Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 30

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 30
    Numerical Simulation of Heat Exchanger Area of R410A-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System at Various Evaporating and Condensing Temperature
    Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system is limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of main three heat exchangers namely condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) for both systems have been compared and the effect of condensing and evaporating temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems have been studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condensing temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporating temperature (Te).
    Optimal Measures in Production Developing an Universal Decision Supporter for Evaluating Measures in a Production
    Due to the recovering global economy, enterprises are increasingly focusing on logistics. Investing in logistic measures for a production generates a large potential for achieving a good starting point within a competitive field. Unlike during the global economic crisis, enterprises are now challenged with investing available capital to maximize profits. In order to be able to create an informed and quantifiably comprehensible basis for a decision, enterprises need an adequate model for logistically and monetarily evaluating measures in production. The Collaborate Research Centre 489 (SFB 489) at the Institute for Production Systems (IFA) developed a Logistic Information System which provides support in making decisions and is designed specifically for the forging industry. The aim of a project that has been applied for is to now transfer this process in order to develop a universal approach to logistically and monetarily evaluate measures in production.
    Experimental Studies of Position Control of Linkage based Robotic Finger
    The experimental study of position control of a light weight and small size robotic finger during non-contact motion is presented in this paper. The finger possesses fingertip pinching and self adaptive grasping capabilities, and is made of a seven bar linkage mechanism with a slider in the middle phalanx. The control system is tested under the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control algorithm and Recursive Least Square (RLS) based Feedback Error Learning (FEL) control scheme to overcome the uncertainties present in the plant. The experiments conducted in Matlab Simulink and xPC Target environments show that the overall control strategy is efficient in controlling the finger movement.
    Development of Wind Turbine Simulator for Generator Torque Control
    Wind turbine should be controlled to capture maximum wind energy and to prevent the turbine from being stalled. To achieve those two goals, wind turbine controller controls torque on generator and limits input torque from wind by pitching blade. Usually, torque on generator is controlled using inverter torque set point. However, verifying a control algorithm in actual wind turbine needs a lot of efforts to test and the actual wind turbine could be broken while testing a control algorithm. So, several software have developed and commercialized by Garrad Hassan, GH Bladed, and NREL, FAST. Even though, those programs can simulate control system modeling with subroutines or DLLs. However, those simulation programs are not able to emulate detailed generator or PMSG. In this paper, a small size wind turbine simulator is developed with induction motor and small size drive train. The developed system can simulate wind turbine control algorithm in the region before rated power.
    CT Reconstruction from a Limited Number of X-Ray Projections
    Most CT reconstruction system x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. A large number of X-ray projections are needed to reconstruct CT images, so the collection and calculation of the projection data consume too much time and harmful for patient. For the purpose of solving the problem, in this study, we proposed a method for tomographic reconstruction of a sample from a limited number of x-ray projections by using linear interpolation method. In simulation, we presented reconstruction from an experimental x-ray CT scan of a Aluminum phantom that follows to two steps: X-ray projections will be interpolated using linear interpolation method and using it for CT reconstruction based upon Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method.
    Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled with Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)-Diesel Blends
    The increased number of automobiles in recent years has resulted in great demand for fossil fuel. This has led to the development of automobile by using alternative fuels which include gaseous fuels, biofuels and vegetables oils as fuel. Energy from biomass and more specific bio-diesel is one of the opportunities that could cover the future demand of fossil fuel shortage. Biomass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a new energy source and abundant source of energy in India. The bio-fuel is derived from cashew nut shell oil and its blend with diesel are promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. In this work the pyrolysis Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)-Diesel Blends (CDB) was used to run the Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. The experiments were conducted with various blends of CNSL and Diesel namely B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100. The results are compared with neat diesel operation. The brake thermal efficiency was decreased for blends of CNSL and Diesel except the lower blends of B20. The brake thermal efficiency of B20 is nearly closer to that of diesel fuel. Also the emission level of the all CNSL and Diesel blends was increased compared to neat diesel. The higher viscosity and lower volatility of CNSL leads to poor mixture formation and hence lower brake thermal efficiency and higher emission levels. The higher emission level can be reduced by adding suitable additives and oxygenates with CNSL and Diesel blends.
    Fabrication and Analysis of Bulk SiCp Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites using Friction Stir Process

    In this study, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) a recent grain refinement technique was employed to disperse micron-sized (2 *m) SiCp particles into aluminum alloy AA6063. The feasibility to fabricate bulk composites through FSP was analyzed and experiments were conducted at different traverse speeds and wider volumes of the specimens. Micro structural observation were carried out by employing optical microscopy test of the cross sections in both parallel and perpendicular to the tool traverse direction. Mechanical property including micro hardness was evaluated in detail at various regions on the specimen. The composites had an excellent bonding with aluminum alloy substrate and a significant increase of 30% in the micro hardness value of metal matrix composite (MMC) as to that of the base metal has observed. The observations clearly indicate that SiC particles were uniformly distributed within the aluminum matrix.

