Analysis of Hollow Rollers Implementation in Flexible Manufacturing of Large Bearings
In this paper is study the possibility of successfully
implementing of hollow roller concept in order to minimize inertial
mass of the large bearings, with major results in diminution of the
material consumption, increasing of power efficiency (in wind power
station area), increasing of the durability and life duration of the large
bearings systems, noise reduction in working, resistance to
vibrations, an important diminution of losses by abrasion and
reduction of the working temperature. In this purpose was developed
an original solution through which are reduced mass, inertial forces
and moments of large bearings by using of hollow rollers. The
research was made by using the method of finite element analysis
applied on software type Solidworks - Nastran. Also, is study the
possibility of rapidly changing the manufacturing system of solid and
hollow cylindrical rollers.
Effect of Turbulence Models on Simulated Iced Aircraft Airfoil
The present work describes a computational study of
aerodynamic characteristics of GLC305 airfoil clean and with 16.7
min ice shape (rime 212) and 22.5 min ice shape (glaze 944).The
performance of turbulence models SA, Kε, Kω Std, and Kω SST
model are observed against experimental flow fields at different
Mach numbers 0.12, 0.21, 0.28 in a range of Reynolds numbers
3x106, 6x106, and 10.5x106 on clean and iced aircraft airfoil
GLC305. Numerical predictions include lift, drag and pitching
moment coefficients at different Mach numbers and at different angle
of attacks were done. Accuracy of solutions with respect to the
effects of turbulence models, variation of Mach number, initial
conditions, grid resolution and grid spacing near the wall made the
study much sensitive. Navier Stokes equation based computational
technique is used. Results are very close to the experimental results.
It has seen that SA and SST models are more efficient than Kε and
Kω standard in under study problem.
Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels
A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate
the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection
diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and
exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at
constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are
plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and
nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The
experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin
methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate
simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the
present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with
Design and Performance Analysis of a Supersonic Diffuser for Plasma Wing Tunnel
Plasma Wind Tunnels (PWT) are extensively used for screening and qualification of re-entry Thermel Protection System (TPS) materials. Proper design of a supersonic diffuser for plasma wind tunnel is of importance for achieving good pressurerecovery (thereby reducing vacuum pumping requirement & run time costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuations from propagating costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuationnts the details of a rapid design methodology successfully employed for designing supersonic diffuser for high power (several megawatts)plasma wind tunnels and numerical performance analysis of a diffuser configuration designed for one megawatt power rated plasma wind tunnel(enthalpy ~ 30 MJ/kg) using FLUENT 6.3® solver for different diffuser operating sub-atmospheric back-pressures.
Main Bearing Stiffness Investigation
Simplified coupled engine block-crankshaft models
based on beam theory provide an efficient substitute to engine
simulation in the design process. These models require accurate
definition of the main bearing stiffness. In this paper, an investigation
of this stiffness is presented. The clearance effect is studied using a
smooth bearing model. It is manifested for low shaft displacement.
The hydrodynamic assessment model shows that the oil film has no
stiffness for low loads and it is infinitely rigid for important loads.
The deformation stiffness is determined using a suitable finite
elements model based on real CADs. As a result, a main bearing
behaviour law is proposed. This behaviour law takes into account the
clearance, the hydrodynamic sustention and the deformation stiffness.
It ensures properly the transition from the configuration low rigidity
to the configuration high rigidity.
Structure of Linkages and Cam Gear for Integral Steering of Vehicles
This paper addresses issues of integral steering of
vehicles with two steering axles, where the rear wheels are pivoted in
the direction of the front wheels, but also in the opposite direction.
The steering box of the rear axle is presented with simple linkages
(single contour) that correlate the pivoting of the rear wheels
according to the direction of the front wheels, respectively to the
rotation angle of the steering wheel. The functionality of the system
is analyzed – the extent to which the requirements of the integral
steering are met by the considered/proposed mechanisms. The paper
highlights the quality of the single contour linkages, with two driving
elements for meeting these requirements, emphasizing diagrams of
mechanisms with 2 driving elements. Cam variants are analyzed and
proposed for the rear axle steering box. Cam profiles are determined
by various factors.
