Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Front Cross Member of the Peugeot 405
Undoubtedly, chassis is one of the most important
parts of a vehicle. Chassis that today are produced for vehicles are
made up of four parts. These parts are jointed together by screwing.
Transverse parts are called cross member.
This study reviews the stress generated by cyclic laboratory loads
in front cross member of Peugeot 405. In this paper the finite element
method is used to simulate the welding process and to determine the
physical response of the spot-welded joints. Analysis is done by the
The Stresses generated in cross member structure are generally
classified into two groups: The stresses remained in form of residual
stresses after welding process and the mechanical stress generated by
cyclic load. Accordingly the total stress must be obtained by
determining residual stress and mechanical stress separately and then
sum them according to the superposition principle.
In order to improve accuracy, material properties including
physical, thermal and mechanical properties were supposed to be
temperature-dependent. Simulation shows that maximum Von Misses
stresses are located at special points. The model results are then
compared to the experimental results which are reported by
producing factory and good agreement is observed.
Virtual Prototyping and Operational Monitoring of PLC-Based Control System
As business environments are rapidly changing,
the manufacturing system must be reconfigured to adapt to
various customer needs. In order to cope with this challenge, it
is quintessential to test industrial control logic rapidly and
easily in the design time, and monitor operational behavior in
the run time of automated manufacturing system. Proposed
integrated model for virtual prototyping and operational
monitoring of industrial control logic is to improve limitations
of current ladder programming practices and general discrete
event simulation method. Each plant layout model using HMI
package and object-oriented control logic model is designed
independently and is executed simultaneously in integrated
manner to reflect design practices of automation system in the
design time. Control logic is designed and executed using UML
activity diagram without considering complicated control
behavior to deal with current trend of reconfigurable
manufacturing. After the physical installation, layout model of
virtual prototype constructed in the design time is reused for
operational monitoring of system behavior during run time.
Solution of Interval-valued Manufacturing Inventory Models With Shortages
A manufacturing inventory model with shortages with
carrying cost, shortage cost, setup cost and demand quantity as
imprecise numbers, instead of real numbers, namely interval number
is considered here. First, a brief survey of the existing works on
comparing and ranking any two interval numbers on the real line
is presented. A common algorithm for the optimum production
quantity (Economic lot-size) per cycle of a single product (so as
to minimize the total average cost) is developed which works well
on interval number optimization under consideration. Finally, the
designed algorithm is illustrated with numerical example.
Biologically Inspired Controller for the Autonomous Navigation of a Mobile Robot in an Evasion Task
A novel biologically inspired controller for the autonomous
navigation of a mobile robot in an evasion task is
proposed. The controller takes advantage of the environment by
calculating a measure of danger and subsequently choosing the
parameters of a reinforcement learning based decision process.
Two different reinforcement learning algorithms were used: Qlearning
and Sarsa (λ). Simulations show that selecting dynamic
parameters reduce the time while executing the decision making
process, so the robot can obtain a policy to succeed in an escaping
task in a realistic time.
Parametric Transition as a Spiral Curve and Its Application in Spur Gear Tooth with FEA
The exploration of this paper will focus on the Cshaped
transition curve. This curve is designed by using the concept
of circle to circle where one circle lies inside other. The degree of
smoothness employed is curvature continuity. The function used in
designing the C-curve is Bézier-like cubic function. This function has
a low degree, flexible for the interactive design of curves and
surfaces and has a shape parameter. The shape parameter is used to
control the C-shape curve. Once the C-shaped curve design is
completed, this curve will be applied to design spur gear tooth. After
the tooth design procedure is finished, the design will be analyzed by
using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This analysis is used to find
out the applicability of the tooth design and the gear material that
chosen. In this research, Cast Iron 4.5 % Carbon, ASTM A-48 is
selected as a gear material.
The Estimation of Semi Elliptical Surface Cracks Advancement via Fuzzy Logic
This paper presented the results of an experimental
investigation into the axial fatigue behavior of a 5086 aluminum
alloy which have several notch-aspect ratios a0/c0 and notch
thickness ratio a/t with semi-elliptical surface cracks. Tests were
conducted in la b air for stress levels of 50 % of their yield
strength. Experiments were carried out for various notch to
thickness ratios. Crack growth rates of test specimens both in
surface and depth directions were determined by using die
penetration method. Fuzzy Logic method was used to predict the
deep direction crack growth because the dept of the crack is
considerably difficult to measure.
