Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 36

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 36
    The Adoption of Halal Transportations Technologies for Halal Logistics Service Providers in Malaysia

    The purpose of this study is i) to investigate the driving factors and barriers of the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Halal logistic and ii) to develop an ICT adoption framework for Halal logistic service provider. The Halal LSPs selected for the study currently used ICT service platforms, such as accounting and management system for Halal logistic business. The study categorizes the factors influencing the adoption decision and process by LSPs into four groups: technology related factors, organizational and environmental factors, Halal assurance related factors, and government related factors. The major contribution in this study is the discovery that technology related factors (ICT compatibility with Halal requirement) and Halal assurance related factors are the most crucial factors among the Halal LSPs applying ICT for Halal control in transportation-s operation. Among the government related factors, ICT requirement for monitoring Halal included in Halal Logistic Standard on Transportation (MS2400:2010) are the most influencing factors in the adoption of ICT with the support of the government. In addition, the government related factors are very important in the reducing the main barriers and the creation of the atmosphere of ICT adoption in Halal LSP sector.

    Modeling Cost Structure for Assessment Production Cost of Algal - Biofue
    Algae-based fuel are considered a promising sources of clean energy, and because it has many advantages over traditional biofuel, research and business ventures have driven into developing and producing Algal-biofuel. But its production stages create a cost structure that it is not competitive with traditional fuels. Therefore, cost becomes the main obstacle in commercial production purpose. However, the present research which aims at using cost structure model, and designed MS-Dose program, to investigate the a mount of production cost and determined the parameter had great effect on it, second to measured the amount of contribution rate of algae in process the pollution by capturing Co2 from air . The result generated from the model shows that the production cost of biomass is between $0.137 /kg for 100 ha and $0.132 /kg for 500 ha which was less than cost of other studies, while gallon costs between $3.4 - 3.5, more than traditional sources of oil about $1 ,which regarded as a rate of contribution of algal in capturing CO2 from air.
    Numerical Analysis of the Performance of a Shrouded Vertical-Axis Water Turbine based on the NACA 0025 Blade Profile
    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a five-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis water turbine, based on the NACA 0025 blade profile, for both bare and shrouded configurations. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Also the effect of a NACA-shaped central hydrofoil has been investigated, with the aim of evaluating the impact of a solid blockage on the performance of the shrouded rotor configuration. The beneficial effect of the shroud on rotor overall performances has clearly been evidenced, while the adoption of the central hydrofoil has proved to be detrimental, being the resulting flow slow down (due to the presence of the obstacle) much higher with respect to the flow acceleration (due to the solid blockage effect).
    Particle Swarm Optimization Based Genetic Algorithm for Two-Stage Transportation Supply Chain
    Supply chain consists of all stages involved, directly or indirectly, includes all functions involved in fulfilling a customer demand. In two stage transportation supply chain problem, transportation costs are of a significant proportion of final product costs. It is often crucial for successful decisions making approaches in two stage supply chain to explicit account for non-linear transportation costs. In this paper, deterministic demand and finite supply of products was considered. The optimized distribution level and the routing structure from the manufacturing plants to the distribution centres and to the end customers is determined using developed mathematical model and solved by proposed particle swarm optimization based genetic algorithm. Numerical analysis of the case study is carried out to validate the model.
    Schedule Management of an Enterprise Receiving Orders Considering Dependency between Unit Tasks of a Collaborative Project
    This study suggests how an order-receiving company can avoid disclosing schedule information on unit tasks to the order-placing company when carrying out a collaborative project on the value chain in an order-oriented industry. Specifically, it suggests methods for keeping schedule information confidential, and categorizes potential situations by inter-task dependency. Lastly, an approach to select the most optimal non-disclosure method is discussed. With the methods for not disclosing work-related information suggested in the study, order-receiving companies can logically deal with political issues relating to the question of whether or not to disclose information upon the execution of a collaborative project in cooperation with an order-placing firm. Moreover, order-placing companies can monitor undistorted information, while respecting the legitimate rights of an order-receiving company. Therefore, it is fair to say that the suggestions made in this study will contribute to the smooth operation of collaborative intercompany projects.
