Optimization of Partially Filled Column Subjected to Oblique Loading
In this study, optimization is carried out to find the optimized design of a foam-filled column for the best Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) and Crush Force Efficiency (CFE). In order to maximize SEA, the optimization gives the value of 2.3 for column thickness and 151.7 for foam length. On the other hand to maximize CFE, the optimization gives the value of 1.1 for column thickness and 200 for foam length. Finite Element simulation is run by using this value and the SEA and CFE obtained 1237.76 J/kg and 0.92.
Development of Workplace Environmental Monitoring Systems Using Ubiquitous Sensor Network
In this study, workplace environmental monitoring
systems were established using USN(Ubiquitous Sensor Networks)
and LabVIEW. Although existing direct sampling methods enable
finding accurate values as of the time points of measurement, those
methods are disadvantageous in that continuous management and
supervision are difficult and costs for are high when those methods are
used. Therefore, the efficiency and reliability of workplace
management by supervisors are relatively low when those methods are
used. In this study, systems were established so that information on
workplace environmental factors such as temperatures, humidity and
noises is measured and transmitted to the PC in real time to enable
supervisors to monitor workplaces through LabVIEW on the PC.
When any accidents have occurred in workplaces, supervisors can
immediately respond through the monitoring system and this system
enables integrated workplace management and the prevention of
safety accidents. By introducing these monitoring systems, safety
accidents due to harmful environmental factors in workplaces can be
prevented and these monitoring systems will be also helpful in finding
out the correlation between safety accidents and occupational diseases
by comparing and linking databases established by this monitoring
system with existing statistical data.
Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion
Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is
numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on
ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail
chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and
Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream
splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show
that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease
the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl
just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.
Modeling and Implementation of an Oceanic- Robot Glider
A glider is in essence an unpowered vehicle and in this project we designed and built an oceanic glider, designed to operate underwater. This Glider was designed to collect ocean data such as temperature, pressure and (in future measures physical dimensions of the operating environment) and output this data to an external source. Development of the Oceanic Glider required research into various actuation systems that control buoyancy, pitch and yaw and the dynamics of these systems. It also involved the design and manufacture of the Glider and the design and implementation of a controller that enabled the Glider to navigate and move in an appropriate manner.
Factors of Successful Wooden Furniture Design Process
This study systemizes processes and methods in
wooden furniture design that contains uniqueness in function and
aesthetics. The study was done by research and analysis for
designer-s consideration factors that affect function and production.
Therefore, the study result indicates that such factors are design
process (planning for design, product specifications, concept design,
product architecture, industrial design, production), design evaluation
as well as wooden furniture design dependent factors i.e. art (art
style; furniture history, form), functionality (the strength and
durability, area place, using), material (appropriate to function, wood
mechanical properties), joints, cost, safety, and social responsibility.
Specifically, all aforementioned factors affect good design. Resulting
from direct experience gained through user-s usage, the designer
must design the wooden furniture systemically and effectively. As a
result, this study selected dinning armchair as a case study with all
involving factors and all design process stated in this study.
Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology
Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area
of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping
technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for
production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state
as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used
various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range
materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are
mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene
Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene.
For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon
nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate),
aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.
Hydrogen and Diesel Combustion on a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel mode with Varying Injection Strategies
The present energy situation and the concerns
about global warming has stimulated active research interest
in non-petroleum, carbon free compounds and non-polluting
fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and
agricultural sectors. Environmental concerns and limited
amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the
development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC)
engines. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining
and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the
developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe
shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced
in the second half of this century. Recently more and more
stringent environmental regulations being enacted in the USA
and Europe have led to the research and development
activities on clean alternative fuels. Among the gaseous fuels
hydrogen is considered to be one of the clean alternative fuel.
Hydrogen is an interesting candidate for future internal
combustion engine based power trains. In this experimental
investigation, the performance and combustion analysis were
carried out on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine using
hydrogen with diesel following the TMI(Time Manifold
Injection) technique at different injection timings of 10
degree,45 degree and 80 degree ATDC using an electronic
control unit (ECU) and injection durations were controlled.