Preemptive Possibilistic Linear Programming:Application to Aggregate Production Planning
This research proposes a Preemptive Possibilistic
Linear Programming (PPLP) approach for solving multiobjective
Aggregate Production Planning (APP) problem with interval demand
and imprecise unit price and related operating costs. The proposed
approach attempts to maximize profit and minimize changes of
workforce. It transforms the total profit objective that has imprecise
information to three crisp objective functions, which are maximizing
the most possible value of profit, minimizing the risk of obtaining the
lower profit and maximizing the opportunity of obtaining the higher
profit. The change of workforce level objective is also converted.
Then, the problem is solved according to objective priorities. It is
easier than simultaneously solve the multiobjective problem as
performed in existing approach. Possible range of interval demand is
also used to increase flexibility of obtaining the better production
plan. A practical application of an electronic company is illustrated to
show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Notched Specimens Life Under Bending Loading
In this work, bending fatigue life of notched
specimens with various notch geometries and dimensions is
investigated by experiment and Manson-Caffin theoretical method. In
this theoretical method, fatigue life of notched specimens is
calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for
plain specimens (without notch). Three notch geometries including
∪-shape, ∨-shape and C -shape notches are considered in this
investigation. The experiments are conducted on a rotary bending
Moore machine. The specimens are made of a low carbon steel alloy,
which has wide application in industry. The stress- life curves are
captured for all notched specimen by experiment. The results indicate
that Manson-Caffin analytical method cannot adequately predict
the fatigue life of notched specimen. However, it seems that the
difference between the experiments and Manson-Caffin predictions
can be compensated by a proportional factor.
Numerical Analysis of Wind Loads on a Hemicylindrical Roof Building
The flow field over a three dimensional pole barn
characterized by a cylindrical roof has been numerically investigated.
Wind pressure and viscous loads acting on the agricultural building
have been analyzed for several incoming wind directions, so as to
evaluate the most critical load condition on the structure. A constant
wind velocity profile, based on the maximum reference wind speed in
the building site (peak gust speed worked out for 50 years return
period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated.
In order to contemplate also the hazard due to potential air
wedging between the stored hay and the lower part of the ceiling, the
effect of a partial filling of the barn has been investigated.
The distribution of wind-induced loads on the structure have been
determined, allowing a numerical quantification of the effect of wind
direction on the induced stresses acting on a hemicylindrical roof.
A Study on the Location and Range of Obstacle Region in Robot's Point Placement Task based on the Vision Control Algorithm
This paper is concerned with the application of the vision control algorithm for robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory caused by obstacle. The presented vision control algorithm consists of four models, which are the robot kinematic model, vision system model, parameters estimation model, and robot joint angle estimation model.When the robot moves toward a target along discontinuous trajectory, several types of obstacles appear in two obstacle regions. Then, this study is to investigate how these changes will affect the presented vision control algorithm.Thus, the practicality of the vision control algorithm is demonstrated experimentally by performing the robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory by obstacle.
Using Hybrid System of Ground Heat Exchanger and Evaporative Cooler in Arid Weather Condition
In this paper, the feasibility study of using a hybrid
system of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and direct evaporative
cooling system in arid weather condition has been performed. The
model is applied for Yazd and Kerman, two cities with arid weather
condition in Iran. The system composed of three sections: Ground-
Coupled-Circuit (GCC), Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) and
Cooling Coil Unite (CCU). The GCC provides the necessary precooling
for DEC. The GCC includes four vertical GHE which are
designed in series configuration. Simulation results show that
hybridization of GCC and DEC could provide comfort condition
whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the results the cooling
effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than unity. Thus, this novel
hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient
wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy
efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical
vapor compression systems.
Feedrate Optimization for Ball-end milling of Sculptured Surfaces using Fuzzy Logic Controller
Optimization of cutting parameters important in precision machining in regards to efficiency and surface integrity of the machined part. Usually productivity and precision in machining is limited by the forces emanating from the cutting process. Due to the inherent varying nature of the workpiece in terms of geometry and material composition, the peak cutting forces vary from point to point during machining process. In order to increase productivity without compromising on machining accuracy, it is important to control these cutting forces. In this paper a fuzzy logic control algorithm is developed that can be applied in the control of peak cutting forces in milling of spherical surfaces using ball end mills. The controller can adaptively vary the feedrate to maintain allowable cutting force on the tool. This control algorithm is implemented in a computer numerical control (CNC) machine. It has been demonstrated that the controller can provide stable machining and improve the performance of the CNC milling process by varying feedrate.