    Investigations on the Influence of Process Parameters on the Sliding Wear Behavior of Components Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
    This work presents the results of a study carried out to determine the sliding wear behavior and its effect on the process parameters of components manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). A standard procedure and specimen had been used in the present study to find the wear behavior. Using Taguchi-s experimental technique, an orthogonal array of modified L8 had been developed. Sliding wear testing using pin-on-disk machine was carried out and analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was used to investigate the effect of process parameters and to identify the main process parameter that influences the properties of wear behavior on the DMLS components. It has been found that part orientation, one of the selected process parameter had more influence on wear as compared to other selected process parameters.
    The Reliability of the Improved e-N Method for Transition Prediction as Checked by PSE Method
    Transition prediction of boundary layers has always been an important problem in fluid mechanics both theoretically and practically, yet notwithstanding the great effort made by many investigators, there is no satisfactory answer to this problem. The most popular method available is so-called e-N method which is heavily dependent on experiments and experience. The author has proposed improvements to the e-N method, so to reduce its dependence on experiments and experience to a certain extent. One of the key assumptions is that transition would occur whenever the velocity amplitude of disturbance reaches 1-2% of the free stream velocity. However, the reliability of this assumption needs to be verified. In this paper, transition prediction on a flat plate is investigated by using both the improved e-N method and the parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. The results show that the transition locations predicted by both methods agree reasonably well with each other, under the above assumption. For the supersonic case, the critical velocity amplitude in the improved e-N method should be taken as 0.013, whereas in the subsonic case, it should be 0.018, both are within the range 1-2%.
    Production and Remanufacturing of Returned Products in Supply Chain using Modified Genetic Algorithm
    In recent years, environment regulation forcing manufactures to consider recovery activity of end-of- life products and/or return products for refurbishing, recycling, remanufacturing/repair and disposal in supply chain management. In this paper, a mathematical model is formulated for single product production-inventory system considering remanufacturing/reuse of return products and rate of return products follows a demand like function, dependent on purchasing price and acceptance quality level. It is useful in decision making to determine whether to go for remanufacturing or disposal of returned products along with newly produced products to satisfy a stationary demand. In addition, a modified genetic algorithm approach is proposed, inspired by particle swarm optimization method. Numerical analysis of the case study is carried out to validate the model.
    Numerical Simulation in the Air-Curtain Installed Subway Tunnel for the Indoor Air Quality
    The Platform Screen Doors improve Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in the subway station; however, and the air quality is degraded in the subway tunnel. CO2 concentration and indoor particulate matter value are high in the tunnel. The IAQ level in subway tunnel degrades by increasing the train movements. Air-curtain installation reduces dusts, particles and moving toxic smokes and permits traffic by generating virtual wall. The ventilation systems of the subway tunnel need improvements to have better air-quality. Numerical analyses might be effective tools analyze the flowfield inside the air-curtain installed subway tunnel. The ANSYS CFX software is used for steady computations of the airflow inside the tunnel. The single-track subway tunnel has the natural shaft, the mechanical shaft, and the PSDs installed stations. The height and width of the tunnel are 6.0 m and 4.0 m respectively. The tunnel is 400 m long and the air-curtain is installed at the top of the tunnel. The thickness and the width of the air-curtain are 0.08 m and 4 m respectively. The velocity of the air-curtain changes between 20 - 30 m/s. Three cases are analyzed depending on the installing location of the air-curtain. The discharged-air through the natural shafts increases as the velocity of the air-curtain increases when the air-curtain is installed between the mechanical and the natural shafts. The pollutant-air is exhausted by the mechanical and the natural shafts and remained air is pushed toward tunnel end. The discharged-air through the natural shaft is low when the air-curtain installed before the natural shaft. The mass flow rate decreases in the tunnel after the mechanical shaft as the air-curtain velocity increases. The computational results of the air-curtain installed tunnel become basis for the optimum design study. The air-curtain installing location is chosen between the mechanical and the natural shafts. The velocity of the air-curtain is fixed as 25 m/s. The thickness and the blowing angles of the air-curtain are the design variables for the optimum design study. The object function of the design optimization is maximizing the discharged air through the natural shaft.
    Ventilation Efficiency in the Subway Environment for the Indoor Air Quality

