Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 18

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 18
    Nonlinear Model Predictive Swing-Up and Stabilizing Sliding Mode Controllers
    In this paper, a nonlinear model predictive swing-up and stabilizing sliding controller is proposed for an inverted pendulum-cart system. In the swing up phase, the nonlinear model predictive control is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with energy based objective function. By solving this problem at each sampling instant, a sequence of control inputs that optimize the nonlinear objective function subject to various constraints over a finite horizon are obtained. Then, this control drives the pendulum to a predefined neighborhood of the upper equilibrium point, at where sliding mode based model predictive control is used to stabilize the systems with the specified constraints. It is shown by the simulations that, due to the way of formulating the problem, short horizon lengths are sufficient for attaining the swing up goal.
    Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

    Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

    Buckling Optimization of Radially-Graded, Thin-Walled, Long Cylinders under External Pressure
    This paper presents a generalized formulation for the problem of buckling optimization of anisotropic, radially graded, thin-walled, long cylinders subject to external hydrostatic pressure. The main structure to be analyzed is built of multi-angle fibrous laminated composite lay-ups having different volume fractions of the constituent materials within the individual plies. This yield to a piecewise grading of the material in the radial direction; that is the physical and mechanical properties of the composite material are allowed to vary radially. The objective function is measured by maximizing the critical buckling pressure while preserving the total structural mass at a constant value equals to that of a baseline reference design. In the selection of the significant optimization variables, the fiber volume fractions adjoin the standard design variables including fiber orientation angles and ply thicknesses. The mathematical formulation employs the classical lamination theory, where an analytical solution that accounts for the effective axial and flexural stiffness separately as well as the inclusion of the coupling stiffness terms is presented. The proposed model deals with dimensionless quantities in order to be valid for thin shells having arbitrary thickness-to-radius ratios. The critical buckling pressure level curves augmented with the mass equality constraint are given for several types of cylinders showing the functional dependence of the constrained objective function on the selected design variables. It was shown that material grading can have significant contribution to the whole optimization process in achieving the required structural designs with enhanced stability limits.
    Parametric Characterization of Load Capacity of Infinitely Wide Parabolic Slider Bearing with Couple Stress Fluids
    A mathematical model for the hydrodynamic lubrication of parabolic slider bearings with couple stress lubricants is presented. A numerical solution for the mathematical model using finite element scheme is obtained using three nodes isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations were solved using Gauss Quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations was obtained for the bearing and solved using Gauss Seidel iterative scheme. The converged pressure solution was used to obtain the load capacity of the bearing. Parametric studies were carried out and it was shown that the effect of couple stresses and profile parameter are to increase the load carrying capacity of the parabolic slider bearing. Numerical experiments reveal that the magnitude of the profile parameter at which maximum load is obtained increases with decrease in couple stress parameter. The results are presented in graphical form.
    Neuro-fuzzy Model and Regression Model a Comparison Study of MRR in Electrical Discharge Machining of D2 Tool Steel

    In the current research, neuro-fuzzy model and regression model was developed to predict Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining process for AISI D2 tool steel with copper electrode. Extensive experiments were conducted with various levels of discharge current, pulse duration and duty cycle. The experimental data are split into two sets, one for training and the other for validation of the model. The training data were used to develop the above models and the test data, which was not used earlier to develop these models were used for validation the models. Subsequently, the models are compared. It was found that the predicted and experimental results were in good agreement and the coefficients of correlation were found to be 0.999 and 0.974 for neuro fuzzy and regression model respectively

    Optimization of Diverter Box Configuration in a V94.2 Gas Turbine Exhaust System using Numerical Simulation

    The bypass exhaust system of a 160 MW combined cycle has been modeled and analyzed using numerical simulation in 2D prospective. Analysis was carried out using the commercial numerical simulation software, FLUENT 6.2. All inputs were based on the technical data gathered from working conditions of a Siemens V94.2 gas turbine, installed in the Yazd power plant. This paper deals with reduction of pressure drop in bypass exhaust system using turning vanes mounted in diverter box in order to alleviate turbulent energy dissipation rate above diverter box. The geometry of such turning vanes has been optimized based on the flow pattern at diverter box inlet. The results show that the use of optimized turning vanes in diverter box can improve the flow pattern and eliminate vortices around sharp edges just before the silencer. Furthermore, this optimization could decrease the pressure drop in bypass exhaust system and leads to higher plant efficiency.