Further, the tests have been carried out at a constant speed of
1500rpm at different load conditions and it can be observed
that brake thermal efficiency increases with increase in load
conditions with a maximum gain of 15% at full load
conditions during all injection strategies of hydrogen. It was
also observed that with the increase in hydrogen energy share
BSEC started reducing and it reduced to a maximum of 9% as
compared to baseline diesel at 10deg ATDC injection during
maximum injection proving the exceptional combustion
properties of hydrogen.
The Application of an Experimental Design for the Defect Reduction of Electrodeposition Painting on Stainless Steel Washers
The purpose of this research is to reduce the amount of incomplete coating of stainless steel washers in the electrodeposition painting process by using an experimental design technique. The surface preparation was found to be a major cause of painted surface quality. The influence of pretreating and painting process parameters, which are cleaning time, chemical concentration and shape of hanger were studied. A 23 factorial design with two replications was performed. The analysis of variance for the designed experiment showed the great influence of cleaning time and shape of hanger. From this study, optimized cleaning time was determined and a newly designed electrical conductive hanger was proved to be superior to the original one. The experimental verification results showed that the amount of incomplete coating defects decreased from 4% to 1.02% and operation cost decreased by 10.5%.
Evaluation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Bearing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
This research details a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to model fluid flow in a journal bearing with 8 equispaced semi-circular axial grooves. Water is used as the lubricant and is fed from one end of the bearing to the other, under pressure. The geometry of the bearing is modeled using a commercially available modeling software GAMBIT and the flow analysis is performed using a dedicated CFD analysis software FLUENT. The pressure distribution in the bearing clearance is obtained from FLUENT for various whirl ratios and is used to calculate the hydrodynamic force components in the radial and tangential direction of the bearing. These values along with the various whirl speeds can be used to do a regression analysis to determine the stiffness and damping coefficients. The values obtained are then compared with the stiffness and damping coefficients of a 3 Axial groove water lubricated journal bearing and those obtained from a FORTRAN code for a similar bearing.
Green Lean TQM Human Resource Management Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies
Green Lean Total Quality Management (LTQM) Human Resource Management (HRM) System is a system comprises of HRM in Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. HRM is essential especially in dealing with low motivation and less productive employees. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total human resource development that is motivated and capable to optimize their creativity to be a part of Green and Lean TQM organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by Minitab v16 and SPSS v17. It was found out companies that are practicing Green LTQM HRM practices have generated more revenue and have RND capability. However, years of company establishment do not affect the openness of the company to adapt new initiatives that can help to improve the effectiveness of the operations. It was also found out the importance of training, communication and rewards for employees. The Green LTQM HRM practices framework model established in this study hopefully will give preliminary insight especially to companies that are still looking for system that can improve their productivity from managing human resource. This is preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development Program. Future study can be conducted to know the status at other industry as well as case study pertaining to this system.
Frequency and Amplitude Measurement of a Vibrating Object in Water Using Ultrasonic Speckle Technique
The principle of frequency and amplitude measurement of a vibrating object in water using ultrasonic speckle technique is presented in this paper. Compared with other traditional techniques, the ultrasonic speckle technique can be applied to vibration measurement of a nonmetal object with rough surface in water in a noncontact way. The relationship between speckle movement and object movement was analyzed. Based on this study, an ultrasonic speckle measurement system was set up. With this system the frequency and amplitude of an underwater vibrating cantilever beam was detected. The result shows that the experimental data is in good agreement with the calibrating data.
Influence of Injection Timing and Injector Opening Pressure on Combustion Performance and P-θ Characteristics of a CI Engine Operating on Jatropha B20 Fuel
The quest for alternatefuels for a CI engine has
become all the more imperative considering its importance in the
economy of a nation and from the standpoint of preserving the environment. Reported in this paper are the combustion performance and P-θ characteristics of a CI engine operating on B20 biodiesel fuel derived from Jatropha oil.Itis observed that the twin effect of advancing the injection timing and increasing the injector opening pressure (IOP) up to 220 barhas resulted in minimum brake specific
energy consumption and higherpeak pressure. It is also observed that
the crank angle of occurrence of peak pressure progressestowards top
dead center (TDC) as the timing is advanced and IOP is increased.
A New Perturbation Technique in Numerical Study on Buckling of Composite Shells under Axial Compression
A numerical study is presented on buckling and post
buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic
(CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shells under axial compression using
asymmetric meshing technique (AMT). Asymmetric meshing
technique is a perturbation technique to introduce disturbance without
changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions.