    Clean air in subway station is important to passengers. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs) can improve indoor air quality in the subway station; however the air quality in the subway tunnel is degraded. The subway tunnel has high CO2 concentration and indoor particulate matter (PM) value. The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in subway environment degrades by increasing the frequency of the train operation and the number of the train. The ventilation systems of the subway tunnel need improvements to have better air-quality. Numerical analyses might be effective tools to analyze the performance of subway twin-track tunnel ventilation systems. An existing subway twin-track tunnel in the metropolitan Seoul subway system is chosen for the numerical simulations. The ANSYS CFX software is used for unsteady computations of the airflow inside the twin-track tunnel when the train moves. The airflow inside the tunnel is simulated when one train runs and two trains run at the same time in the tunnel. The piston-effect inside the tunnel is analyzed when all shafts function as the natural ventilation shaft. The supplied air through the shafts is mixed with the pollutant air in the tunnel. The pollutant air is exhausted by the mechanical ventilation shafts. The supplied and discharged airs are balanced when only one train runs in the twin-track tunnel. The pollutant air in the tunnel is high when two trains run simultaneously in opposite direction and all shafts functioned as the natural shaft cases when there are no electrical power supplies in the shafts. The remained pollutant air inside the tunnel enters into the station platform when the doors are opened.

    Regional Stability Analysis of Rotor-Ball Bearing and Rotor- Roller Bearing Systems Considering Switching Phenomena

    In this study the regional stability of a rotor system which is supported on rolling bearings with radial clearance is studied. The rotor is assumed to be rigid. Due to radial clearance of bearings and dynamic configuration of system, each rolling elements of bearings has the possibility to be in contact with both of the races (under compression) or lose its contact. As a result, this change in dynamic of the system makes it to be known as switching system which is a type of Hybrid systems. In this investigation by adopting Multiple Lyapunov Function theorem and using Hamiltonian function as a candidate Lyapunov function, the stability of the system is studied. The purpose of this study is to inspect the regional stability of rotor-roller bearing and rotor-ball bearing systems.

    Methodology of Estimating Assembly Cost by MODAPTS

    This paper presents the development of an MODAPTS based cost estimating system to help designers in estimating the manufacturing cost of a assembly products which is belonged from the workers in working fields. Competitiveness of manufacturing cost is getting harder because of the development of Information and telecommunication, but also globalization. Therefore, the accuracy of the assembly cost estimation is getting important. DFA and MODAPTS is useful method for measuring the working hour. But these two methods are used just as a timetable. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest the process of measuring the working hours by MODAPTS which includes the working field-s accurate information. In addition, we adduce the estimation method of accuracy assembly cost with the real information. This research could be useful for designers that can estimate the assembly cost more accurately, and also effective for the companies that which are concerned to reduce the product cost.

    Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a 30° Inclined Flat Plate
    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow around a 30° inclined flat plate of infinite span. Numerical predictions have been compared to experimental measurements, in order to assess the potential of the finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic forces acting on a flat plate invested by a fluid stream of infinite extent. Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested and flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the flat plate have been numerically investigated, allowing the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a twodimensional inclined plate.
    Automated Algorithm for Removing Continuous Flame Spectrum Based On Sampled Linear Bases

    In this paper, an automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured spectra containing both continuous and discontinuous bands is proposed. The algorithm uses previous information contained in a Continuous Database Spectra (CDBS) to obtain a linear basis, with minimum number of sampled vectors, capable of representing a continuous baseline. The proposed algorithm was tested by using a CDBS of flame spectra where Principal Components Analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization were used to obtain linear bases. Thus, the radical emissions of natural gas, oil and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions were obtained. In order to validate the performance in the baseline estimation process, the Goodness-of-fit Coefficient and the Root Mean-squared Error quality metrics were evaluated between the estimated and the real spectra in absence of discontinuous emission. The achieved results make the proposed method a key element in the development of automatic monitoring processes strategies involving discontinuous spectral bands.

    Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects

    the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.