    Gas Detonation Forming by a Mixture of H2+O2 Detonation
    Explosive forming is one of the unconventional techniques in which, most commonly, the water is used as the pressure transmission medium. One of the newest methods in explosive forming is gas detonation forming which uses a normal shock wave derived of gas detonation, to form sheet metals. For this purpose a detonation is developed from the reaction of H2+O2 mixture in a long cylindrical detonation tube. The detonation wave goes through the detonation tube and acts as a blast load on the steel blank and forms it. Experimental results are compared with a finite element model; and the comparison of the experimental and numerical results obtained from strain, thickness variation and deformed geometry is carried out. Numerical and experimental results showed approximately 75 – 90 % similarity in formability of desired shape. Also optimum percent of gas mixture obtained when we mix 68% H2 with 32% O2.
    Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings, Subjected to a Combined Radial and Thrust Load, Including the Effects of Temperature and Fit
    A new, rapidly convergent, numerical procedure for internal loading distribution computation in statically loaded, singlerow, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load, which must be applied so that to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings, is used to find the load distribution differences between a loaded unfitted bearing at room temperature, and the same loaded bearing with interference fits that might experience radial temperature gradients between inner and outer rings. For each step of the procedure it is required the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations – where Z is the number of the balls – to yield exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles.
    Siding Mode Control of Pitch-Rate of an F-16 Aircraft
    This paper considers the control of the longitudinal flight dynamics of an F-16 aircraft. The primary design objective is model-following of the pitch rate q, which is the preferred system for aircraft approach and landing. Regulation of the aircraft velocity V (or the Mach-hold autopilot) is also considered, but as a secondary objective. The problem is challenging because the system is nonlinear, and also non-affine in the input. A sliding mode controller is designed for the pitch rate, that exploits the modal decomposition of the linearized dynamics into its short-period and phugoid approximations. The inherent robustness of the SMC design provides a convenient way to design controllers without gain scheduling, with a steady-state response that is comparable to that of a conventional polynomial based gain-scheduled approach with integral control, but with improved transient performance. Integral action is introduced in the sliding mode design using the recently developed technique of “conditional integrators", and it is shown that robust regulation is achieved with asymptotically constant exogenous signals, without degrading the transient response. Through extensive simulation on the nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) longitudinal model of the F-16 aircraft, it is shown that the conditional integrator design outperforms the one based on the conventional linear control, without requiring any scheduling.
    Modeling and Analysis of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in EDM of AISI D2 Tool Steel by RSM Approach

    In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effect of four controllable input variables namely: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse off time and applied voltage Surface Roughness (SR) of on Electrical Discharge Machined surface. To study the proposed second-order polynomial model for SR, a Central Composite Design (CCD) is used to estimation the model coefficients of the four input factors, which are alleged to influence the SR in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 tool steel with copper electrode. The response is modeled using RSM on experimental data. The significant coefficients are obtained by performing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance. It is found that discharge current, pulse duration, and pulse off time and few of their interactions have significant effect on the SR. The model sufficiency is very satisfactory as the Coefficient of Determination (R2) is found to be 91.7% and adjusted R2-statistic (R2 adj ) 89.6%.

