Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 41

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 41
    61
    A Software for Calculation of Optimum Conditions for Cotton Bobbin Drying in a Hot-Air Bobbin Dryer
    Abstract:
    In this study, a software has been developed to predict the optimum conditions for drying of cotton based yarn bobbins in a hot air dryer. For this purpose, firstly, a suitable drying model has been specified using experimental drying behavior for different values of drying parameters. Drying parameters in the experiments were drying temperature, drying pressure, and volumetric flow rate of drying air. After obtaining a suitable drying model, additional curve fittings have been performed to obtain equations for drying time and energy consumption taking into account the effects of drying parameters. Then, a software has been developed using Visual Basic programming language to predict the optimum drying conditions for drying time and energy consumption.
    40
    869
    Effect of Speed and Torque on Statistical Parameters in Tapered Bearing Fault Detection
    Abstract:
    The effect of the rotational speed and axial torque on the diagnostics of tapered rolling element bearing defects was investigated. The accelerometer was mounted on the bearing housing and connected to Sound and Vibration Analyzer (SVAN 958) and was used to measure the accelerations from the bearing housing. The data obtained from the bearing was processed to detect damage of the bearing using statistical tools and the results were subsequently analyzed to see if bearing damage had been captured. From this study it can be seen that damage is more evident when the bearing is loaded. Also, at the incipient stage of damage the crest factor and kurtosis values are high but as time progresses the crest factors and kurtosis values decrease whereas the peak and RMS values are low at the incipient stage but increase with damage.
    39
    954
    Fuel Reserve Tanks Dynamic Analysis Due to Earthquake Loading
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the dynamic analysis of fuel storage tanks has been studied and some equations are presented for the created fluid waves due to storage tank motions. Also, the equations for finite elements of fluid and structure interactions, and boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid, were researched. In this paper, a numerical simulation is performed for the dynamic analysis of a storage tank contained a fluid. This simulation has carried out by ANSYS software, using FSI solver (Fluid and Structure Interaction solver), and by considering the simulated fluid dynamic motions due to earthquake loading, based on velocities and movements of structure and fluid according to all boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid.
    38
    1219
    Homogeneity of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Horizontal Continuous Cast Billet
    Abstract:
    Horizontal continuous casting is widely used to produce semi-finished non-Ferrous products. Homogeneity in the metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties for this product is vital for industrial application. In the present work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a horizontal continuous cast two-phase brass billet have been studied. Impact strength and hardness variations were examined and the phase composition and porosity studied with image analysis software. Distinct differences in mechanical properties were observed between the upper, middle and lower parts of the billet, which are explained in terms of the morphology and size of the phase in the microstructure. Hardness variation in the length of billet is higher in upper area but impact strength is higher in lower areas.
    37
    2043
    Identification of Optimum Parameters of Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Workpiece using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm
    Abstract:

    Intelligent deep-drawing is an instrumental research field in sheet metal forming. A set of 28 different experimental data have been employed in this paper, investigating the roles of die radius, punch radius, friction coefficients and drawing ratios for axisymmetric workpieces deep drawing. This paper focuses an evolutionary neural network, specifically, error back propagation in collaboration with genetic algorithm. The neural network encompasses a number of different functional nodes defined through the established principles. The input parameters, i.e., punch radii, die radii, friction coefficients and drawing ratios are set to the network; thereafter, the material outputs at two critical points are accurately calculated. The output of the network is used to establish the best parameters leading to the most uniform thickness in the product via the genetic algorithm. This research achieved satisfactory results based on demonstration of neural networks.

    36
    2572
    Orders Preparation and Control on the Productive Process Efficiency Preparation
    Abstract:

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of preparation and control of orders on performance. The focused activities explored in this research are: procurement, production and distribution. These changes in performance were obtained through improvement of the supply chain. It is proved using all the company activities that it is possible to increase de efficiency and do services in an adequate way, placing the products in the market efficiently. For that, it was explored the importance of the supply chain, with privilege to the practical environment and the quantification of the obtained results.

