Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 46

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 46
    Optimization of Partially Filled Column Subjected to Oblique Loading

    In this study, optimization is carried out to find the optimized design of a foam-filled column for the best Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) and Crush Force Efficiency (CFE). In order to maximize SEA, the optimization gives the value of 2.3 for column thickness and 151.7 for foam length. On the other hand to maximize CFE, the optimization gives the value of 1.1 for column thickness and 200 for foam length. Finite Element simulation is run by using this value and the SEA and CFE obtained 1237.76 J/kg and 0.92.

    Development of Workplace Environmental Monitoring Systems Using Ubiquitous Sensor Network
    In this study, workplace environmental monitoring systems were established using USN(Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) and LabVIEW. Although existing direct sampling methods enable finding accurate values as of the time points of measurement, those methods are disadvantageous in that continuous management and supervision are difficult and costs for are high when those methods are used. Therefore, the efficiency and reliability of workplace management by supervisors are relatively low when those methods are used. In this study, systems were established so that information on workplace environmental factors such as temperatures, humidity and noises is measured and transmitted to the PC in real time to enable supervisors to monitor workplaces through LabVIEW on the PC. When any accidents have occurred in workplaces, supervisors can immediately respond through the monitoring system and this system enables integrated workplace management and the prevention of safety accidents. By introducing these monitoring systems, safety accidents due to harmful environmental factors in workplaces can be prevented and these monitoring systems will be also helpful in finding out the correlation between safety accidents and occupational diseases by comparing and linking databases established by this monitoring system with existing statistical data.
    Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion
    Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.
    Modeling and Implementation of an Oceanic- Robot Glider

    A glider is in essence an unpowered vehicle and in this project we designed and built an oceanic glider, designed to operate underwater. This Glider was designed to collect ocean data such as temperature, pressure and (in future measures physical dimensions of the operating environment) and output this data to an external source. Development of the Oceanic Glider required research into various actuation systems that control buoyancy, pitch and yaw and the dynamics of these systems. It also involved the design and manufacture of the Glider and the design and implementation of a controller that enabled the Glider to navigate and move in an appropriate manner.

    Factors of Successful Wooden Furniture Design Process
    This study systemizes processes and methods in wooden furniture design that contains uniqueness in function and aesthetics. The study was done by research and analysis for designer-s consideration factors that affect function and production. Therefore, the study result indicates that such factors are design process (planning for design, product specifications, concept design, product architecture, industrial design, production), design evaluation as well as wooden furniture design dependent factors i.e. art (art style; furniture history, form), functionality (the strength and durability, area place, using), material (appropriate to function, wood mechanical properties), joints, cost, safety, and social responsibility. Specifically, all aforementioned factors affect good design. Resulting from direct experience gained through user-s usage, the designer must design the wooden furniture systemically and effectively. As a result, this study selected dinning armchair as a case study with all involving factors and all design process stated in this study.
    Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology
    Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene. For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate), aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.
    Hydrogen and Diesel Combustion on a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel mode with Varying Injection Strategies
    The present energy situation and the concerns about global warming has stimulated active research interest in non-petroleum, carbon free compounds and non-polluting fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and agricultural sectors. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. Recently more and more stringent environmental regulations being enacted in the USA and Europe have led to the research and development activities on clean alternative fuels. Among the gaseous fuels hydrogen is considered to be one of the clean alternative fuel. Hydrogen is an interesting candidate for future internal combustion engine based power trains. In this experimental investigation, the performance and combustion analysis were carried out on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine using hydrogen with diesel following the TMI(Time Manifold Injection) technique at different injection timings of 10 degree,45 degree and 80 degree ATDC using an electronic control unit (ECU) and injection durations were controlled. Further, the tests have been carried out at a constant speed of 1500rpm at different load conditions and it can be observed that brake thermal efficiency increases with increase in load conditions with a maximum gain of 15% at full load conditions during all injection strategies of hydrogen. It was also observed that with the increase in hydrogen energy share BSEC started reducing and it reduced to a maximum of 9% as compared to baseline diesel at 10deg ATDC injection during maximum injection proving the exceptional combustion properties of hydrogen.
    The Application of an Experimental Design for the Defect Reduction of Electrodeposition Painting on Stainless Steel Washers