Bee Parameter Determination via Weighted Centriod Modified Simplex and Constrained Response Surface Optimisation Methods
Various intelligences and inspirations have been
adopted into the iterative searching process called as meta-heuristics.
They intelligently perform the exploration and exploitation in the
solution domain space aiming to efficiently seek near optimal
solutions. In this work, the bee algorithm, inspired by the natural
foraging behaviour of honey bees, was adapted to find the near
optimal solutions of the transportation management system, dynamic
multi-zone dispatching. This problem prepares for an uncertainty and
changing customers- demand. In striving to remain competitive,
transportation system should therefore be flexible in order to cope
with the changes of customers- demand in terms of in-bound and outbound
goods and technological innovations. To remain higher service
level but lower cost management via the minimal imbalance scenario,
the rearrangement penalty of the area, in each zone, including time
periods are also included. However, the performance of the algorithm
depends on the appropriate parameters- setting and need to be
determined and analysed before its implementation. BEE parameters
are determined through the linear constrained response surface
optimisation or LCRSOM and weighted centroid modified simplex
methods or WCMSM. Experimental results were analysed in terms
of best solutions found so far, mean and standard deviation on the
imbalance values including the convergence of the solutions
obtained. It was found that the results obtained from the LCRSOM
were better than those using the WCMSM. However, the average
execution time of experimental run using the LCRSOM was longer
than those using the WCMSM. Finally a recommendation of proper
level settings of BEE parameters for some selected problem sizes is
given as a guideline for future applications.
Investigation on Ship Collision Phenomena by Analytical and Finite Element Methods
Collision is considered as a time-depended nonlinear
dynamic phenomenon. The majority of researchers have focused on
deriving the resultant damage of the ship collisions via analytical,
experimental, and finite element methods.In this paper, first, the
force-penetration curve of a head collision on a container ship with
rigid barrier based on Yang and Pedersen-s methods for internal
mechanic section is studied. Next, the obtained results from different
analytical methods are compared with each others. Then, through a
simulation of the container ship collision in Ansys Ls-Dyna, results
from finite element approach are compared with analytical methods
and the source of errors is discussed. Finally, the effects of
parameters such as velocity, and angle of collision on the forcepenetration
curve are investigated.
Localized Non-Stability of the Semi-Infinite Elastic Orthotropic Plate
This paper is concerned with an investigation into the
localized non-stability of a thin elastic orthotropic semi-infinite plate.
In this study, a semi-infinite plate, simply supported on two edges
and different boundary conditions, clamped, hinged, sliding contact
and free on the other edge, are considered. The mathematical model
is used and a general solution is presented the conditions under which
localized solutions exist are investigated.
Babbitt Casting and Babbitt Spraying Processes Case Study
In this paper, the babbitting of a bearing in boiler feed pump of an electromotor has been studied. These bearings have an important role in reducing the shut down times in the pumps, compressors and turbines. The most conventional method in babbitting is casting as a melting method. The comparison between thermal spray and casting methods in babbitting shows that the thermal spraying babbitt layer has better performance and tribological behavior. The metallurgical and tribological analysis such as SEM, EDS and wet chemical analysis has been made in the Babbitt alloys and worn surfaces. Two type of babbitt materials: tinbase and lead-base babbitt was used. The benefits of thermally sprayed babbitt layers are completely clear especially in large bearings.
Effect of Including Thermal Process on Spot Welded and Weld-Bonded Joints
A three-dimensional finite element modeling for austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 annealed condition sheets of 1.0 mm thickness are developed using ABAQUS® software. This includes spot welded and weld bonded joints models. Both models undergo thermal heat caused by spot welding process and then are subjected to axial load up to the failure point. The properties of elastic and plastic regions, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, nugget and heat affected zones are determined. Complete loaddisplacement curve for each joining model is obtained and compared with the experiment data and with the finite element models without including the effect of thermal process. In general, the results obtained for both spot welded and weld-bonded joints affected by thermal process showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data.