    35
    3118
    Diagnosing the Cause and its Timing of Changes in Multivariate Process Mean Vector from Quality Control Charts using Artificial Neural Network
    Abstract:
    Quality control charts are very effective in detecting out of control signals but when a control chart signals an out of control condition of the process mean, searching for a special cause in the vicinity of the signal time would not always lead to prompt identification of the source(s) of the out of control condition as the change point in the process parameter(s) is usually different from the signal time. It is very important to manufacturer to determine at what point and which parameters in the past caused the signal. Early warning of process change would expedite the search for the special causes and enhance quality at lower cost. In this paper the quality variables under investigation are assumed to follow a multivariate normal distribution with known means and variance-covariance matrix and the process means after one step change remain at the new level until the special cause is being identified and removed, also it is supposed that only one variable could be changed at the same time. This research applies artificial neural network (ANN) to identify the time the change occurred and the parameter which caused the change or shift. The performance of the approach was assessed through a computer simulation experiment. The results show that neural network performs effectively and equally well for the whole shift magnitude which has been considered.
    34
    3401
    Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness
    Abstract:

    Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

    33
    3434
    Heat Transfer in a Parallel-Plate Enclosure with Graded-Index Coatings on its Walls
    Abstract:
    A numerical study on the heat transfer in the thermal barrier coatings and the substrates of a parallel-plate enclosure is carried out. Some of the thermal barrier coatings, such as ceramics, are semitransparent and are of interest for high-temperature applications where radiation effects are significant. The radiative transfer equations and the energy equations are solved by using the discrete ordinates method and the finite difference method. Illustrative results are presented for temperature distributions in the coatings and the opaque walls under various heating conditions. The results show that the temperature distribution is more uniform in the interior portion of each coating away from its boundary for the case with a larger average of varying refractive index and a positive gradient of refractive index enhances radiative transfer to the substrates.
    32
    4105
    Study of Real Gas Behavior in a Single-Stage Gas Gun
    Abstract:
    In this paper, one-dimensional analysis of flow in a single-stage gas gun is conducted. The compressible inviscid flow equations are numerically solved by the second-order Roe TVD method, by using moving boundaries. For investigation of real gas effect the Noble-Able equation is applied. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data to validate the numerical scheme. The results show that with using the Noble-Able equation, the muzzle velocity decreases.
    31
    4311
    Bond Strength in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Shafts
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the bond strength of thermal spray coatings in high speed shafts has been studied. The metallurgical and mechanical studies has been made on the coated samples and shaft using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
    30
    4373
    Performance of a Turbofan Engine with Intercooling and Regeneration
    Abstract:
    Pollution emission levels of aircraft engines are a nowadays high concern. Any technological advance that could reduce emission levels is always welcome. In what concerns aircraft engines, a possible solution for this problem could be the use of regenerators and intercoolers. These components might reduce the specific fuel consumption, increase efficiency and specific thrust and consequently reduce the pollution levels of the engine. This is not a novel solution. These heat exchangers are already is use in stationary engines. For aircraft engines, the extra weight of the needed hardware could overcome the fuel saved. This work compares a conventional engine with configurations that use intercoolers and regenerators.
    29
    5006
    Simulation Modeling for Analysis and Evaluation of the Internal Handling Fleet System at Shahid Rajaee Container Port
    Abstract:
    The dramatic increasing of sea-freight container transportations and the developing trends for using containers in the multimodal handling systems through the sea, rail, road and land in nowadays market cause general managers of container terminals to face challenges such as increasing demand, competitive situation, new investments and expansion of new activities and need to use new methods to fulfil effective operations both along quayside and within the yard. Among these issues, minimizing the turnaround time of vessels is considered to be the first aim of every container port system. Regarding the complex structure of container ports, this paper presents a simulation model that calculates the number of trucks needed in the Iranian Shahid Rajaee Container Port for handling containers between the berth and the yard. In this research, some important criteria such as vessel turnaround time, gantry crane utilization and truck utilization have been considered. By analyzing the results of the model, it has been shown that increasing the number of trucks to 66 units has a significant effect on the performance indices of the port and can increase the capacity of loading and unloading up to 10.8%.
    28
    5379
    The Effects of Plate-Support Condition on Buckling Strength of Rectangular Perforated Plates under Linearly Varying In-Plane Normal Load
    Abstract:
    Mechanical buckling analysis of rectangular plates with central circular cutout is performed in this paper. The finiteelement method is used to study the effects of plate-support conditions, aspect ratio, and hole size on the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates subjected to linearly varying loading. Results show that increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates. It is also concluded that the clamped boundary condition increases the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more than the simply-supported boundary condition and the free boundary conditions enhance the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more effectively than the fixed boundary conditions. Furthermore, for the bending cases, the critical buckling load of perforated plates with free edges is less than perforated plates with fixed edges.
    27
    5542
    Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dispersion of Microparticles Emitted by Machining Operation
    Abstract:
    As a part of the development of a numerical method of close capture exhausts systems for machining devices, a test rig recreating a situation similar to a grinding operation, but in a perfectly controlled environment, is used. The properties of the obtained spray of solid particles are initially characterized using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), in order to obtain input and validation parameters for numerical simulations. The dispersion of a tracer gas (SF6) emitted simultaneously with the particle jet is then studied experimentally, as the dispersion of such a gas is representative of that of finer particles, whose aerodynamic response time is negligible. Finally, complete modeling of the test rig is achieved to allow comparison with experimental results and thus to progress towards validation of the models used to describe a twophase flow generated by machining operation.
    26
    6657
    Study of Heat Transfer in the Poly Ethylene Fluidized Bed Reactor Numerically and Experimentally
    Abstract:
    In this research, heat transfer of a poly Ethylene fluidized bed reactor without reaction were studied experimentally and computationally at different superficial gas velocities. A multifluid Eulerian computational model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles was developed and used to simulate the heat conducting gas–solid flows in a fluidized bed configuration. Momentum exchange coefficients were evaluated using the Syamlal– O-Brien drag functions. Temperature distributions of different phases in the reactor were also computed. Good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimentally obtained data for the bed expansion ratio as well as the qualitative gas–solid flow patterns. The simulation and experimental results showed that the gas temperature decreases as it moves upward in the reactor, while the solid particle temperature increases. Pressure drop and temperature distribution predicted by the simulations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements at superficial gas velocities higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Also, the predicted time-average local voidage profiles were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The study showed that the computational model was capable of predicting the heat transfer and the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-solid fluidized bed flows with reasonable accuracy.
    25
    7269
    Slug Tracking Simulation of Severe Slugging Experiments
    Abstract:

    Experimental data from an atmospheric air/water terrain slugging case has been made available by the Shell Amsterdam research center, and has been subject to numerical simulation and comparison with a one-dimensional two-phase slug tracking simulator under development at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The code is based on tracking of liquid slugs in pipelines by use of a Lagrangian grid formulation implemented in Cµ by use of object oriented techniques. An existing hybrid spatial discretization scheme is tested, in which the stratified regions are modelled by the two-fluid model. The slug regions are treated incompressible, thus requiring a single momentum balance over the whole slug. Upon comparison with the experimental data, the period of the simulated severe slugging cycle is observed to be sensitive to slug generation in the horizontal parts of the system. Two different slug initiation methods have been tested with the slug tracking code, and grid dependency has been investigated.

    24
    7758
    Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Inclined Open Ended Cavity
    Abstract:

    In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is applied for simulating of Natural Convection in an inclined open ended cavity. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Rayligh numbers, aspect ratio of the cavity are changed in the range of 103 to 104 and of 1-4, respectively. The numerical code is validated for the previously results for open ended cavities, and then the results of an inclined open ended cavity for various angles of rotating open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number on hot wall decreases for all rotation angles. When gravity acceleration direction is opposite of standard gravity direction the convection heat transfer has a manner same as conduction.

    23
    7771
    Vortex-Shedding Suppression in Mixed Convective Flow past a Heated Square Cylinder
    Abstract:
    The present study investigates numerically the phenomenon of vortex-shedding and its suppression in twodimensional mixed convective flow past a square cylinder under the joint influence of buoyancy and free-stream orientation with respect to gravity. The numerical experiments have been conducted at a fixed Reynolds number (Re) of 100 and Prandtl number (Pr) of 0.71, while Richardson number (Ri) is varied from 0 to 1.6 and freestream orientation, α, is kept in the range 0o≤ α ≤ 90o, with 0o corresponding to an upward flow and 90o representing a cross-flow scenario, respectively. The continuity, momentum and energy equations, subject to Boussinesq approximation, are discretized using a finite difference method and are solved by a semi-explicit pressure correction scheme. The critical Richardson number, leading to the suppression of the vortex-shedding (Ric), is estimated by using Stuart-Landau theory at various free-stream orientations and the neutral curve is obtained in the Ri-α plane. The neutral curve exhibits an interesting non-monotonic behavior with Ric first increasing with increasing values of α upto 45o and then decreasing till 70o. Beyond 70o, the neutral curve again exhibits a sharp increasing asymptotic trend with Ric approaching very large values as α approaches 90o. The suppression of vortex shedding is not observed at α = 90o (cross-flow). In the unsteady flow regime, the Strouhal number (St) increases with the increase in Richardson number.
    22
    7805
    Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection
    Abstract:
    In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow. This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The model accounts for the fluid flow and the particle motion. Particle interaction, due to hindered settling caused by increased density and viscosity of the suspension, and fine particle entrainment by settling coarse particles are included in the model. Water injection in the conical part of the hydrocyclone is performed to reduce fine particle discharge in the underflow. The model demonstrates the impact of the injection rate, injection velocity, and injection location on the shape of the partition curve. The simulations are compared with experimental data of a 50-mm cyclone.
    21
    8268
    Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator
    Abstract:
    The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.
    20
    8278
    Modeling Prices of Electricity Futures at EEX
    Abstract:
    The main aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate an econometric model for modeling prices of long term electricity futures contracts. The calibration of our model is performed on data from EEX AG allowing us to capture the specific features of German electricity market. The data sample contains several structural breaks which have to be taken into account for modeling. We model the data with an ARIMAX model which reveals high correlation between the price of electricity futures contracts and prices of LT futures contracts of fuels (namely coal, natural gas and crude oil). Besides this, also a share price index of representative electricity companies traded on Xetra, spread between 10Y and 1Y German bonds and exchange rate between EUR and USD appeared to have significant explanatory power over these futures contracts on EEX.
    19
    8570
    Investigation of Drying Kinetics of Viscose Yarn Bobbins
    Abstract:
    This study is concerned with the investigation of the suitability of several empirical and semi-empirical drying models available in the literature to define drying behavior of viscose yarn bobbins. For this purpose, firstly, experimental drying behaviour of viscose bobbins was determined on an experimental dryer setup which was designed and manufactured based on hot-air bobbin dryers used in textile industry. Afterwards, drying models considered were fitted to the experimentally obtained moisture ratios. Drying parameters were drying temperature and bobbin diameter. The fit was performed by selecting the values for constants in the models in such a way that these values make the sum of the squared differences between the experimental and the model results for moisture ratio minimum. Suitability of fitting was specified as comparing the correlation coefficient, standard error and mean square deviation. The results show that the most appropriate model in describing the drying curves of viscose bobbins is the Page model.
    18
    9526
    Nonlinear Thermal Expansion Model for SiC/Al
    Abstract:
    The thermal expansion behaviour of silicon carbide (SCS-2) fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium matrix composite subjected to the influenced thermal mechanical cycling (TMC) process were investigated. The thermal stress has important effect on the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of the composites. The present paper used experimental data of the thermal expansion behaviour of a SiC/Al composite for temperatures up to 370°C, in which their data was used for carrying out modelling of theoretical predictions.
    17
    9664
    Scheduling a Project to Minimize Costs of Material Requirements
    Abstract:

    Traditionally, project scheduling and material planning have been treated independently. In this research, a mixed integer programming model is presented to integrate project scheduling and materials ordering problems. The goal is to minimize the total material holding and ordering costs. In addition, an efficient metaheuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. The proposed algorithm is computationally tested, the results are analyzed, and conclusions are given.