    The purpose of this research is to reduce the amount of incomplete coating of stainless steel washers in the electrodeposition painting process by using an experimental design technique. The surface preparation was found to be a major cause of painted surface quality. The influence of pretreating and painting process parameters, which are cleaning time, chemical concentration and shape of hanger were studied. A 23 factorial design with two replications was performed. The analysis of variance for the designed experiment showed the great influence of cleaning time and shape of hanger. From this study, optimized cleaning time was determined and a newly designed electrical conductive hanger was proved to be superior to the original one. The experimental verification results showed that the amount of incomplete coating defects decreased from 4% to 1.02% and operation cost decreased by 10.5%.

    Evaluation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Bearing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    This research details a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to model fluid flow in a journal bearing with 8 equispaced semi-circular axial grooves. Water is used as the lubricant and is fed from one end of the bearing to the other, under pressure. The geometry of the bearing is modeled using a commercially available modeling software GAMBIT and the flow analysis is performed using a dedicated CFD analysis software FLUENT. The pressure distribution in the bearing clearance is obtained from FLUENT for various whirl ratios and is used to calculate the hydrodynamic force components in the radial and tangential direction of the bearing. These values along with the various whirl speeds can be used to do a regression analysis to determine the stiffness and damping coefficients. The values obtained are then compared with the stiffness and damping coefficients of a 3 Axial groove water lubricated journal bearing and those obtained from a FORTRAN code for a similar bearing.

    Green Lean TQM Human Resource Management Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies

    Green Lean Total Quality Management (LTQM) Human Resource Management (HRM) System is a system comprises of HRM in Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. HRM is essential especially in dealing with low motivation and less productive employees. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total human resource development that is motivated and capable to optimize their creativity to be a part of Green and Lean TQM organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by Minitab v16 and SPSS v17. It was found out companies that are practicing Green LTQM HRM practices have generated more revenue and have RND capability. However, years of company establishment do not affect the openness of the company to adapt new initiatives that can help to improve the effectiveness of the operations. It was also found out the importance of training, communication and rewards for employees. The Green LTQM HRM practices framework model established in this study hopefully will give preliminary insight especially to companies that are still looking for system that can improve their productivity from managing human resource. This is preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development Program. Future study can be conducted to know the status at other industry as well as case study pertaining to this system.

    Frequency and Amplitude Measurement of a Vibrating Object in Water Using Ultrasonic Speckle Technique

    The principle of frequency and amplitude measurement of a vibrating object in water using ultrasonic speckle technique is presented in this paper. Compared with other traditional techniques, the ultrasonic speckle technique can be applied to vibration measurement of a nonmetal object with rough surface in water in a noncontact way. The relationship between speckle movement and object movement was analyzed. Based on this study, an ultrasonic speckle measurement system was set up. With this system the frequency and amplitude of an underwater vibrating cantilever beam was detected. The result shows that the experimental data is in good agreement with the calibrating data.