    Modelling of a Stress-Strain State of Screws of Transpedicular Spine Fixation System
    For maintenance of a spine stability during the postoperative period a transpedicular fixing of its elements is often used. Usually the transpedicular systems are formed of rods which as a result form a design of the frame type, fastening by screws to vertebras. Such design should be rigid and perceive loadings operating from the spine without essential deformations. From the perfection point of view of known designs their stress whole, and each of elements, in particular is of interest. In this study the modeling of the transpedicular screw is performed and estimation of its deformations taking into account interaction with a vertebra body having variable structure is made.
    Characteristics Analysis of Thermal Resistance of Cryogenic Pipeline in Vacuum Environment
    If an unsteady heat transfer or heat impulse happens in part of the cryogenic pipeline system of large space environment simulation equipment while running in vacuum environment, it will lead to abnormal flow of the cryogenic fluid in the pipeline. When the situation gets worse, the cryogenic fluid in the pipeline will have phase change and a gas block which results in the malfunction of the cryogenic pipeline system. Referring to the structural parameter of a typical cryogenic pipeline system and the basic equation, an analytical model and a calculation model for cryogenic pipeline system can be built. The various factors which influence the thermal resistance of a cryogenic pipeline system can be analyzed and calculated by using the qualitative analysis relation deduced for thermal resistance of pipeline. The research conclusion could provide theoretical support for the design and operation of a cryogenic pipeline system
    Modeling and Design of an Active Leg Orthosis for Tumble Protection
    The design of an active leg orthosis for tumble protection is proposed in this paper. The orthosis would be applied to assist elders or invalids in rebalancing while they fall unexpectedly. We observe the regain balance motion of healthy and youthful people, and find the difference to elders or invalids. First, the physical model of leg would be established, and we consider the leg motions are achieve through four joints (phalanx stem, ankle, knee, and hip joint) and five links (phalanges, talus, tibia, femur, and hip bone). To formulate the dynamic equations, the coordinates which can clearly describe the position in 3D space are first defined accordance with the human movement of leg, and the kinematics and dynamics of the leg movement can be formulated based on the robotics. For the purpose, assisting elders and invalids in avoiding tumble, the posture variation of unbalance and regaining balance motion are recorded by the motion-capture image system, and the trajectory is taken as the desire one. Then we calculate the force and moment of each joint based on the leg motion model through programming MATLAB code. The results would be primary information of the active leg orthosis design for tumble protection.
    Passive Ventilation System Analysis using Solar Chimney in South of Algeria
    The work presented in this study is related to an energy system analysis based on passive cooling system for dwellings. It consists to solar chimney energy performances determination versus geometrical and environmental considerations as the size and inlet width conditions of the chimney. Adrar site located in the southern region of Algeria is chosen for this study according to ambient temperature and solar irradiance technical data availability. Obtained results are related to the glazing temperature distributions, the chimney air flow and internal wall temperatures. The air room change per hour (ACH) parameter, the outlet air velocity and mass air flow rate are also determined. It is shown that the chimney width has a significant effect on energy performances compared to its entry size. A good agreement is observed between these results and those obtained by others from the literature.
    Energy Analysis of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Combined Power Turbine

    Solid oxide fuel cells have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very highefficiency electric energy generation from hydrogen or other hydrocarbons, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out. Mass and exergy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of combined cycle. Moreover, different sources of irreversibilities within the SOFC stack have been discussed and a parametric study conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature as well as pressure on SOFC irreversibilities and its performance. In this investigation methane and hydrogen have been used for fueling the SOFC stack and combustion chamber.