A Black-Box Approach in Modeling Valve Stiction
Several valve stiction models have been proposed in the literature to help understand and study the behavior of sticky valves. In this paper, an alternative black-box modeling approach based on Neural Network (NN) is presented. It is shown that with proper network type and optimum model structures, the performance of the developed NN stiction model is comparable to other established method. The resulting NN model is also tested for its robustness against the uncertainty in the stiction parameter values. Predictive mode operation also shows excellent performance of the proposed model for multi-steps ahead prediction.
Robust UKF Insensitive to Measurement Faults for Pico Satellite Attitude Estimation
In the normal operation conditions of a pico satellite,
conventional Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) gives sufficiently good
estimation results. However, if the measurements are not reliable
because of any kind of malfunction in the estimation system, UKF
gives inaccurate results and diverges by time. This study, introduces
Robust Unscented Kalman Filter (RUKF) algorithms with the filter
gain correction for the case of measurement malfunctions. By the use
of defined variables named as measurement noise scale factor, the
faulty measurements are taken into the consideration with a small
weight and the estimations are corrected without affecting the
characteristic of the accurate ones. Two different RUKF algorithms,
one with single scale factor and one with multiple scale factors, are
proposed and applied for the attitude estimation process of a pico
satellite. The results of these algorithms are compared for different
types of measurement faults in different estimation scenarios and
recommendations about their applications are given.
Adaptive Helmholtz Resonator in a Hydraulic System
An adaptive Helmholtz resonator was designed and
adapted to hydraulics. The resonator was controlled by open- and
closed-loop controls so that 20 dB attenuation of the peak-to-peak
value of the pulsating pressure was maintained. The closed-loop
control was noted to be better, albeit it was slower because of its low
pressure and temperature variation, which caused variation in the
effective bulk modulus of the hydraulic system. Low-pressure
hydraulics contains air, which affects the stiffness of the hydraulics,
and temperature variation changes the viscosity of the oil. Thus, an
open-loop control loses its efficiency if a condition such as
temperature or the amount of air changes after calibration. The
instability of the low-pressure hydraulic system reduced the
operational frequency range of the Helmholtz resonator when
compared with the results of an analytical model.
Different dampers for hydraulics are presented. Then analytical
models of a hydraulic pipe and a hydraulic pipe with a Helmholtz
resonator are presented. The analytical models are based on the wave
equation of sound pressure. Finally, control methods and the results
of experiments are presented.
Sustainable Design of Impinging Premixed Slot Jets
Cooktop burners are widely used nowadays. In
cooktop burner design, nozzle efficiency and greenhouse
gas(GHG) emissions mainly depend on heat transfer from the
premixed flame to the impinging surface. This is a complicated
issue depending on the individual and combined effects of various
input combustion variables. Optimal operating conditions for
sustainable burner design were rarely addressed, especially in the
case of multiple slot-jet burners. Through evaluating the optimal
combination of combustion conditions for a premixed slot-jet
array, this paper develops a practical approach for the sustainable
design of gas cooktop burners. Efficiency, CO and NOx emissions
in respect of an array of slot jets using premixed flames were
analysed. Response surface experimental design were applied to
three controllable factors of the combustion process, viz.
Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and jet-to-vessel distance.
Desirability Function Approach(DFA) is the analytic technique
used for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency and
Speed Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) Fed by an Inverter Voltage Fuzzy Control Approach
This paper deals with the synthesis of fuzzy controller
applied to a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a
guaranteed H∞ performance. To design this fuzzy controller,
nonlinear model of the PMSM is approximated by Takagi-Sugeno
fuzzy model (T-S fuzzy model), then the so-called parallel
distributed compensation (PDC) is employed. Next, we derive the
property of the H∞ norm. The latter is cast in terms of linear matrix
inequalities (LMI-s) while minimizing the H∞ norm of the transfer
function between the disturbance and the error ( ) ev T . The
experimental and simulations results were conducted on a permanent
magnet synchronous machine to illustrate the effects of the fuzzy
modelling and the controller design via the PDC.
Real-Time Identification of Media in a Laboratory-Scaled Penetrating Process
In this paper, a neural network technique is applied to
real-time classifying media while a projectile is penetrating through
them. A laboratory-scaled penetrating setup was built for the
experiment. Features used as the network inputs were extracted from
the acceleration of penetrator. 6000 set of features from a single
penetration with known media and status were used to train the neural
network. The trained system was tested on 30 different penetration
experiments. The system produced an accuracy of 100% on the
training data set. And, their precision could be 99% for the test data
from 30 tests.
Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy
In this paper fatigue crack growth behavior of
aeronautical aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was studied. Effects of
various loading and geometrical parameters are studied such as stress
ratio, amplitude loading, etc. The fatigue crack growth with constant
amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when NASGRO
model is used. The effect of the stress ratio is highlighted, where one
notices a shift of the curves of crack growth. The comparative study
between two orientations L-T and T-L on fatigue behavior are
presented and shows the variation on the fatigue life. L-T orientation
presents a good fatigue crack growth resistance. Effects of crack
closure are shown in Paris domain and that no crack closure
phenomenons are present at high stress intensity factor.
AI Applications to Metal Stamping Die Design– A Review
Metal stamping die design is a complex, experiencebased
and time-consuming task. Various artificial intelligence (AI)
techniques are being used by worldwide researchers for stamping die
design to reduce complexity, dependence on human expertise and
time taken in design process as well as to improve design efficiency.
In this paper a comprehensive review of applications of AI
techniques in manufacturability evaluation of sheet metal parts, die
design and process planning of metal stamping die is presented.
Further the salient features of major research work published in the
area of metal stamping are presented in tabular form and scope of
future research work is identified.
Estimating Localization Network Node Positions with a Multi-Robot System
A novel method using bearing-only SLAM to estimate node positions of a localization network is proposed. A group of simple robots are used to estimate the position of each node. Each node has a unique ID, which it can communicate to a robot close by. Initially the node IDs and positions are unknown. A case example using RFID technology in the localization network is introduced.
Effect of Rotor to Casing Ratios with Different Rotor Vanes on Performance of Shaft Output of a Vane Type Novel Air Turbine
This paper deals with new concept of using compressed atmospheric air as a zero pollution power source for running motorbikes. The motorbike is equipped with an air turbine in place of an internal combustion engine, and transforms the energy of the compressed air into shaft work. The mathematical modeling and performance evaluation of a small capacity compressed air driven vaned type novel air turbine is presented in this paper. The effect of isobaric admission and adiabatic expansion of high pressure air for different rotor to casing diameter ratios with respect to different vane angles (number of vanes) have been considered and analyzed. It is found that the shaft work output is optimum for some typical values of rotor / casing diameter ratios at a particular value of vane angle (no. of vanes). In this study, the maximum power is obtained as 4.5kW - 5.3kW (5.5-6.25 HP) when casing diameter is taken 100 mm, and rotor to casing diameter ratios are kept from 0.65 to 0.55. This value of output is sufficient to run motorbike.
Damping Mechanism in Welded Structures
Response surface methodology with Box–Benhken (BB) design of experiment approach has been utilized to study the mechanism of interface slip damping in layered and jointed tack welded beams with varying surface roughness. The design utilizes the initial amplitude of excitation, tack length and surface roughness at the interfaces to develop the model for the logarithmic damping decrement of the layered and jointed welded structures. Statistically designed experiments have been performed to estimate the coefficients in the mathematical model, predict the response, and check the adequacy of the model. Comparison of predicted and experimental response values outside the design conditions have shown good correspondence, implying that empirical model derived from response surface approach can be effectively used to describe the mechanism of interface slip damping in layered and jointed tack welded structures.
Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems
In this paper, the performance of two adaptive
observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The
nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first
adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz
nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode
observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing
their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a
car system, it was shown that the second one is more robust to
estimate the state.
Robust Adaptive Control of a Robotic Manipulator with Unknown Dead Zone and Friction Torques
The problem of controlling a two link robotic manipulator, consisting of a rotating and a prismatic links, is addressed. The actuations of both links are assumed to have unknown dead zone nonlinearities and friction torques modeled by LuGre friction model. Because of the existence of the unknown dead zone and friction torque at the actuations, unknown parameters and unmeasured states would appear to be part of the overall system dynamics that need for estimation. Unmeasured states observer, unknown parameters estimators, and robust adaptive control laws have been derived such that closed loop global stability is achieved. Simulation results have been performed to show the efficacy of the suggested approach.
Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Simultaneous Water Cooling and Heating
This paper presents the experimental as well as the
simulated performance studies on the transcritical CO2 heat pumps
for simultaneous water cooling and heating; effects of water mass
flow rates and water inlet temperatures of both evaporator and gas
cooler on the cooling and heating capacities, system COP and water
outlets temperatures are investigated. Study shows that both the
water mass flow rate and inlet temperature have significant effect on
system performances. Test results show that the effect of evaporator
water mass flow rate on the system performances and water outlet
temperatures is more pronounced (COP increases 0.6 for 1 kg/min)
compared to the gas cooler water mass flow rate (COP increases 0.4
for 1 kg/min) and the effect of gas cooler water inlet temperature is
more significant (COP decreases 0.48 for given ranges) compared to
the evaporator water inlet temperature (COP increases 0.43 for given
ranges). Comparisons of experimental values with simulated results
show the maximum deviation of 5% for cooling capacity, 10% for
heating capacity, 16% for system COP. This study offers useful
guidelines for selecting appropriate water mass flow rate to obtain
required system performance.