    Influence of Injection Timing and Injector Opening Pressure on Combustion Performance and P-θ Characteristics of a CI Engine Operating on Jatropha B20 Fuel
    The quest for alternatefuels for a CI engine has become all the more imperative considering its importance in the economy of a nation and from the standpoint of preserving the environment. Reported in this paper are the combustion performance and P-θ characteristics of a CI engine operating on B20 biodiesel fuel derived from Jatropha oil.Itis observed that the twin effect of advancing the injection timing and increasing the injector opening pressure (IOP) up to 220 barhas resulted in minimum brake specific energy consumption and higherpeak pressure. It is also observed that the crank angle of occurrence of peak pressure progressestowards top dead center (TDC) as the timing is advanced and IOP is increased.
    A New Perturbation Technique in Numerical Study on Buckling of Composite Shells under Axial Compression
    A numerical study is presented on buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shells under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT). Asymmetric meshing technique is a perturbation technique to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects predicted buckling load, buckling mode shape and post-buckling behaviour. Linear (eigenvalue) and nonlinear (Riks) analyses have been performed to study the effect of asymmetric meshing in the form of a patch on buckling behaviour. The reduction in the buckling load using Asymmetric meshing technique was observed to be about 15%. An isolated dimple formed near the bifurcation point and the size of which increased to reach a stable state in the post-buckling region. The load-displacement curve behaviour applying asymmetric meshing is quite similar to the curve obtained using initial geometric imperfection in the shell model.
    Green Lean TQM Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies
    Green Lean Total Quality Management (TQM) System is a system comprises of Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total customer satisfaction and environmental care by removing eight wastes available in any process in an organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by SPSS v.17. It was found out that some vendors have been practicing TQM and LM while some have started to implement EMS. This study is only focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development Program. This is the first study conducted to know the current status of TQM, LM and EMS practices in highly active automotive companies in Malaysia. It was found out that EMS has been practiced by 16 companies out of 30. Within these 16 companies the approach is more holistic and green. This is a preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS.
    Development of a Model for the Comprehensive Analysis and Evaluation of Service Productivity
    Although services play a crucial role in economy, service did not gain as much importance as productivity management in manufacturing. This paper presents key findings from literature and practice. Based on an initial definition of complex services, seven productivity concepts are briefly presented and assessed by relevant, complex service specific criteria. Following the findings a complex service productivity model is proposed. The novel model comprises of all specific dimensions of service provision from both, the provider-s as well as costumer-s perspective. A clear assignment of identified value drivers and relationships between them is presented. In order to verify the conceptual service productivity model a case study from a project engineering department of a chemical plant development and construction company is presented.
    Stabilization of a New Configurable Two- Wheeled Machine Using a PD-PID and a Hybrid FL Control Strategies: A Comparative Study

    A novel design of two-wheeled robotic vehicle with moving payload is presented in this paper. A mathematical model describing the vehicle dynamics is derived and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment. Two control strategies were developed to stabilise the vehicle in the upright position. A robust Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control strategy has been implemented and initially tested to measure the system performance, while the second control strategy is to use a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The results are given on a comparative basis for the system performance in terms of disturbance rejection, control algorithms robustness as well as the control effort in terms of input torque.

    Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section
    A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.
    A Fuzzy Logic Based Model to Predict Surface Roughness of A Machined Surface in Glass Milling Operation Using CBN Grinding Tool
    Nowadays, the demand for high product quality focuses extensive attention to the quality of machined surface. The (CNC) milling machine facilities provides a wide variety of parameters set-up, making the machining process on the glass excellent in manufacturing complicated special products compared to other machining processes. However, the application of grinding process on the CNC milling machine could be an ideal solution to improve the product quality, but adopting the right machining parameters is required. In glass milling operation, several machining parameters are considered to be significant in affecting surface roughness. These parameters include the lubrication pressure, spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this research work, a fuzzy logic model is offered to predict the surface roughness of a machined surface in glass milling operation using CBN grinding tool. Four membership functions are allocated to be connected with each input of the model. The predicted results achieved via fuzzy logic model are compared to the experimental result. The result demonstrated settlement between the fuzzy model and experimental results with the 93.103% accuracy.
    Blending Processing of Industrial Residues: A Specific Case of an Enterprise Located in the Municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Residues are produced in all stages of human activities in terms of composition and volume which vary according to consumption practices and to production methods. Forms of significant harm to the environment are associated to volume of generated material as well as to improper disposal of solid wastes, whose negative effects are noticed more frequently in the long term. The solution to this problem constitutes a challenge to the government, industry and society, because they involve economic, social, environmental and, especially, awareness of the population in general. The main concerns are focused on the impact it can have on human health and on the environment (soil, water, air and sights). The hazardous waste produced mainly by industry, are particularly worrisome because, when improperly managed, they become a serious threat to the environment. In view of this issue, this study aimed to evaluate the management system of solid waste of a coprocessing industrial waste company, to propose improvements to the rejects generation management in a specific step of the Blending production process.
    An Analytical Solution for Vibration of Elevator Cables with Small Bending Stiffness