    Linear Stability of Convection in a Viscoelastic Nanofluid Layer
    This paper presents a linear stability analysis of natural convection in a horizontal layer of a viscoelastic nanofluid. The Oldroyd B model was utilized to describe the rheological behavior of a viscoelastic nanofluid. The model used for the nanofluid incorporated the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection was derived analytically. The effects of the Deborah number, retardation parameters, concentration Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, and Lewis number on the stability of the system were investigated. Results indicated that there was competition among the processes of thermophoresis, Brownian diffusion, and viscoelasticity which caused oscillatory rather than stationary convection to occur. Oscillatory instability is possible with both bottom- and top-heavy nanoparticle distributions. Regimes of stationary and oscillatory convection for various parameters were derived and are discussed in detail.
    Rheology of Composites with Nature Vegetal Origin Fibers
    Conventional materials like glass, wood or metals replacement with polymer materials is still continuing. More simple thus cheaper production is the main reason. However due to high energy and petrochemical prices are polymer prices increasing too. That´s why various kinds of fillers are used to make polymers cheaper. Of course target is to maintain or improve properties of these compounds. In this paper are solved rheology issues of polymers compounded with vegetal origin fibers.
    Calculation of the Ceramics Weibull Parameters
    The paper deals with calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalised ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). On that score, a special testing jig was made, in which 40 heads were destructed. From the measured values of circumferential strains of the head-s external spherical surface under destruction, the state of stress in the head under destruction was established using the final elements method (FEM). From the values obtained, the sought for parameters of the ceramic material were calculated using Weibull-s weakest-link theory.
    Feasibility Study of a BLDC Motor with Integrated Drive Circuit

    A brushless DC motor with integrated drive circuit for air management system is presented. Using magnetic equivalent circuit model a basic design of the motor is determined, and specific configurations are inspected thanks to finite element analysis. In order to reduce an unbalanced magnetic force in an axial direction, induced forces between a stator core and a permanent magnet are calculated with respect to the relative positions of them. For the high efficiency, and high power density, BLDC motor and drive are developed. Also vibration mode and eccentricity of a rotor are considered at the rated and maximum rotational speed Through the experimental results, a validity of the simulated one is confirmed.

    Effects of Dust on the Performance of PV Panels
    Accumulation of dust from the outdoor environment on the panels of solar photovoltaic (PV) system is natural. There were studies that showed that the accumulated dust can reduce the performance of solar panels, but the results were not clearly quantified. The objective of this research was to study the effects of dust accumulation on the performance of solar PV panels. Experiments were conducted using dust particles on solar panels with a constant-power light source, to determine the resulting electrical power generated and efficiency. It was found from the study that the accumulated dust on the surface of photovoltaic solar panel can reduce the system-s efficiency by up to 50%.
    Analysis of Residual Strain and Stress Distributions in High Speed Milled Specimens using an Indentation Method
    Through a proper analysis of residual strain and stress distributions obtained at the surface of high speed milled specimens of AA 6082–T6 aluminium alloy, the performance of an improved indentation method is evaluated. This method integrates a special device of indentation to a universal measuring machine. The mentioned device allows introducing elongated indents allowing to diminish the absolute error of measurement. It must be noted that the present method offers the great advantage of avoiding both the specific equipment and highly qualified personnel, and their inherent high costs. In this work, the cutting tool geometry and high speed parameters are selected to introduce reduced plastic damage. Through the variation of the depth of cut, the stability of the shapes adopted by the residual strain and stress distributions is evaluated. The results show that the strain and stress distributions remain unchanged, compressive and small. Moreover, these distributions reveal a similar asymmetry when the gradients corresponding to conventional and climb cutting zones are compared.
    Effect of Natural Animal Fillers on Polymer Rheology Behaviour
    This paper deals with the evaluation of flow properties of polymeric matrix with natural animal fillers. Technical university of Liberec cooperates on the long-term development of “green materials“ that should replace conventionally used materials (especially in automotive industry). Natural fibres (of animal and plant origin) from all over the world are collected and adapted (drying, cutting etc.) for extrusion processing. Inside the extruder these natural additives are blended with polymeric (synthetic and biodegradable - PLA) matrix and created compound is subsequently cut for pellets in the wet way. These green materials with unique recipes are then studied and their mechanical, physical and processing properties are determined. The main goal of this research is to develop new ecological materials very similar to unfilled polymers. In this article the rheological behaviour of chosen natural animal fibres is introduced considering their shape and surface that were observed with use of SEM microscopy.
    Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate
    This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.
    Development of Transmission Line Sleeve Inspection Robot
    The line sleeves on power transmission line connects two conductors while the transmission line is constructing. However, the line sleeves sometimes cause transmission line break down, because the line sleeves are deteriorated and decayed by acid rain. When the transmission line is broken, the economical loss is huge. Therefore the line sleeves on power transmission lines should be inspected periodically to prevent power failure. In this paper, Korea Electric Power Research Institute reviewed several robots to inspect line status and proposes a robot to inspect line sleeve by measuring magnetic field on line sleeve. The developed inspection tool can reliable to move along transmission line and overcome several obstacles on transmission line. The developed system is also applied on power transmission line and verified the efficiency of the robot.
    Development of a Low Cost Haptic Knob

