Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 27

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 27
    67
    Efficient Tools for Managing Uncertainties in Design and Operation of Engineering Structures
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Actual load, material characteristics and other quantities often differ from the design values. This can cause worse function, shorter life or failure of a civil engineering structure, a machine, vehicle or another appliance. The paper shows main causes of the uncertainties and deviations and presents a systematic approach and efficient tools for their elimination or mitigation of consequences. Emphasis is put on the design stage, which is most important for reliability ensuring. Principles of robust design and important tools are explained, including FMEA, sensitivity analysis and probabilistic simulation methods. The lifetime prediction of long-life objects can be improved by long-term monitoring of the load response and damage accumulation in operation. The condition evaluation of engineering structures, such as bridges, is often based on visual inspection and verbal description. Here, methods based on fuzzy logic can reduce the subjective influences.
    26
    699
    Comparison of Three Meta Heuristics to Optimize Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Parallel Machines
    Abstract:

    This study compares three meta heuristics to minimize makespan (Cmax) for Hybrid Flow Shop (HFS) Scheduling Problem with Parallel Machines. This problem is known to be NP-Hard. This study proposes three algorithms among improvement heuristic searches which are: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), and Tabu Search (TS). SA and TS are known as deterministic improvement heuristic search. GA is known as stochastic improvement heuristic search. A comprehensive comparison from these three improvement heuristic searches is presented. The results for the experiments conducted show that TS is effective and efficient to solve HFS scheduling problems.