    Responses of the dynamical systems are highly affected by the natural frequencies and it has a huge impact on design and operation of high-rise and high-speed elevators. In the present paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to investigate better understanding the dynamics of elevator cable as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) swing system. Comparisons made among the results of the proposed closed-form analytical solution, the traditional numerical iterative time integration solution, and the linearized governing equations confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. Furthermore, based on the results of the proposed closed-form solution, the linearization errors in calculating the natural frequencies in different cases are discussed.

    Intelligent Condition Monitoring Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Robots
    This paper presents the application of Intelligent Techniques to the various duties of Intelligent Condition Monitoring Systems (ICMS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Robots. These Systems are intended to support these Intelligent Robots in the event of a Fault occurrence. Neural Networks are used for Diagnosis, whilst Fuzzy Logic is intended for Prognosis and Remedy. The ultimate goals of ICMS are to save large losses in financial cost, time and data.
    State of Charge Estimator Based On High-Gain Observer for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    This paper introduces a high-gain observer based state of charge(SOC) estimator for lithium-Ion batteries. The proposed SOC estimator has a high-gain observer(HGO) structure. The HGO scheme enhances the transient response speed and diminishes the effect of uncertainties. Furthermore, it guarantees that the output feedback controller recovers the performance of the state feedback controller when the observer gain is sufficiently high. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, the linear RC battery model in ADVISOR is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional linear observer(CLO) and some simulation result is given.

    Development of a Simple laser-based 2D Compensating System for the Contouring Accuracy of Machine Tools

    The dynamical contouring error is a critical element for the accuracy of machine tools. The contouring error is defined as the difference between the processing actual path and commanded path, which is implemented by following the command curves from feeding driving system in machine tools. The contouring error is resulted from various factors, such as the external loads, friction, inertia moment, feed rate, speed control, servo control, and etc. Thus, the study proposes a 2D compensating system for the contouring accuracy of machine tools. Optical method is adopted by using stable frequency laser diode and the high precision position sensor detector (PSD) to performno-contact measurement. Results show the related accuracy of position sensor detector (PSD) of 2D contouring accuracy compensating system was ±1.5 μm for a calculated range of ±3 mm, and improvement accuracy is over 80% at high-speed feed rate.

    The Implementation of Good Manufacturing Practice in Polycarbonate Film Industry
    This study reports the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in a polycarbonate film processing plant. The implementation of GMP took place with the creation of a multidisciplinary team. It was carried out in four steps: conduct gap assessment, create gap closure plan, close gaps, and follow up the GMP implementation. The basis for the gap assessment is the guideline for GMP for plastic materials and articles intended for Food Contact Material (FCM), which was edited by Plastic Europe. The effective results of the GMP implementation in this study showed 100% completion of gap assessment. The key success factors for implementing GMP in production process are the commitment, intention and support of top management.
    Implementation of Lower-Limb Rehabilitation System Using Attraction Motors with a Treadmill
    This paper proposes a prototype of a lower-limb rehabilitation system for recovering and strengthening patients- injured lower limbs. The system is composed of traction motors for each leg position, a treadmill as a walking base, tension sensors, microcontrollers controlling motor functions and a main system with graphic user interface. For derivation of reference or normal velocity profiles of the body segment point, kinematic method is applied based on the humanoid robot model using the reference joint angle data of normal walking.
    Learning Factory for Changeability
    Amongst the consistently fluctuating conditions prevailing today, changeability represents a strategic key factor for a manufacturing company to achieve success on the international markets. In order to cope with turbulences and the increasing level of incalculability, not only the flexible design of production systems but in particular the employee as enabler of change provide the focus here. It is important to enable employees from manufacturing companies to participate actively in change events and in change decisions. To this end, the learning factory has been created, which is intended to serve the development of change-promoting competences and the sensitization of employees for the necessity of changes.
    A Comparative CFD Study on Solar Dimple Plate Collector with Flat Plate Collector to Augment the Thermal Performance