Thermal Analysis of Open-Cycle Regenerator Gas-Turbine Power-Plant
Regenerative gas turbine engine cycle is presented that yields higher cycle efficiencies than simple cycle operating under the same conditions. The power output, efficiency and specific fuel consumption are simulated with respect to operating conditions. The analytical formulae about the relation to determine the thermal efficiency are derived taking into account the effected operation conditions (ambient temperature, compression ratio, regenerator effectiveness, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency and turbine inlet temperature). Model calculations for a wide range of parameters are presented, as are comparisons with simple gas turbine cycle. The power output and thermal efficiency are found to be increasing with the regenerative effectiveness, and the compressor and turbine efficiencies. The efficiency increased with increase the compression ratio to 5, then efficiency decreased with increased compression ratio, but in simple cycle the thermal efficiency always increase with increased in compression ratio. The increased in ambient temperature caused decreased thermal efficiency, but the increased in turbine inlet temperature increase thermal efficiency.
Numerical Analysis of Pressure Admission Angle to Vane Angle Ratios on Performance of a Vaned Type Novel Air Turbine
Worldwide conventional resources of fossil fuel are depleting very fast due to large scale increase in use of transport vehicles every year, therefore consumption rate of oil in transport sector alone has gone very high. In view of this, the major thrust has now been laid upon the search of alternative energy source and also for cost effective energy conversion system. The air converted into compressed form by non conventional or conventional methods can be utilized as potential working fluid for producing shaft work in the air turbine and thus offering the capability of being a zero pollution energy source. This paper deals with the mathematical modeling and performance evaluation of a small capacity compressed air driven vaned type novel air turbine. Effect of expansion action and steady flow work in the air turbine at high admission air pressure of 6 bar, for varying injection to vane angles ratios 0.2-1.6, at the interval of 0.2 and at different vane angles such as 30o, 45o, 51.4o, 60o, 72o, 90o, and 120o for 12, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 vanes respectively at speed of rotation 2500 rpm, has been quantified and analyzed here. Study shows that the expansion power has major contribution to total power, whereas the contribution of flow work output has been found varying only up to 19.4%. It is also concluded that for variation of injection to vane angle ratios from 0.2 to 1.2, the optimal power output is seen at vane angle 90o (4 vanes) and for 1.4 to 1.6 ratios, the optimal total power is observed at vane angle 72o (5 vanes). Thus in the vaned type novel air turbine the optimum shaft power output is developed when rotor contains 4-5 vanes for almost all situations of injection to vane angle ratios from 0.2 to 1.6.
Accurate And Efficient Global Approximation using Adaptive Polynomial RSM for Complex Mechanical and Vehicular Performance Models
Global approximation using metamodel for complex
mathematical function or computer model over a large variable
domain is often needed in sensibility analysis, computer simulation,
optimal control, and global design optimization of complex, multiphysics
systems. To overcome the limitations of the existing
response surface (RS), surrogate or metamodel modeling methods for
complex models over large variable domain, a new adaptive and
regressive RS modeling method using quadratic functions and local
area model improvement schemes is introduced. The method applies
an iterative and Latin hypercube sampling based RS update process,
divides the entire domain of design variables into multiple cells,
identifies rougher cells with large modeling error, and further divides
these cells along the roughest dimension direction. A small number
of additional sampling points from the original, expensive model are
added over the small and isolated rough cells to improve the RS
model locally until the model accuracy criteria are satisfied. The
method then combines local RS cells to regenerate the global RS
model with satisfactory accuracy. An effective RS cells sorting
algorithm is also introduced to improve the efficiency of model
evaluation. Benchmark tests are presented and use of the new
metamodeling method to replace complex hybrid electrical vehicle
powertrain performance model in vehicle design optimization and
optimal control are discussed.
Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Insulation Stresses Analysis in HV Generator
High voltage generators are being subject to higher
voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions.
Stator windings are the main component of generators in which
Electrical, magnetical and thermal stresses remain major failures for
insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of
generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation
deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the
asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic
causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss,
stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro
thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of
stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation
thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are
major design consideration. A very powerful method available to
analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method
(FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil
and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system
to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the
power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes
the process used to perform classical design and improvement
analysis of stator slot-s insulation.