Asymmetric meshing affects predicted buckling load, buckling mode
shape and post-buckling behaviour. Linear (eigenvalue) and nonlinear
(Riks) analyses have been performed to study the effect of
asymmetric meshing in the form of a patch on buckling behaviour.
The reduction in the buckling load using Asymmetric meshing
technique was observed to be about 15%. An isolated dimple formed
near the bifurcation point and the size of which increased to reach a
stable state in the post-buckling region. The load-displacement curve
behaviour applying asymmetric meshing is quite similar to the curve
obtained using initial geometric imperfection in the shell model.
Green Lean TQM Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies
Green Lean Total Quality Management (TQM)
System is a system comprises of Environmental Management System
(EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean
Manufacturing (LM) principles. The ultimate goal of this system is to
focus on achieving total customer satisfaction and environmental care by removing eight wastes available in any process in an
organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by
SPSS v.17. It was found out that some vendors have been practicing TQM and LM while some have started to implement EMS. This
study is only focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development
Program. This is the first study conducted to know the current status of TQM, LM and EMS practices in highly active automotive companies in Malaysia. It was found out that EMS has been
practiced by 16 companies out of 30. Within these 16 companies the
approach is more holistic and green. This is a preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production
System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS.
Development of a Model for the Comprehensive Analysis and Evaluation of Service Productivity
Although services play a crucial role in economy,
service did not gain as much importance as productivity management
in manufacturing. This paper presents key findings from literature
and practice. Based on an initial definition of complex services, seven
productivity concepts are briefly presented and assessed by relevant,
complex service specific criteria. Following the findings a complex
service productivity model is proposed. The novel model comprises
of all specific dimensions of service provision from both, the
provider-s as well as costumer-s perspective. A clear assignment of
identified value drivers and relationships between them is presented.
In order to verify the conceptual service productivity model a case
study from a project engineering department of a chemical plant
development and construction company is presented.
Stabilization of a New Configurable Two- Wheeled Machine Using a PD-PID and a Hybrid FL Control Strategies: A Comparative Study
A novel design of two-wheeled robotic vehicle with moving payload is presented in this paper. A mathematical model describing the vehicle dynamics is derived and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment. Two control strategies were developed to stabilise the vehicle in the upright position. A robust Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control strategy has been implemented and initially tested to measure the system performance, while the second control strategy is to use a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The results are given on a comparative basis for the system performance in terms of disturbance rejection, control algorithms robustness as well as the control effort in terms of input torque.
Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section
A series of experiments were carried out to study
unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of
an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel.
The measurements involved surface pressure distribution
complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge
roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind
turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads
and boundary layer behavior.
A Fuzzy Logic Based Model to Predict Surface Roughness of A Machined Surface in Glass Milling Operation Using CBN Grinding Tool
Nowadays, the demand for high product quality
focuses extensive attention to the quality of machined surface. The
(CNC) milling machine facilities provides a wide variety of
parameters set-up, making the machining process on the glass
excellent in manufacturing complicated special products compared to
other machining processes. However, the application of grinding
process on the CNC milling machine could be an ideal solution to
improve the product quality, but adopting the right machining
parameters is required. In glass milling operation, several machining
parameters are considered to be significant in affecting surface
roughness. These parameters include the lubrication pressure, spindle
speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this research work, a fuzzy logic
model is offered to predict the surface roughness of a machined
surface in glass milling operation using CBN grinding tool. Four
membership functions are allocated to be connected with each input
of the model. The predicted results achieved via fuzzy logic model
are compared to the experimental result. The result demonstrated
settlement between the fuzzy model and experimental results with the
Blending Processing of Industrial Residues: A Specific Case of an Enterprise Located in the Municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Residues are produced in all stages of human activities
in terms of composition and volume which vary according to
consumption practices and to production methods. Forms of
significant harm to the environment are associated to volume of
generated material as well as to improper disposal of solid wastes,
whose negative effects are noticed more frequently in the long term.
The solution to this problem constitutes a challenge to the
government, industry and society, because they involve economic,
social, environmental and, especially, awareness of the population in
general. The main concerns are focused on the impact it can have on
human health and on the environment (soil, water, air and sights).