    25
    969
    Heat and Mass Transfer in a Solar Dryer with Biomass Backup Burner
    Abstract:
    Majority of pepper farmers in Malaysia are using the open-sun method for drying the pepper berries. This method is time consuming and exposed the berries to rain and contamination. A maintenance-friendly and properly enclosed dryer is therefore desired. A dryer design with a solar collector and a chimney was studied and adapted to suit the needs of small-scale pepper farmers in Malaysia. The dryer will provide an environment with an optimum operating temperature meant for drying pepper berries. The dryer model was evaluated by using commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software in order to understand the heat and mass transfer inside the dryer. Natural convection was the only mode of heat transportation considered in this study as in accordance to the idea of having a simple and maintenance-friendly design. To accommodate the effect of low buoyancy found in natural convection driers, a biomass burner was integrated into the solar dryer design.
    24
    1356
    A Numerical Study on Thermal Dissociation of H2S
    Abstract:
    The main issue in sweetening natural gas is H2S dissociation. The present study is concerned with simulating thermal dissociation of H2S in industrial natural gas carbon black furnace. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. The results show that sulfur derived from H2S thermal dissociation peaked at φ=0.95. H2S thermal dissociation is enhanced in equivalence ratio upper than 1 and H2S oxidization is increased in equivalence ratio lower than 1. H2 concentration of H2S thermal dissociation is increased with increase of equivalence ratio up to 1. Also, H2S concentration decreased in outlet as equivalence ratio increases. H2S thermal dissociation to hydrogen and Sulfur reduces its toxic characteristics and make economical benefits.
    23
    2350
    Dynamic Stability of Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation
    Abstract:
    This paper studies dynamic stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to periodic axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing dynamic equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, foundation coefficient and piezoelectric thickness on the unstable regions are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.
    22
    3047
    Unsteady Flow between Two Concentric Rotating Spheres along with Uniform Transpiration
    Abstract:
    In this study, the numerical solution of unsteady flow between two concentric rotating spheres with suction and blowing at their boundaries is presented. The spheres are rotating about a common axis of rotation while their angular velocities are constant. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by employing the finite difference method and implicit scheme. The resulting flow patterns are presented for various values of the flow parameters including rotational Reynolds number Re , and a blowing/suction Reynolds number Rew . Viscous torques at the inner and the outer spheres are calculated, too. It is seen that increasing the amount of suction and blowing decrease the size of eddies generated in the annulus.
    21
    3634
    Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer
    Abstract:
    The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.
    20
    4670
    Conjugate Heat transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet Mixed Convection with Magnetic Effect
    Abstract:
    A conjugate heat transfer for steady two-dimensional mixed convection with magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible quiescent fluid over an unsteady thermal forming stretching sheet has been studied. A parameter, M, which is used to represent the dominance of the magnetic effect has been presented in governing equations. The similar transformation and an implicit finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, the wall unknown values of f''(0) and '(θ (0) for calculating the heat transfer of the similar boundary-layer flow are carried out as functions of the unsteadiness parameter (S), the Prandtl number (Pr), the space-dependent parameter (A) and temperature-dependent parameter (B) for heat source/sink and the magnetic parameter (M). The effects of these parameters have also discussed. At the results, it will produce greater heat transfer effect with a larger Pr and M, S, A, B will reduce heat transfer effects. At last, conjugate heat transfer for the free convection with a larger G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller G=0.
    19
    5338
    Tool Wear and Surface Roughness Prediction using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Turning Steel under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)
    Abstract:
    Tool wear and surface roughness prediction plays a significant role in machining industry for proper planning and control of machining parameters and optimization of cutting conditions. This paper deals with developing an artificial neural network (ANN) model as a function of cutting parameters in turning steel under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). A feed-forward backpropagation network with twenty five hidden neurons has been selected as the optimum network. The co-efficient of determination (R2) between model predictions and experimental values are 0.9915, 0.9906, 0.9761 and 0.9627 in terms of VB, VM, VS and Ra respectively. The results imply that the model can be used easily to forecast tool wear and surface roughness in response to cutting parameters.
    18
    6032
    Considering Assembly Operations and Product Structure for Manufacturing Cell Formation
    Abstract:
    This paper considers the integration of assembly operations and product structure to Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design so that to correct the drawbacks of previous researches in the literature. For this purpose, a new mathematical model is developed which dedicates machining and assembly operations to manufacturing cells while the objective function is to minimize the intercellular movements resulting due to both of them. A linearization method is applied to achieve optimum solution through solving aforementioned nonlinear model by common programming language such as Lingo. Then, using different examples and comparing the results, the importance of integrating assembly considerations is demonstrated.
    17
    6104
    Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet
    Abstract:
    In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.
    16
    6595
    Improving Power Plant Efficiency using Water Droplet Injection in Air Condensers
    Abstract:
    Observations show that power plant efficiency decreases in hot summer days. Water droplet injection in air condensers is suggested in order to decrease the inlet air temperature. Nozzle arrangement, injected water flow rate and droplets diameter effects on evaporation rate and the resulting air temperature are investigated using numerical simulation. Decreasing the diameter of injected droplets and increasing the number of injecting nozzles, decreases the outlet air temperature. Also a more uniform air temperature can be obtained using more injecting nozzles. Numerical results are in good agreement with analytical results.
    15
    6872
    An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool
    Abstract:
    This paper describes a method to measure and compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90° rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with superposition of machined two triangular patterns. To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important. Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.
    14
    6948
    A Multi Objective Optimization Approach to Optimize Vehicle Ride and Handling Characteristics
    Abstract:
    Vehicle suspension design must fulfill some conflicting criteria. Among those is ride comfort which is attained by minimizing the acceleration transmitted to the sprung mass, via suspension spring and damper. Also good handling of a vehicle is a desirable property which requires stiff suspension and therefore is in contrast with a vehicle with good ride. Among the other desirable features of a suspension is the minimization of the maximum travel of suspension. This travel which is called suspension working space in vehicle dynamics literature is also a design constraint and it favors good ride. In this research a full car 8 degrees of freedom model has been developed and the three above mentioned criteria, namely: ride, handling and working space has been adopted as objective functions. The Multi Objective Programming (MOP) discipline has been used to find the Pareto Front and some reasoning used to chose a design point between these non dominated points of Pareto Front.
    13
    7344
    Enhanced Efficacy of Kinetic Power Transform for High-Speed Wind Field
    Abstract:
    The three-time-scale plant model of a wind power generator, including a wind turbine, a flexible vertical shaft, a Variable Inertia Flywheel (VIF) module, an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) unit and the applied wind sequence, is constructed. In order to make the wind power generator be still able to operate as the spindle speed exceeds its rated speed, the VIF is equipped so that the spindle speed can be appropriately slowed down once any stronger wind field is exerted. To prevent any potential damage due to collision by shaft against conventional bearings, the AMB unit is proposed to regulate the shaft position deviation. By singular perturbation order-reduction technique, a lower-order plant model can be established for the synthesis of feedback controller. Two major system parameter uncertainties, an additive uncertainty and a multiplicative uncertainty, are constituted by the wind turbine and the VIF respectively. Frequency Shaping Sliding Mode Control (FSSMC) loop is proposed to account for these uncertainties and suppress the unmodeled higher-order plant dynamics. At last, the efficacy of the FSSMC is verified by intensive computer and experimental simulations for regulation on position deviation of the shaft and counter-balance of unpredictable wind disturbance.
    12
    8114
    Trade-off Between NOX, Soot and EGR Rates for an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled with JB5
    Abstract:

    Nowadays, the focus on renewable energy and alternative fuels has increased due to increasing oil prices, environment pollution, and also concern on preserving the nature. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, high lubricant ability, highly renewable, and its use therefore produces real reduction in petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although biodiesel has many advantages, but it still has several properties need to improve, such as lower calorific value, lower effective engine power, higher emission of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and greater sensitivity to low temperature. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective technique to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines because it enables lower flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce the NOX emission from biodiesel by EGR but they observed increasing soot emission. The aim of this study was to investigate the engine performance and soot emission by using blended Jatropha biodiesel with different EGR rates. A CI engine that is water-cooled, turbocharged, using indirect injection system was used for the investigation. Soot emission, NOX, CO2, carbon monoxide (CO) were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated.

    11
    9563
    Experimental Investigation of Combustion Chamber Dimensions Effects on Pollutant Emission and Combustion Efficiency
    Abstract:
    The combustion chamber dimensions have important effects on pollutant emission in furnaces as a direct result of temperature distribution and maximum temperature value. In this paper the pollutant emission and the temperature distribution in two cylindrical furnaces with different dimensions (with similar length to diameter ratio) in similar condition have been investigated experimentally. The furnace fuel is gas oil that is used with three different flow rates. The results show that in these two cases the temperature increases to its maximum value quickly, and then decreases slowly. The results also show that increase in fuel flow rate cause to increase in NOx emission in each case, but this increase is greater in small furnace. With increase in fuel flow rate, CO emission decreases firstly, and then it increases. Combustion efficiency reduces with increase in fuel flow rate but the rate of reduction in small furnace is greater than large furnace. The results of axial temperature distribution have been compared with those have been obtained numerically and experimentally by Moghiman.
    10
    10335
    Influence of Outer Corner Radius in Equal Channel Angular Pressing
    Abstract:
    Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is currently being widely investigated because of its potential to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. A sound knowledge of the plastic deformation and strain distribution is necessary for understanding the relationships between strain inhomogeneity and die geometry. Considerable research has been reported on finite element analysis of this process, assuming threedimensional plane strain condition. However, the two-dimensional models are not suitable due to the geometry of the dies, especially in cylindrical ones. In the present work, three-dimensional simulation of ECAP process was carried out for six outer corner radii (sharp to 10 mm in steps of 2 mm), with channel angle 105¶Çü▒, for strain hardening aluminium alloy (AA 6101) using ABAQUS/Standard software. Strain inhomogeneity is presented and discussed for all cases. Pattern of strain variation along selected radial lines in the body of the workpiece is presented. It is found from the results that the outer corner has a significant influence on the strain distribution in the body of work-piece. Based on inhomogeneity and average strain criteria, there is an optimum outer corner radius.
    9
    10728
    Single Spectrum End Point Predict of BOF with SVM
    Abstract:

    SVM ( Support Vector Machine ) is a new method in the artificial neural network ( ANN ). In the steel making, how to use computer to predict the end point of BOF accuracy is a great problem. A lot of method and theory have been claimed, but most of the results is not satisfied. Now the hot topic in the BOF end point predicting is to use optical way the predict the end point in the BOF. And we found that there exist some regular in the characteristic curve of the flame from the mouse of pudding. And we can use SVM to predict end point of the BOF, just single spectrum intensity should be required as the input parameter. Moreover, its compatibility for the input space is better than the BP network.