    A Novel Approach to Optimal Cutting Tool Replacement
    In metal cutting industries, mathematical/statistical models are typically used to predict tool replacement time. These off-line methods usually result in less than optimum replacement time thereby either wasting resources or causing quality problems. The few online real-time methods proposed use indirect measurement techniques and are prone to similar errors. Our idea is based on identifying the optimal replacement time using an electronic nose to detect the airborne compounds released when the tool wear reaches to a chemical substrate doped into tool material during the fabrication. The study investigates the feasibility of the idea, possible doping materials and methods along with data stream mining techniques for detection and monitoring different phases of tool wear.
    Application of Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets(GSPN) in Modeling and Evaluating a Resource Sharing Flexible Manufacturing System
    In most study fields, a phenomenon may not be studied directly but it will be examined indirectly by phenomenon model. Making an accurate model of system, there is attained new information from modeled phenomenon without any charge, danger, etc... there have been developed more solutions for describing and analyzing the recent complicated systems but few of them have analyzed the performance in the range of system description. Petri nets are of limited solutions which may make such union. Petri nets are being applied in problems related to modeling and designing the systems. Theory of Petri nets allow a system to model mathematically by a Petri net and analyzing the Petri net can then determine main information of modeled system-s structure and dynamic. This information can be used for assessing the performance of systems and suggesting corrections in the system. In this paper, beside the introduction of Petri nets, a real case study will be studied in order to show the application of generalized stochastic Petri nets in modeling a resource sharing production system and evaluating the efficiency of its machines and robots. The modeling tool used here is SHARP software which calculates specific indicators helping to make decision.
    Beating Phenomenon of Multi-Harmonics Defect Frequencies in a Rolling Element Bearing: Case Study from Water Pumping Station
    Rolling element bearings are widely used in industry, especially where high load capacity is required. The diagnosis of their conditions is essential matter for downtime reduction and saving cost of maintenance. Therefore, an intensive analysis of frequency spectrum of their faults must be carried out in order to determine the main reason of the fault. This paper focus on a beating phenomena observed in the waveform (time domain) of a cylindrical rolling element bearing. The beating frequencies were not related to any sources nearby the machine nor any other malfunctions (unbalance, misalignment ...etc). More investigation on the spike energy and the frequency spectrum indicated a problem with races of the bearing. Multi-harmonics of the fundamental defects frequencies were observed. Two of them were close to each other in magnitude those were the source of the beating phenomena.
    Speed Sensorless Control with a Linearizationby State Feedback of Asynchronous Machine Using a Model Reference Adaptive System
    In this paper, we show that the association of the PI regulators for the speed and stator currents with a control strategy using the linearization by state feedback for an induction machine without speed sensor, and with an adaptation of the rotor resistance. The rotor speed is estimated by using the model reference adaptive system approach (MRAS). This method consists of using two models: The first is the reference model and the second is an adjustable one in which two components of the stator flux, obtained from the measurement of the currents and stator voltages are estimated. The estimated rotor speed is then obtained by canceling the difference between stator-flux of the reference model and those of the adjustable one. Satisfactory results of simulation are obtained and discussed in this paper to highlight the proposed approach.
    Numerical Simulations of Cross-Flow around Four Square Cylinders in an In-Line Rectangular Configuration
    A two-dimensional numerical simulation of crossflow around four cylinders in an in-line rectangular configuration is studied by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Special attention is paid to the effect of the spacing between the cylinders. The Reynolds number ( Re ) is chosen to be e 100 R = and the spacing ratio L / D is set at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. Results show that, as in the case of four cylinders in an inline rectangular configuration , flow fields show four different features depending on the spacing (single square cylinder, stable shielding flow, wiggling shielding flow and a vortex shedding flow) are observed in this study. The effects of spacing ratio on physical quantities such as mean drag coefficient, Strouhal number and rootmean- square value of the drag and lift coefficients are also presented. There is more than one shedding frequency at small spacing ratios. The mean drag coefficients for downstream cylinders are less than that of the single cylinder for all spacing ratios. The present results using the LBM are compared with some existing experimental data and numerical studies. The comparison shows that the LBM can capture the characteristics of the bluff body flow reasonably well and is a good tool for bluff body flow studies.
    Simulation and Workspace Analysis of a Tripod Parallel Manipulator
    Industrial robots play a vital role in automation however only little effort are taken for the application of robots in machining work such as Grinding, Cutting, Milling, Drilling, Polishing etc. Robot parallel manipulators have high stiffness, rigidity and accuracy, which cannot be provided by conventional serial robot manipulators. The aim of this paper is to perform the modeling and the workspace analysis of a 3 DOF Parallel Manipulator (3 DOF PM). The 3 DOF PM was modeled and simulated using 'ADAMS'. The concept involved is based on the transformation of motion from a screw joint to a spherical joint through a connecting link. This paper work has been planned to model the Parallel Manipulator (PM) using screw joints for very accurate positioning. A workspace analysis has been done for the determination of work volume of the 3 DOF PM. The position of the spherical joints connected to the moving platform and the circumferential points of the moving platform were considered for finding the workspace. After the simulation, the position of the joints of the moving platform was noted with respect to simulation time and these points were given as input to the 'MATLAB' for getting the work envelope. Then 'AUTOCAD' is used for determining the work volume. The obtained values were compared with analytical approach by using Pappus-Guldinus Theorem. The analysis had been dealt by considering the parameters, link length and radius of the moving platform. From the results it is found that the radius of moving platform is directly proportional to the work volume for a constant link length and the link length is also directly proportional to the work volume, at a constant radius of the moving platform.
    Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Pelvic Bone
    The complex shape of the human pelvic bone was successfully imaged and modeled using finite element FE processing. The bone was subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions simulating the effect of both weight gain and impact. Loads varying between 500 – 2500 N (~50 – 250 Kg of weight) was used to simulate 3D quasi-static weight gain. Two different 3D dynamic analyses, body free fall at two different heights (1 and 2 m) and forced side impact at two different velocities (20 and 40 Km/hr) were also studied. The computed resulted stresses were compared for the four loading cases, where Von Misses stresses increases linearly with the weight gain increase under quasi-static loading. For the dynamic models, the Von Misses stress history behaviors were studied for the affected area and effected load with respect to time. The normalization Von Misses stresses with respect to the applied load were used for comparing the free fall and the forced impact load results. It was found that under the forced impact loading condition an over lapping behavior was noticed, where as for the free fall the normalized Von Misses stresses behavior was found to nonlinearly different. This phenomenon was explained through the energy dissipation concept. This study will help designers in different specialization in defining the weakest spots for designing different supporting systems.
    Simulation of Particle Damping under Centrifugal Loads
    Particle damping is a technique to reduce the structural vibrations by means of placing small metallic particles inside a cavity that is attached to the structure at location of high vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we have presented an analytical model to simulate the particle damping of two dimensional transient vibrations in structure operating under high centrifugal loads. The simulation results show that this technique remains effective as long as the ratio of the dynamic acceleration of the structure to the applied centrifugal load is more than 0.1. Particle damping increases with the increase of particle to structure mass ratio. However, unlike to the case of particle damping in the absence of centrifugal loads where the damping efficiency strongly depends upon the size of the cavity, here this dependence becomes very weak. Despite the simplicity of the model, the simulation results are considerably in good agreement with the very scarce experimental data available in the literature for particle damping under centrifugal loads.