The hazardous waste produced mainly by industry, are particularly
worrisome because, when improperly managed, they become a
serious threat to the environment. In view of this issue, this study
aimed to evaluate the management system of solid waste of a coprocessing
industrial waste company, to propose improvements to the
rejects generation management in a specific step of the Blending
An Analytical Solution for Vibration of Elevator Cables with Small Bending Stiffness
Responses of the dynamical systems are highly affected by the natural frequencies and it has a huge impact on design and operation of high-rise and high-speed elevators. In the present paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to investigate better understanding the dynamics of elevator cable as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) swing system. Comparisons made among the results of the proposed closed-form analytical solution, the traditional numerical iterative time integration solution, and the linearized governing equations confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. Furthermore, based on the results of the proposed closed-form solution, the linearization errors in calculating the natural frequencies in different cases are discussed.
Intelligent Condition Monitoring Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Robots
This paper presents the application of Intelligent
Techniques to the various duties of Intelligent Condition Monitoring
Systems (ICMS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Robots. These
Systems are intended to support these Intelligent Robots in the event
of a Fault occurrence. Neural Networks are used for Diagnosis, whilst
Fuzzy Logic is intended for Prognosis and Remedy. The ultimate
goals of ICMS are to save large losses in financial cost, time and
, Condition Monitoring
, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
, Neural Networks
, Fuzzy Logic
State of Charge Estimator Based On High-Gain Observer for Lithium-Ion Batteries
This paper introduces a high-gain observer based state of charge(SOC) estimator for lithium-Ion batteries. The proposed SOC estimator has a high-gain observer(HGO) structure. The HGO scheme enhances the transient response speed and diminishes the effect of uncertainties. Furthermore, it guarantees that the output feedback controller recovers the performance of the state feedback controller when the observer gain is sufficiently high. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, the linear RC battery model in ADVISOR is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional linear observer(CLO) and some simulation result is given.
Development of a Simple laser-based 2D Compensating System for the Contouring Accuracy of Machine Tools
The dynamical contouring error is a critical element for the accuracy of machine tools. The contouring error is defined as the difference between the processing actual path and commanded path, which is implemented by following the command curves from feeding driving system in machine tools. The contouring error is resulted from various factors, such as the external loads, friction, inertia moment, feed rate, speed control, servo control, and etc. Thus, the study proposes a 2D compensating system for the contouring accuracy of machine tools. Optical method is adopted by using stable frequency laser diode and the high precision position sensor detector (PSD) to performno-contact measurement. Results show the related accuracy of position sensor detector (PSD) of 2D contouring accuracy compensating system was ±1.5 μm for a calculated range of ±3 mm, and improvement accuracy is over 80% at high-speed feed rate.
The Implementation of Good Manufacturing Practice in Polycarbonate Film Industry
This study reports the implementation of Good
Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in a polycarbonate film processing
plant. The implementation of GMP took place with the creation of a
multidisciplinary team. It was carried out in four steps: conduct gap
assessment, create gap closure plan, close gaps, and follow up the
GMP implementation. The basis for the gap assessment is the
guideline for GMP for plastic materials and articles intended for Food
Contact Material (FCM), which was edited by Plastic Europe. The
effective results of the GMP implementation in this study showed
100% completion of gap assessment. The key success factors for
implementing GMP in production process are the commitment,
intention and support of top management.
Implementation of Lower-Limb Rehabilitation System Using Attraction Motors with a Treadmill
This paper proposes a prototype of a lower-limb
rehabilitation system for recovering and strengthening patients-
injured lower limbs. The system is composed of traction motors for
each leg position, a treadmill as a walking base, tension sensors,
microcontrollers controlling motor functions and a main system with
graphic user interface. For derivation of reference or normal velocity
profiles of the body segment point, kinematic method is applied based
on the humanoid robot model using the reference joint angle data of
Learning Factory for Changeability
Amongst the consistently fluctuating conditions
prevailing today, changeability represents a strategic key factor for a
manufacturing company to achieve success on the international
markets. In order to cope with turbulences and the increasing level of
incalculability, not only the flexible design of production systems but
in particular the employee as enabler of change provide the focus
here. It is important to enable employees from manufacturing
companies to participate actively in change events and in change
decisions. To this end, the learning factory has been created, which is
intended to serve the development of change-promoting competences
and the sensitization of employees for the necessity of changes.
