduced. In this paper total error and uncertainty of FLD extraction procedures have been derived. Determination of the measurement uncertainty in extracting of FLD has a great importance in design and analysis of the sheet metal forming process.
    Loop Heat Pipe: Simple Thermodynamic
    The LHP is a two-phase device with extremely high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes the thermodynamic pressure difference to circulate a cooling fluid. A thermodynamics analytical model is developed to explore different parameters effects on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP).. The effects of pipe length, pipe diameter, condenser temperature, and heat load are reported. As pipe length increases and/or pipe diameter decreases, a higher temperature is expected in the evaporator.