Thermodynamic Performance Assessment of Steam-Injection Gas-Turbine Systems
The cycles of the steam-injection gas-turbine systems are studied. The analyses of the parametric effects and the optimal operating conditions for the steam-injection gas-turbine (STIG) system and the regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) system are investigated to ensure the maximum performance. Using the analytic model, the performance parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency, fuel consumption and specific power, and also the optimal operating conditions are evaluated in terms of pressure ratio, steam injection ratio, ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). It is shown that the computational results are presented to have a notable enhancement of thermal efficiency and specific power.
Flexible Follower Response of a Translating Cam with Four Different Profiles for Rise-Dwell-Fall-Dwell motion
The flexible follower response of a translating cam with
four different profiles for rise-dwell-fall-dwell (RDFD) motion is
investigated. The cycloidal displacement motion, the modified
sinusoidal acceleration motion, the modified trapezoidal acceleration
motion, and the 3-4-5 polynomial motion are employed to describe the
rise and the fall motions of the follower and the associated four kinds of
cam profiles are studied. Since the follower flexibility is considered,
the contact point of the roller and the cam is an unknown. Two
geometric constraints formulated to restrain the unknown position are
substituted into Hamilton-s principle with Lagrange multipliers.
Applying the assumed mode method, one can obtain the governing
equations of motion as non-linear differential-algebraic equations. The
equations are solved using Runge-Kutta method. Then, the responses of
the flexible follower undergoing the four different motions are
investigated in time domain and in frequency domain.
Theoretical Investigations on Different Casing and Rotor Diameters Ratio to Optimize Shaft Output of a Vaned Type Air Turbine
This paper details a new concept of using compressed air as a potential zero pollution power source for motorbikes. In place of an internal combustion engine, the motorbike is equipped with an air turbine transforms the energy of the compressed air into shaft work. The mathematical modeling and performance evaluation of a small capacity compressed air driven vaned type novel air turbine is presented in this paper. The effect of isobaric admission and adiabatic expansion of high pressure air for different rotor diameters, casing diameters and ratio of rotor to casing diameters of the turbine have been considered and analyzed. It is concluded that the work output is found optimum for some typical values of rotor / casing diameter ratios. In this study, the maximum power works out to 3.825 kW (5.20 HP) for casing diameter of 200 mm and rotor to casing diameter ratio of 0.65 to 0.60 which is sufficient to run motorbike.
Development of Admire Longitudinal Quasi-Linear Model by using State Transformation Approach
This paper presents a longitudinal quasi-linear model for the ADMIRE model. The ADMIRE model is a nonlinear model of aircraft flying in the condition of high angle of attack. So it can-t be considered to be a linear system approximately. In this paper, for getting the longitudinal quasi-linear model of the ADMIRE, a state transformation based on differentiable functions of the nonscheduling states and control inputs is performed, with the goal of removing any nonlinear terms not dependent on the scheduling parameter. Since it needn-t linear approximation and can obtain the exact transformations of the nonlinear states, the above-mentioned approach is thought to be appropriate to establish the mathematical model of ADMIRE. To verify this conclusion, simulation experiments are done. And the result shows that this quasi-linear model is accurate enough.
Effect of Thermal Radiation on Temperature Variation in 2-D Stagnation-Point flow
Non-isothermal stagnation-point flow with consideration of thermal radiation is studied numerically. A set of partial differential equations that governing the fluid flow and energy is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations which is solved by Runge-Kutta method with shooting algorithm. Dimensionless wall temperature gradient and temperature boundary layer thickness for different combinaton of values of Prandtl number Pr and radiation parameter NR are presented graphically. Analyses of results show that the presence of thermal radiation in the stagnation-point flow is to increase the temperature boundary layer thickness and decrease the dimensionless wall temperature gradient.
Contact Stress on the Surface of Gear Teeth with Different Profile
Contact stress is an important problem in industry.
This is a problem that in the first attention may be don-t appears, but
disregard of these stresses cause a lot of damages in machines. These
stresses occur at locations such as gear teeth, bearings, cams and
between a locomotive wheel and the railroad rail. These stresses
cause failure by excessive elastic deformation, yielding and fracture.
In this paper we intend show the effective parameters in contact
stress and ponder effect of curvature. In this paper we study contact
stresses on the surface of gear teeth and compare these stresses for
four popular profiles of gear teeth (involute, cycloid, epicycloids, and
hypocycloid). We study this problem with mathematical and finite
element methods and compare these two methods on different profile