A Comparative CFD Study on Solar Dimple Plate Collector with Flat Plate Collector to Augment the Thermal Performance
It is well known that surface enhancements play an important role in augmenting the thermal performance of flat plate solar collector. In this paper, an attempt is made to explain in a comparative way the effect of surface geometry of solar collector having dimple geometry with that of a flat plate solar collector of the same size. A CFD analysis was carried out for the two cases, subjected to a constant heat flux of 600W/m2 and 1000W/m2. It can be inferred from the study that the absorber plate temperature shows a rise of average surface temperature of about 50C for the dimple solar collector when compared to a flat plate solar collector. Most importantly, the average exit water temperature shows a marked improvement of about 5.50C for a dimple solar collector as compared to that of a flat plate solar collector.
Development of Vibration Sensor with Wide Frequency Range Based on Condenser Microphone -Estimation System for Flow Rate in Water Pipes-
Water leakage is a serious problem in the maintenance of a waterworks facility. Monitoring the water flow rate is one way to locate leakage. However, conventional flowmeters such as the wet-type flowmeter and the clamp-on type ultrasonic flowmeter require additional construction for their installation and are therefore quite expensive. This paper proposes a novel estimation system for the flow rate in a water pipeline, which employs a vibration sensor. This assembly can be attached to any water pipeline without the need for additional high-cost construction. The vibration sensor is designed based on a condenser microphone. This sensor detects vibration caused by water flowing through a pipeline. It is possible to estimate the water flow rate by measuring the amplitude of the output signal from the vibration sensor. We confirmed the validity of the proposed sensing system experimentally.
Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling
Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most
effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use
of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression
have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency
and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper
performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with
turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is
analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation.
Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water
injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of
coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific
power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to
insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant
enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine
A Feasibility-study of a Micro- Communications Sonobuoy Deployable by UAV Robots
This paper describes a feasibility study that is
included with the research, development and testing of a micro
communications sonobuoy deployable by Maritime Fixed wing
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (M-UAV) and rotor wing Quad Copters
which are both currently being developed by the University of
Adelaide. The micro communications sonobuoy is developed to act
as a seamless communication relay between an Autonomous
Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and an above water human operator
some distance away. Development of such a device would eliminate
the requirement of physical communication tethers attached to
submersible vehicles for control and data retrieval.
Injection Molding of Inconel718 Parts for Aerospace Application Using Novel Binder System Based On Palm Oil Derivatives
Inconel718 has been widely used as a super alloy in aerospace application due to the high strength at elevated temperatures, satisfactory oxidation resistance and heat corrosion resistance. In this study, the Inconel718 has been fabricated using high technology of Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Through MIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the Inconel718. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin has been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system have been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder holds the particles in place. The binder system has to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis has been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part is then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The results show that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) 35 for MIM parts.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Dynamics Modeling and Performance Evaluation
A sophisticated simulator provides a cost-effective measure to carry out preliminary mission testing and diagnostic while reducing potential failures for real life at sea trials. The presented simulation framework covers three key areas: AUV modeling, sensor modeling, and environment modeling. AUV modeling mainly covers the area of AUV dynamics. Sensor modeling deals with physics and mathematical models that govern each sensor installed onto the AUV. Environment model incorporates the hydrostatic, hydrodynamics, and ocean currents that will affect the AUV in a real-time mission. Based on this designed simulation framework, custom scenarios provided by the user can be modeled and its corresponding behaviors can be observed. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the simulated data from AUV model and environmental model derived from a developed AUV test-bed which was jointly upgraded by DSTO and the University of Adelaide. The main contribution of this paper is to experimentally verify the accuracy of the proposed simulation framework.
Study on Specific Energy in Grinding of DRACs: A Response Surface Methodology Approach
In this study, the effects of machining parameters on
specific energy during surface grinding of 6061Al-SiC35P
composites are investigated. Vol% of SiC, feed and depth of cut were
chosen as process variables. The power needed for the calculation of
the specific energy is measured from the two watt meter method.