    8
    10746
    Milling Chatter Prevention by Adaptive Spindle Speed Tuning
    Abstract:
    This paper presents how the real-time chatter prevention can be realized by feedback of acoustic cutting signal, and the efficacy of the proposed adaptive spindle speed tuning algorithm is verified by intensive experimental simulations. A pair of microphones, perpendicular to each other, is used to acquire the acoustic cutting signal resulting from milling chatter. A real-time feedback control loop is constructed for spindle speed compensation so that the milling process can be ensured to be within the stability zone of stability lobe diagram. Acoustic Chatter Signal Index (ACSI) and Spindle Speed Compensation Strategy (SSCS) are proposed to quantify the acoustic signal and actively tune the spindle speed respectively. By converting the acoustic feedback signal into ACSI, an appropriate Spindle Speed Compensation Rate (SSCR) can be determined by SSCS based on real-time chatter level or ACSI. Accordingly, the compensation command, referred to as Added-On Voltage (AOV), is applied to increase/decrease the spindle motor speed. By inspection on the precision and quality of the workpiece surface after milling, the efficacy of the real-time chatter prevention strategy via acoustic signal feedback is further assured.
    7
    10750
    Tractive Performance Prediction for Intelligent Air-Cushion Track Vehicle: Fuzzy Logic Approach
    Abstract:
    Fuzzy logic approach is used in this study to predict the tractive performance in terms of traction force, and motion resistance for an intelligent air cushion track vehicle while it operates in the swamp peat. The system is effective to control the intelligent air –cushion system with measuring the vehicle traction force (TF), motion resistance (MR), cushion clearance height (CH) and cushion pressure (CP). Sinkage measuring sensor, magnetic switch, pressure sensor, micro controller, control valves and battery are incorporated with the Fuzzy logic system (FLS) to investigate experimentally the TF, MR, CH, and CP. In this study, a comparison for tractive performance of an intelligent air cushion track vehicle has been performed with the results obtained from the predicted values of FLS and experimental actual values. The mean relative error of actual and predicted values from the FLS model on traction force, and total motion resistance are found as 5.58 %, and 6.78 % respectively. For all parameters, the relative error of predicted values are found to be less than the acceptable limits. The goodness of fit of the prediction values from the FLS model on TF, and MR are found as 0.90, and 0.98 respectively.
    6
    11415
    An Erosion-based Modeling of Abrasive Waterjet Turning
    Abstract:
    In this paper, an erosion-based model for abrasive waterjet (AWJ) turning process is presented. By using modified Hashish erosion model, the volume of material removed by impacting of abrasive particles to surface of the rotating cylindrical specimen is estimated and radius reduction at each rotation is calculated. Different to previous works, the proposed model considers the continuous change in local impact angle due to change in workpiece diameter, axial traverse rate of the jet, the abrasive particle roundness and density. The accuracy of the proposed model is examined by experimental tests under various traverse rates. The final diameters estimated by the proposed model are in good accordance with experiments.
    5
    11853
    Mixed Convection with Radiation Effect over a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet
    Abstract:
    In this study, an analysis has been performed for free convection with radiation effect over a thermal forming nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, k0, Pr, G represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, radiation effect, heat transfer and free convection effects which have been presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference methods have been used to analyze the present problem. From the results, we find that the effects of parameters n, k0, Pr, Ec and G to the nonlinearly stretching sheet. The increase of Prandtl number Pr, free convection parameter G or radiation parameter k0 resulting in the increase of heat transfer effects, but increase of the viscous dissipation number Ec will decrease of heat transfer effect.
    4
    11971
    CFD Modeling of Reduction in NOX Emission Using HiTAC Technique
    Abstract:
    In the present study, the rate of NOx emission in a combustion chamber working in conventional combustion and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) system are examined using CFD modeling. The effect of peak temperature, combustion air temperature and oxygen concentration on NOx emission rate was undertaken. Results show that in a fixed oxygen concentration, increasing the preheated air temperature will increase the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. In addition, it was observed that the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fixed preheated air temperature decreases the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. On the other hand, the results show that increase of preheated air temperature at various oxygen concentrations increases the NOx emission rate. However, the rate of increase in HiTAC conditions is quite lower than the conventional combustion. The modeling results show that the NOx emission rate in HiTAC combustion is 133% less than that of the conventional combustion.
    3
    14161
    Investigation on Adjustable Mirror Bender Using Light Beam Size
    Abstract:

    In this research, the use of light beam size to design the adjustable mirror bender is presented. The focused beam line characterized by its size towards the synchrotron light beam line is investigated. The COSMOSWorks is used in all simulation components of curvature adjustment system to analyze in finite element method. The results based on simulation covers the use of applied forces during adjustment of the mirror radius are presented.

    2
    15267
    Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer for MHD Mixed Convection with Viscous Dissipation and Radiation Effect for Viscoelastic Fluid past a Stretching Sheet
    Abstract:
    In this study, an analysis has been performed for conjugate heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer mixed convection of magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow with radiation effect of second grade subject to suction past a stretching sheet. Parameters E Nr, Gr, Gc, Ec and Sc represent the dominance of the viscoelastic fluid heat and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similar transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The conjugate heat and mass transfer results show that the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid has a better heat transfer effect than the Newtonian fluid. The free convection with a larger r G or c G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller r G or c G , and the radiative convection has a good heat transfer effect better than non-radiative convection.
    1
    15520
    Design and Instrumentation of a Benchmark Multivariable Nonlinear Control Laboratory
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and instrumentation of a new benchmark multivariable nonlinear control laboratory. The mathematical model of this system may be used to test the applicability and performance of various nonlinear control procedures. The system is a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm with soft and hard (discontinuous) nonlinear terms. Two novel mechanisms are designed to allow the implementation of adjustable Coulomb friction and backlash.