    It is well known that surface enhancements play an important role in augmenting the thermal performance of flat plate solar collector. In this paper, an attempt is made to explain in a comparative way the effect of surface geometry of solar collector having dimple geometry with that of a flat plate solar collector of the same size. A CFD analysis was carried out for the two cases, subjected to a constant heat flux of 600W/m2 and 1000W/m2. It can be inferred from the study that the absorber plate temperature shows a rise of average surface temperature of about 50C for the dimple solar collector when compared to a flat plate solar collector. Most importantly, the average exit water temperature shows a marked improvement of about 5.50C for a dimple solar collector as compared to that of a flat plate solar collector.

    Development of Vibration Sensor with Wide Frequency Range Based on Condenser Microphone -Estimation System for Flow Rate in Water Pipes-

    Water leakage is a serious problem in the maintenance of a waterworks facility. Monitoring the water flow rate is one way to locate leakage. However, conventional flowmeters such as the wet-type flowmeter and the clamp-on type ultrasonic flowmeter require additional construction for their installation and are therefore quite expensive. This paper proposes a novel estimation system for the flow rate in a water pipeline, which employs a vibration sensor. This assembly can be attached to any water pipeline without the need for additional high-cost construction. The vibration sensor is designed based on a condenser microphone. This sensor detects vibration caused by water flowing through a pipeline. It is possible to estimate the water flow rate by measuring the amplitude of the output signal from the vibration sensor. We confirmed the validity of the proposed sensing system experimentally.

    Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling
    Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation. Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine blade cooling.
    A Feasibility-study of a Micro- Communications Sonobuoy Deployable by UAV Robots
    This paper describes a feasibility study that is included with the research, development and testing of a micro communications sonobuoy deployable by Maritime Fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (M-UAV) and rotor wing Quad Copters which are both currently being developed by the University of Adelaide. The micro communications sonobuoy is developed to act as a seamless communication relay between an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and an above water human operator some distance away. Development of such a device would eliminate the requirement of physical communication tethers attached to submersible vehicles for control and data retrieval.
    Injection Molding of Inconel718 Parts for Aerospace Application Using Novel Binder System Based On Palm Oil Derivatives

    Inconel718 has been widely used as a super alloy in aerospace application due to the high strength at elevated temperatures, satisfactory oxidation resistance and heat corrosion resistance. In this study, the Inconel718 has been fabricated using high technology of Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Through MIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the Inconel718. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin has been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system have been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder holds the particles in place. The binder system has to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis has been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part is then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The results show that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) 35 for MIM parts.

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Dynamics Modeling and Performance Evaluation

    A sophisticated simulator provides a cost-effective measure to carry out preliminary mission testing and diagnostic while reducing potential failures for real life at sea trials. The presented simulation framework covers three key areas: AUV modeling, sensor modeling, and environment modeling. AUV modeling mainly covers the area of AUV dynamics. Sensor modeling deals with physics and mathematical models that govern each sensor installed onto the AUV. Environment model incorporates the hydrostatic, hydrodynamics, and ocean currents that will affect the AUV in a real-time mission. Based on this designed simulation framework, custom scenarios provided by the user can be modeled and its corresponding behaviors can be observed. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the simulated data from AUV model and environmental model derived from a developed AUV test-bed which was jointly upgraded by DSTO and the University of Adelaide. The main contribution of this paper is to experimentally verify the accuracy of the proposed simulation framework.

    Study on Specific Energy in Grinding of DRACs: A Response Surface Methodology Approach
    In this study, the effects of machining parameters on specific energy during surface grinding of 6061Al-SiC35P composites are investigated. Vol% of SiC, feed and depth of cut were chosen as process variables. The power needed for the calculation of the specific energy is measured from the two watt meter method. Experiments are conducted using standard RSM design called Central composite design (CCD). A second order response surface model was developed for specific energy. The results identify the significant influence factors to minimize the specific energy. The confirmation results demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
    Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters
    This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness.
    Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct

    In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.

    Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity
    Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.
    Environmental Management of the Tanning Industry's Supply Chain: An Integration Model from Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001:2004

    The environmental impact caused by industries is an issue that, in the last 20 years, has become very important in terms of society, economics and politics in Colombia. Particularly, the tannery process is extremely polluting because of uneffective treatments and regulations given to the dumping process and atmospheric emissions. Considering that, this investigation is intended to propose a management model based on the integration of Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001-2004, that prioritizes the strategic components of the organizations. As a result, a management model will be obtained and it will provide a strategic perspective through a systemic approach to the tanning process. This will be achieved through the use of Multicriteria Decision tools, along with Quality Function Deployment and Fuzzy Logic. The strategic approach that embraces the management model using the alignment of Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001-2004, is an integrated perspective that allows a gradual frame of the tactical and operative elements through the correct setting of the information flow, improving the decision making process. In that way, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) could improve their productivity, competitiveness and as an added value, the minimization of the environmental impact. This improvement is expected to be controlled through a Dashboard that helps the Organization measure its performance along the implementation of the model in its productive process.

    Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Ejector with Diffuser with Boundary Layer Suction
    The article deals with experimental and numerical investigation of axi-symmetric subsonic air to air ejector with diffuser adapted for boundary layer suction. The diffuser, which is placed behind the mixing chamber of the ejector, has high divergence angle and therefore low efficiency. To increase the efficiency, the diffuser is equipped with slot enabling boundary layer suction. The effect of boundary layer suction on flow in ejector, static pressure distribution on the mixing chamber wall and characteristic were measured and studied numerically. Both diffuser and ejector efficiency were evaluated. The diffuser efficiency was increased, however, the efficiency of ejector itself remained low.
    Standardization and Adaption Requirements in Production System Transplants
    As German companies roll out their standardized production systems to offshore manufacturing plants, they face the challenge of implementing them in different cultural environments. Studies show that the local adaptation is one of the key factors for a successful implementation. Thus the question arises of where the line between standardization and adaptation can be drawn. To answer this question the influence of culture on production systems is analysed in this paper. The culturally contingent components of production systems are identified. Also the contingency factors are classified according to their impact on the necessary adaptation changes and implementation effort. Culturally specific decision making, coordination, communication and motivation patterns require one-time changes in organizational and process design. The attitude towards rules requires more intense coaching and controlling. Lastly a framework is developed to depict standardization and adaption needs when transplanting production systems into different cultural environments.
    Modeling of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission for Automobiles

    It is believed that continuously variable transmission (CVT) will dominate the automotive transmissions in the future. The most popular design is Van Doorne-s CVT with single metal pushing V-belt. However, it is only applicable to low power passenger cars because its major limitation is low torque capacity. Therefore, this research studies a novel dual-belt CVT system to overcome the limitation of traditional single-belt CVT, such that it can be applicable to the heavy-duty vehicles. This paper presents the mathematical model of the design and its experimental verification. Experimental and simulated results show that the model developed is valid and the proposed dual-belt CVT can really overcome the traditional limitation of single-belt Van Doorne-s CVT.