Experiments are conducted using standard RSM design called Central
composite design (CCD). A second order response surface model was
developed for specific energy. The results identify the significant
influence factors to minimize the specific energy. The confirmation
results demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the
Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters
This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design
application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling
operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves
additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi
design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a
response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using
fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle
speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different
tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and
dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used;
ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors
affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was
determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and
signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the
Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for
Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct
In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.
Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity
Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for
its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal
of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality
application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new
technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to
increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical
aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell
could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new
workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes
process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its
simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.
Environmental Management of the Tanning Industry's Supply Chain: An Integration Model from Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001:2004
The environmental impact caused by industries is an issue that, in the last 20 years, has become very important in terms of society, economics and politics in Colombia. Particularly, the tannery process is extremely polluting because of uneffective treatments and regulations given to the dumping process and atmospheric emissions. Considering that, this investigation is intended to propose a management model based on the integration of Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001-2004, that prioritizes the strategic components of the organizations. As a result, a management model will be obtained and it will provide a strategic perspective through a systemic approach to the tanning process. This will be achieved through the use of Multicriteria Decision tools, along with Quality Function Deployment and Fuzzy Logic. The strategic approach that embraces the management model using the alignment of Lean Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain, Cleaner Production and ISO 14001-2004, is an integrated perspective that allows a gradual frame of the tactical and operative elements through the correct setting of the information flow, improving the decision making process. In that way, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) could improve their productivity, competitiveness and as an added value, the minimization of the environmental impact. This improvement is expected to be controlled through a Dashboard that helps the Organization measure its performance along the implementation of the model in its productive process.
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Ejector with Diffuser with Boundary Layer Suction
The article deals with experimental and numerical
investigation of axi-symmetric subsonic air to air ejector with
diffuser adapted for boundary layer suction. The diffuser, which is
placed behind the mixing chamber of the ejector, has high divergence
angle and therefore low efficiency. To increase the efficiency, the
diffuser is equipped with slot enabling boundary layer suction. The
effect of boundary layer suction on flow in ejector, static pressure
distribution on the mixing chamber wall and characteristic were
measured and studied numerically. Both diffuser and ejector
efficiency were evaluated. The diffuser efficiency was increased,
however, the efficiency of ejector itself remained low.
Standardization and Adaption Requirements in Production System Transplants
As German companies roll out their standardized
production systems to offshore manufacturing plants, they face the
challenge of implementing them in different cultural environments.
Studies show that the local adaptation is one of the key factors for a
successful implementation. Thus the question arises of where the line
between standardization and adaptation can be drawn. To answer
this question the influence of culture on production systems is
analysed in this paper. The culturally contingent components of
production systems are identified. Also the contingency factors are
classified according to their impact on the necessary adaptation
changes and implementation effort. Culturally specific decision
making, coordination, communication and motivation patterns
require one-time changes in organizational and process design. The
attitude towards rules requires more intense coaching and controlling.
Lastly a framework is developed to depict standardization and
adaption needs when transplanting production systems into different
Modeling of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission for Automobiles
It is believed that continuously variable transmission (CVT) will dominate the automotive transmissions in the future. The most popular design is Van Doorne-s CVT with single metal pushing V-belt. However, it is only applicable to low power passenger cars because its major limitation is low torque capacity. Therefore, this research studies a novel dual-belt CVT system to overcome the limitation of traditional single-belt CVT, such that it can be applicable to the heavy-duty vehicles. This paper presents the mathematical model of the design and its experimental verification. Experimental and simulated results show that the model developed is valid and the proposed dual-belt CVT can really overcome the traditional limitation of single-belt Van Doorne-s CVT.
Establishing a Probabilistic Model of Extrapolated Wind Speed Data for Wind Energy Prediction
Wind is among the potential energy resources which
can be harnessed to generate wind energy for conversion into
electrical power. Due to the variability of wind speed with time and
height, it becomes difficult to predict the generated wind energy more
optimally. In this paper, an attempt is made to establish a
probabilistic model fitting the wind speed data recorded at
Makambako site in Tanzania. Wind speeds and direction were
respectively measured using anemometer (type AN1) and wind Vane
(type WD1) both supplied by Delta-T-Devices at a measurement
height of 2 m. Wind speeds were then extrapolated for the height of
10 m using power law equation with an exponent of 0.47. Data were
analysed using MINITAB statistical software to show the variability
of wind speeds with time and height, and to determine the underlying
probability model of the extrapolated wind speed data. The results
show that wind speeds at Makambako site vary cyclically over time;
and they conform to the Weibull probability distribution. From these
results, Weibull probability density function can be used to predict
the wind energy.