    Haptics has been used extensively in many applications especially in human machine interaction and virtual reality systems. Haptic technology allows user to perceive virtual reality as in real world. However, commercially available haptic devices are expensive and may not be suitable for educational purpose. This paper describes the design and development of a low cost haptic knob, with only one degree of freedom, for use in rehabilitation or training hand pronation and supination. End-effectors can be changed to suit different applications or variation in hand sizes and hand orientation.

    An Improved Model for Prediction of the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids
    Thermal conductivity is an important characteristic of a nanofluid in laminar flow heat transfer. This paper presents an improved model for the prediction of the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on dimensionless groups. The model expresses the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid as a function of the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid, their volume fractions and particle size. The proposed model includes a parameter which accounts for the interfacial shell, brownian motion, and aggregation of particle. The validation of the model is verified by applying the results obtained by the experiments of Tio2-water and Al2o3-water nanofluids.
    Development of an Autonomous Friction Gripper for Industrial Robots
    Industrial robots become useless without end-effectors that for many instances are in the form of friction grippers. Commonly friction grippers apply frictional forces to different objects on the basis of programmers- experiences. This puts a limitation on the effectiveness of gripping force that may result in damaging the object. This paper describes various stages of design and development of a low cost sensor-based robotic gripper that would facilitate the task of applying right gripping forces to different objects. The gripper is also equipped with range sensors in order to avoid collisions of the gripper with objects. It is a fully functional automated pick and place gripper which can be used in many industrial applications. Yet it can also be altered or further developed in order to suit a larger number of industrial activities. The current design of gripper could lead to designing completely automated robot grippers able to improve the efficiency and productivity of industrial robots.
    Mechanical Buckling of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation
    This paper studies mechanical buckling of functionally graded beams subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and foundation coefficient on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.
    Autonomous Movement in Car with The Base of RFID
    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system is looked upon as one of the top ten important technologies in the 20th century and find its applications in many fields such as car industry. The intelligent cars are one important part of this industry and always try to find new and satisfied intelligent cars. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an intelligent car with the based of RFID. By storing the moving control commands such as turn right, turn left, speed up and speed down etc. into the RFID tags beforehand and sticking the tags on the tracks Car can read the moving control commands from the tags and accomplish the proper actions.
    Experimental Study of Fuel Tank Filling
    The refueling of a transparent rectangular fuel tank fitted with a standard filler pipe and roll-over valve was experimentally studied. A fuel-conditioning cart, capable of handling fuels of different Reid vapor pressure at a constant temperature, was used to dispense fuel at the desired rate. The experimental protocol included transient recording of the tank and filler tube pressures while video recording the flow patterns in the filler tube and tank during the refueling process. This information was used to determine the effect of changes in the vent tube diameter, fuel-dispense flow rate and fuel Reid vapor pressure on the pressure-time characteristics and the occurrence of premature fuel filling shut-off and fuel spill-back. Pressure-time curves for the case of normal shut-off demonstrated the classic, three-phase characteristic noted in the literature. The variation of the maximum values of tank dome and filler tube pressures are analyzed in relation to the occurrence of premature shut-off.
    Dynamically Monitoring Production Methods for Identifying Structural Changes relevant to Logistics
    Due to the growing dynamic and complexity within the market environment production enterprises in particular are faced with new logistic challenges. Moreover, it is here in this dynamic environment that the Logistic Operating Curve Theory also reaches its limits as a method for describing the correlations between the logistic objectives. In order to convert this theory into a method for dynamically monitoring productions this paper will introduce methods for reliably and quickly identifying structural changes relevant to logistics.
    Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer
    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evaluation analysis has been made and found that the performance ratio increases with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing twist ration with the maximum for the twist ratio 2.93. Also, the performance ratio of more than one indicates that the type of twist inserts can be used effectively for heat transfer augmentation.
    A Study on Brushless DC Motor for High Torque Density
    Brushless DC motor with high torque density and slim topology for easy loading for robot system is proposed and manufactured. Electromagnetic design is executed by equivalent magnetic circuit model and numerical analysis. Manufactured motor is tested and verified characteristics comparing with conventional BLDC motor.