    Establishing a Probabilistic Model of Extrapolated Wind Speed Data for Wind Energy Prediction
    Wind is among the potential energy resources which can be harnessed to generate wind energy for conversion into electrical power. Due to the variability of wind speed with time and height, it becomes difficult to predict the generated wind energy more optimally. In this paper, an attempt is made to establish a probabilistic model fitting the wind speed data recorded at Makambako site in Tanzania. Wind speeds and direction were respectively measured using anemometer (type AN1) and wind Vane (type WD1) both supplied by Delta-T-Devices at a measurement height of 2 m. Wind speeds were then extrapolated for the height of 10 m using power law equation with an exponent of 0.47. Data were analysed using MINITAB statistical software to show the variability of wind speeds with time and height, and to determine the underlying probability model of the extrapolated wind speed data. The results show that wind speeds at Makambako site vary cyclically over time; and they conform to the Weibull probability distribution. From these results, Weibull probability density function can be used to predict the wind energy.
    Numerical Analysis of Flow through Abrasive Water Suspension Jet: The Effect of Garnet, Aluminum Oxide and Silicon Carbide Abrasive on Skin Friction Coefficient Due To Wall Shear and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy
    It is well known that the abrasive particles in the abrasive water suspension has significant effect on the erosion characteristics of the inside surface of the nozzle. Abrasive particles moving with the flow cause severe skin friction effect, there by altering the nozzle diameter due to wear which in turn reflects on the life of the nozzle for effective machining. Various commercial abrasives are available for abrasive water jet machining. The erosion characteristic of each abrasive is different. In consideration of this aspect, in the present work, the effect of abrasive materials namely garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide on skin friction coefficient due to wall shear stress and jet kinetic energy has been analyzed. It is found that the abrasive material of lower density produces a relatively higher skin friction effect and higher jet exit kinetic energy.
    Application of Nano Cutting Fluid under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Technique to Improve Grinding of Ti – 6Al – 4V Alloy
    Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique obtained a significant attention in machining processes to reduce environmental loads caused by usage of conventional cutting fluids. Recently nanofluids are finding an extensive application in the field of mechanical engineering because of their superior lubrication and heat dissipation characteristics. This paper investigates the use of a nanofluid under MQL mode to improve grinding characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Taguchi-s experimental design technique has been used in the present investigation and a second order model has been established to predict grinding forces and surface roughness. Different concentrations of water based Al2O3 nanofluids were applied in the grinding operation through MQL setup developed in house and the results have been compared with those of conventional coolant and pure water. Experimental results showed that grinding forces reduced significantly when nano cutting fluid was used even at low concentration of the nano particles and surface finish has been found to improve with higher concentration of the nano particles.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Influence of Application Experience on Working Methods of Process Modelers
    In view of growing competition in the service sector, services are as much in need of modeling, analysis and improvement as business or working processes. Graphical process models are important means to capture process-related know-how for an effective management of the service process. In this contribution, a human performance analysis of process model development paying special attention to model development time and the working method was conducted. It was found that modelers with higher application experience need significantly less time for mental activities than modelers with lower application experience, spend more time on labeling graphical elements, and achieved higher process model quality in terms of activity label quality.
    An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose
    This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed, and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time. The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is observed between the results obtained in this paper and those calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design, parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.
    Trapping Efficiency of Diesel Particles Through a Square Duct
    Diesel Engines emit complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds in the form of both solid and vapour phase particles. Most of the particulates released are ultrafine nanoparticles which are detrimental to human health and can easily enter the body by respiration. The emissions standards on particulate matter release from diesel engines are constantly upgraded within the European Union and with future regulations based on the particles numbers released instead of merely mass, the need for effective aftertreatment devices will increase. Standard particulate filters in the form of wall flow filters can have problems with high soot accumulation, producing a large exhaust backpressure. A potential solution would be to combine the standard filter with a flow through filter to reduce the load on the wall flow filter. In this paper soot particle trapping has been simulated in different continuous flow filters of monolithic structure including the use of promoters, at laminar flow conditions. An Euler Lagrange model, the discrete phase model in Ansys used with user defined functions for forces acting on particles. A method to quickly screen trapping of 5 nm and 10 nm particles in different catalysts designs with tracers was also developed. Simulations of square duct monoliths with promoters show that the strength of the vortices produced are not enough to give a high amount of particle deposition on the catalyst walls. The smallest particles in the simulations, 5 and 10 nm particles were trapped to a higher extent, than larger particles up to 1000 nm, in all studied geometries with the predominant deposition mechanism being Brownian diffusion. The comparison of the different filters designed with a wall flow filter does show that the options for altering a design of a flow through filter, without imposing a too large pressure drop penalty are good.