Numerical Analysis of Flow through Abrasive Water Suspension Jet: The Effect of Garnet, Aluminum Oxide and Silicon Carbide Abrasive on Skin Friction Coefficient Due To Wall Shear and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy
It is well known that the abrasive particles in the
abrasive water suspension has significant effect on the erosion
characteristics of the inside surface of the nozzle. Abrasive particles
moving with the flow cause severe skin friction effect, there by
altering the nozzle diameter due to wear which in turn reflects on the
life of the nozzle for effective machining. Various commercial
abrasives are available for abrasive water jet machining. The erosion
characteristic of each abrasive is different. In consideration of this
aspect, in the present work, the effect of abrasive materials namely
garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide on skin friction
coefficient due to wall shear stress and jet kinetic energy has been
analyzed. It is found that the abrasive material of lower density
produces a relatively higher skin friction effect and higher jet exit
Application of Nano Cutting Fluid under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Technique to Improve Grinding of Ti – 6Al – 4V Alloy
Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique
obtained a significant attention in machining processes to reduce
environmental loads caused by usage of conventional cutting fluids.
Recently nanofluids are finding an extensive application in the field
of mechanical engineering because of their superior lubrication and
heat dissipation characteristics. This paper investigates the use of a
nanofluid under MQL mode to improve grinding characteristics of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Taguchi-s experimental design technique has been
used in the present investigation and a second order model has been
established to predict grinding forces and surface roughness.
Different concentrations of water based Al2O3 nanofluids were
applied in the grinding operation through MQL setup developed in
house and the results have been compared with those of conventional
coolant and pure water. Experimental results showed that grinding
forces reduced significantly when nano cutting fluid was used even at
low concentration of the nano particles and surface finish has been
found to improve with higher concentration of the nano particles.
An Empirical Analysis of the Influence of Application Experience on Working Methods of Process Modelers
In view of growing competition in the service sector,
services are as much in need of modeling, analysis and improvement
as business or working processes. Graphical process models are
important means to capture process-related know-how for an
effective management of the service process. In this contribution, a
human performance analysis of process model development paying
special attention to model development time and the working method
was conducted. It was found that modelers with higher application
experience need significantly less time for mental activities than
modelers with lower application experience, spend more time on
labeling graphical elements, and achieved higher process model
quality in terms of activity label quality.
An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose
This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent
heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic
conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally
performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The
procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed,
and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield
between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the
normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure
relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time.
The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids
which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is
observed between the results obtained in this paper and those
calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than
Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design,
parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.
Trapping Efficiency of Diesel Particles Through a Square Duct
Diesel Engines emit complex mixtures of inorganic
and organic compounds in the form of both solid and vapour phase
particles. Most of the particulates released are ultrafine nanoparticles
which are detrimental to human health and can easily enter the body
by respiration. The emissions standards on particulate matter release
from diesel engines are constantly upgraded within the European
Union and with future regulations based on the particles numbers
released instead of merely mass, the need for effective aftertreatment
devices will increase. Standard particulate filters in the form of wall
flow filters can have problems with high soot accumulation,
producing a large exhaust backpressure. A potential solution would
be to combine the standard filter with a flow through filter to reduce
the load on the wall flow filter. In this paper soot particle trapping has
been simulated in different continuous flow filters of monolithic
structure including the use of promoters, at laminar flow conditions.
An Euler Lagrange model, the discrete phase model in Ansys used
with user defined functions for forces acting on particles. A method
to quickly screen trapping of 5 nm and 10 nm particles in different
catalysts designs with tracers was also developed.
Simulations of square duct monoliths with promoters show that the
strength of the vortices produced are not enough to give a high
amount of particle deposition on the catalyst walls. The smallest
particles in the simulations, 5 and 10 nm particles were trapped to a
higher extent, than larger particles up to 1000 nm, in all studied
geometries with the predominant deposition mechanism being
Brownian diffusion. The comparison of the different filters designed
with a wall flow filter does show that the options for altering a design
of a flow through filter, without imposing a too large pressure drop
penalty are good.