    16
    9665
    Residual Stresses in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Components
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the residual stress of thermal spray coatings in gas turbine component by curvature method has been studied. The samples and shaft were coated by hard WC-12Co cermets using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) after preparation in same conditions. The curvature of coated samples was measured by using of coordinate measurement machine (CMM). The metallurgical and Tribological studies has been made on the coated shaft using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
    15
    10534
    Experimental Study on the Hysteresis Properties in Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
    Abstract:
    Hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in the operations of both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWTs and VAWTs). In this study, wind tunnel experiments were applied to investigate the characters of hysteresis phenomena between the angular speed and the external resistance of electrical loading during the operation of a Darrieus type VAWT. Data of output voltage, output current, angular speed of wind turbine under different wind speeds are measured and analyzed. Results show that the range of external resistance changes with the wind speed. The range decreases as the wind speed increases following an exponential decay form. Experiments also indicate that the maximum output power of wind turbines is always inside the range where hysteresis happened. These results provide an important reference to the design of output control system of wind turbines.
    14
    10962
    Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification
    Abstract:
    A new mechanism responsible for structural life consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will excite the blade. An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other. Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one natural frequency indicating near resonant condition. Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles (such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).
    13
    11086
    The Effect of Multi-Layer Bandage on the Interface Pressure Applied by Compression Bandages
    Abstract:
    Medical compression bandages are widely used in the treatment of chronic venous disorder. In order to design effective compression bandages, researchers have attempted to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages using mathematical models. This paper reports on the work carried out to compare and validate the mathematical models used to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages. Both analytical and experimental results showed that using simple multiplication of a number of bandage layers with the pressure applied by one layer of bandage or ignoring the increase in the limb radius due to former layers of bandage will result in overestimating the pressure. Experimental results showed that the mathematical models, which take into consideration the increase in the limb radius due to former bandage layers, are more accurate than the one which does not.
    12
    11778
    Immunity of Integrated Drive System, Effects of Radiated and Conducted Emission
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    In this paper the problems associated with immunity of embedded systems used in Motor-Drive systems are investigated and appropriate solutions are presented. Integration of VSD motor systems (Integral Motor) while partially reducing some of these effects, adds to immunity problem of their embedded systems. Fail safe operation of an Integral Motor in arduous industrial environments is considered. In this paper an integral motor with a unique design is proposed to overcome critical issues such as heat, vibration and electromagnetic interference which are damaging to sensitive electronics without requirement of any additional cooling system. Advantages of the proposed Integral motor are compactness of combo motor and drive system with no external cabling/wiring. This motor provides a perfect shielding for least amount of radiated emission. It has an inbuilt filter for EMC compliance and has been designed to provide lower EMC noise for immunity of the internal electronics as well as the other neighbouring systems.
    11
    12197
    Study of Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations of Laminated Composite Beam: Analytical Approach
    Abstract:

    In this paper, an analytical approach is used to study the coupled lateral-torsional vibrations of laminated composite beam. It is known that in such structures due to the fibers orientation in various layers, any lateral displacement will produce a twisting moment. This phenomenon is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity and its main feature is the coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations. In addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies. Then, the governing differential equations are derived using the Hamilton-s principle and the mathematical model matches the Timoshenko beam model when neglecting the effect of bending-twisting rigidity. The equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved analytically to study the free vibrations of the beam in lateral and rotational modes due to the bending, as well as the torsional mode caused by twisting. The analytic solution is carried out in three steps: 1) assuming synchronous motion for the kinematic variables which are the lateral, rotational and torsional displacements, 2) solving the ensuing eigenvalue problem which contains three coupled second order ODEs and 3) imposing different boundary conditions related to combinations of simply, clamped and free end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.

    10
    12270
    Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Bi-objective Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem
    Abstract:

    In this paper the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows is considered. Minimizing the makespan and maximization the net present value (NPV) are the two common objectives that have been investigated in the literature. We apply one evolutionary algorithm named multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) to find Pareto front solutions. We used standard sets of instances from the project scheduling problem library (PSPLIB). The results are computationally compared respect to different metrics taken from the literature on evolutionary multi-objective optimization.

    9
    12399
    Effects of Various Substrate Openings for Electronic Cooling under Forced and Natural Convection
    Abstract:

    This study experimentally investigates the heat transfer effects of forced convection and natural convection under different substrate openings design. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established and implemented to verify and explain the experimental results and heat transfer behavior. It is found that different opening position will destroy the growth of the boundary layer on substrates to alter the cooling ability for both forced under low Reynolds number and natural convection. Nevertheless, having too many opening may reduce heat conduction and affect the overall heat transfer performance. This study provides future researchers with a guideline on designing and electronic package manufacturing.