Dynamic Clustering Estimation of Tool Flank Wear in Turning Process using SVD Models of the Emitted Sound Signals
Monitoring the tool flank wear without affecting the
throughput is considered as the prudent method in production
technology. The examination has to be done without affecting the
machining process. In this paper we proposed a novel work that is
used to determine tool flank wear by observing the sound signals
emitted during the turning process. The work-piece material we used
here is steel and aluminum and the cutting insert was carbide
material. Two different cutting speeds were used in this work. The
feed rate and the cutting depth were constant whereas the flank wear
was a variable. The emitted sound signal of a fresh tool (0 mm flank
wear) a slightly worn tool (0.2 -0.25 mm flank wear) and a severely
worn tool (0.4mm and above flank wear) during turning process were
recorded separately using a high sensitive microphone. Analysis
using Singular Value Decomposition was done on these sound
signals to extract the feature sound components. Observation of the
results showed that an increase in tool flank wear correlates with an
increase in the values of SVD features produced out of the sound
signals for both the materials. Hence it can be concluded that wear
monitoring of tool flank during turning process using SVD features
with the Fuzzy C means classification on the emitted sound signal is
a potential and relatively simple method.
Design of a Constant Chord Single-Rotating Propeller using Lock and Goldstein Techniques
Design of a constant chord propeller is presented in
this paper in order to reduce propeller-s design procedure-s costs. The
design process was based on Lock and Goldstein-s techniques of
propeller design and analysis. In order to calculate optimum chord of
propeller, chord of a referential element is generalized as whole
blades chord. The design outcome which named CS-X-1 is modeled
& analyzed by CFD methods using K-ε: R.N.G turbulence model.
Convergence of results of two codes proved that outcome results of
design process are reliable. Design result is a two-blade propeller
with a total diameter of 1.1 meter, radial velocity of 3000 R.P.M,
efficiency above .75 and power coefficient near 1.05.
Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Laminated Composite Panels
In this paper, free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminated composite panels is presented. Three types of panels such as flat, concave and convex are considered for study. Numerical simulation is carried out using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical homogenization is employed to calculate the effective elastic properties of randomly distributed carbon nanotube reinforced composites. To verify the accuracy of the finite element method, comparisons are made with existing results available in the literature for conventional laminated composite panels and good agreements are obtained. The results of the CNT reinforced composite materials are compared with conventional composite materials under different boundary conditions.
Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution
Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform
thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was
conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy
composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature
field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the
laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The
non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of
the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the
shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source
codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of
the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike
temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature
range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite
plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior
of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature
Analyzing of Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Effect in the Numerical Modeling of Fin-Tube Radiators: Introduction of a New Method
In all industries which are related to heat, suitable
thermal ranges are defined for each device to operate well.
Consideration of these limits requires a thermal control unit beside
the main system. The Satellite Thermal Control Unit exploits from
different methods and facilities individually or mixed. For enhancing
heat transfer between primary surface and the environment,
utilization of radiating extended surfaces are common. Especially for
large temperature differences; variable thermal conductivity has a
strong effect on performance of such a surface .In most literatures,
thermo-physical properties, such as thermal conductivity, are
assumed as constant. However, in some recent researches the
variation of these parameters is considered. This may be helpful for
the evaluation of fin-s temperature distribution in relatively large
temperature differences. A new method is introduced to evaluate
temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The finite
volume method is employed to simulate numerically the temperature
distribution in a space radiating fin. The present modeling is carried
out for Aluminum as fin material and compared with previous
method. The present results are also compared with those of two
other analytical methods and good agreement is shown.
A Comprehensive model for developing of Steer-By-Wire System
Steer-By-Wire ( SBW ) has several advantages of packaging flexibility , advanced vehicle control system ,and superior performance . SBW has no mechanical linkage between the steering gear and the steering column. It is possible to control the steering wheel and the front-wheel steering independently. SBW system is composed of two motors controlled by ECU. One motor in the steering wheel is to improve the driver's steering feel and the other motor in the steering linkage is to improve the vehicle maneuverability and stability. This paper shows a new approach at modeling of SBW system by Bond Graph theory. The mechanical parts , the steering wheel motor and the front wheel motor will be modeled by this theory. The work in the paper will help to guide further researches on control algorithm of the SBW system .