    8
    12862
    Particle Swarm Optimization Approach on Flexible Structure at Wiper Blade System
    Abstract:
    Application of flexible structures has been significantly, increased in industry and aerospace missions due to their contributions and unique advantages over the rigid counterparts. In this paper, vibration analysis of a flexible structure i.e., automobile wiper blade is investigated and controlled. The wiper generates unwanted noise and vibration during the wiping the rain and other particles on windshield which may cause annoying noise in different ranges of frequency. A two dimensional analytical modeled wiper blade whose model accuracy is verified by numerical studies in literature is considered in this study. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed in alliance with input shaping (IS) technique in order to control or to attenuate the amplitude level of unwanted noise/vibration of the wiper blade.
    7
    13223
    Natural Convection of Water-Based CuO Nanofluids in a Cylindrical Enclosure
    Abstract:
    Buoyancy driven heat transfer of nanofluids in a cylindrical enclosure used as a control unit in the subsea hydrocarbon injection wells is investigated in this study. The governing equations obtained with the Boussinesq approximation are solved using Comsol Multiphysics finite element analysis and simulation software. The base fluid is water and CuO is used as nanoparticles. Solution is obtained for nanoparticle solid volume fraction of 8% and for Rayleigh number in the range of 105-107. The results show that nanoparticle usage in the cylindrical electronic control unit has a significant effect on the flow and heat transfer.
    6
    13486
    The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets
    Abstract:
    In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out. The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.
    5
    14092
    A Rough-set Based Approach to Design an Expert System for Personnel Selection
    Abstract:
    Effective employee selection is a critical component of a successful organization. Many important criteria for personnel selection such as decision-making ability, adaptability, ambition, and self-organization are naturally vague and imprecise to evaluate. The rough sets theory (RST) as a new mathematical approach to vagueness and uncertainty is a very well suited tool to deal with qualitative data and various decision problems. This paper provides conceptual, descriptive, and simulation results, concentrating chiefly on human resources and personnel selection factors. The current research derives certain decision rules which are able to facilitate personnel selection and identifies several significant features based on an empirical study conducted in an IT company in Iran.
    4
    15312
    An Impulse-Momentum Approach to Swing-Up Control of Double Inverted Pendulum on a Cart
    Abstract:
    The challenge in the swing-up problem of double inverted pendulum on a cart (DIPC) is to design a controller that bring all DIPC's states, especially the joint angles of the two links, into the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. This paper proposes a new method to swing-up DIPC based on a series of restto- rest maneuvers of the first link about its vertically upright configuration while holding the cart fixed at the origin. The rest-torest maneuvers are designed such that each one results in a net gain in energy of the second link. This results in swing-up of DIPC-s configuration to the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. A three-step algorithm is provided for swing-up control followed by the stabilization step. Simulation results with a comparison to an experimental work done in the literature are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
    3
    15465
    Quadrotor Black-Box System Identification
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a new approach in the identification of the quadrotor dynamic model using a black-box system for identification. Also the paper considers the problems which appear during the identification in the closed-loop and offers a technical solution for overcoming the correlation between the input noise present in the output

    2
    15556
    Designing of Multi-Agent Rescue Robot: Development and Basic Experiments of Master-Slave Type Rescue Robots
    Abstract:

    A multi-agent type robot for disaster response in calamity scene is proposed in this paper. The proposed grouped rescue robots can perform cooperative reconnaissance and surveillance to achieve a given rescue mission. The multi-agent rescue of dual set robot consists of one master set and three slave units. The research for this rescue robot system is going to detect at harmful environment where human is unreachable, such as the building is infected with virus or the factory has hazardous liquid in effluent. As a dual set robot, with Bluetooth and communication network, the master set can connect with slave units and send information back to computer by wireless and monitor. Therefore, rescuer can be informed the real-time information in a calamity area. Furthermore, each slave robot is able to obstacle avoidance by ultrasonic sensors, and encodes distance and location by compass. The master robot can integrate every devices information to increase the efficiency of prospected and research unknown area.

    1
    15862
    Temperature Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Pd3Rh and PdRh3 Ordered Alloys
    Abstract:
    The aim of this research was to calculate the mechanical properties of Pd3Rh and PdRh3 ordered alloys. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique was used to obtain temperature dependence of the energy, the Yong modulus, the shear modulus, the bulk modulus, Poisson-s ratio and the elastic stiffness constants at the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble in the range of 100-325 K. The interatomic potential energy and force on atoms were calculated by Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many body potential. Our MD simulation results show the effect of temperature on the cohesive energy and mechanical properties of Pd3Rh as well as PdRh3 alloys. Our computed results show good agreement with the experimental results where they have been available.