    An Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Pressure Tube under Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Heating Conditions in an Indian PHWR

    Thermal behavior of fuel channel under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is a major concern for nuclear reactor safety. LOCA along with failure of emergency cooling water system (ECC) may leads to mechanical deformations like sagging and ballooning. In order to understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) under symmetrical and asymmetrical heat-up conditions. For simulating the fully voided scenario, symmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 13.2 KW (2 % of nominal power) to all the 19 pins and the temperatures of pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes were measured. During symmetrical heating the sagging of fuel channel was initiated at 460 °C and the highest temperature attained by PT was 650 °C . The decay heat from clad tubes was dissipated to moderator mainly by radiation and natural convection. The highest temperature of 680 °C was observed over the outer ring of clad tubes of fuel simulator. Again, to simulate partially voided condition, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by supplying 8.0 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator and temperature profiles were measured. Along the circumference of pressure tube (PT) the highest temperature difference of 320 °C was observed, which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses under partially voided conditions.

    Fire Spread Simulation Tool for Cruise Vessels
    In 2002 an amendment to SOLAS opened for lightweight material constructions in vessels if the same fire safety as in steel constructions could be obtained. FISPAT (FIreSPread Analysis Tool) is a computer application that simulates fire spread and fault injection in cruise vessels and identifies fire sensitive areas. It was developed to analyze cruise vessel designs and provides a method to evaluate network layout and safety of cruise vessels. It allows fast, reliable and deterministic exhaustive simulations and presents the result in a graphical vessel model. By performing the analysis iteratively while altering the cruise vessel design it can be used along with fire chamber experiments to show that the lightweight design can be as safe as a steel construction and that SOLAS regulations are fulfilled.
    Information Fusion as a Means of Forecasting Expenditures for Regenerating Complex Investment Goods

    Planning capacities when regenerating complex investment goods involves particular challenges in that the planning is subject to a large degree of uncertainty regarding load information. Using information fusion – by applying Bayesian Networks – a method is being developed for forecasting the anticipated expenditures (human labor, tool and machinery utilization, time etc.) for regenerating a good. The generated forecasts then later serve as a tool for planning capacities and ensure a greater stability in the planning processes.

    Numerical Analysis of the Performance of the DU91-W2-250 Airfoil for Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Application
    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a three-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine based on the DU91-W2-250 airfoil. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Rotor performances have been compared with the results of a previous work based on the use of the NACA 0021 airfoil. Both the power coefficient and the torque coefficient have been determined as a function of the tip speed ratio. The flow field around rotor blades has also been analyzed. As a final result, the performance of the DU airfoil based rotor appears to be lower than the one based on the NACA 0021 blade section. This behavior could be due to the higher stall characteristics of the NACA profile, being the separation zone at the trailing edge more extended for the DU airfoil.
    A Generalized Framework for Working with Multiagent Systems

    The present paper discusses the basic concepts and the underlying principles of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) along with an interdisciplinary exploitation of these principles. It has been found that they have been utilized for lots of research and studies on various systems spanning across diverse engineering and scientific realms showing the need of development of a proper generalized framework. Such framework has been developed for the Multi-Agent Systems and it has been generalized keeping in mind the diverse areas where they find application. All the related aspects have been categorized and a general definition has been given where ever possible.

    Operational risks Classification for Information Systems with Service-Oriented Architecture (Including Loss Calculation Example)

    This article presents the results of a study conducted to identify operational risks for information systems (IS) with service-oriented architecture (SOA). Analysis of current approaches to risk and system error classifications revealed that the system error classes were never used for SOA risk estimation. Additionally system error classes are not normallyexperimentally supported with realenterprise error data. Through the study several categories of various existing error classifications systems are applied and three new error categories with sub-categories are identified. As a part of operational risks a new error classification scheme is proposed for SOA applications. It is based on errors of real information systems which are service providers for application with service-oriented architecture. The proposed classification approach has been used to classify SOA system errors for two different enterprises (oil and gas industry, metal and mining industry). In addition we have conducted a research to identify possible losses from operational risks.

    Lightweight Robotic Material Handling in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing-Silicon Wafer and Thin Film Technologies

    Today, the central role of industrial robots in automation in general and in material handling in particular is crystal clear. Based on the current status of Photovoltaics and by focusing on lightweight material handling, PV industry has turned into a potential candidate for introducing a fresh “pick and place" robot technology. Thus, to examine the industry needs in this regard, firstly the best suited applications for such robotic automation,and then the essential prerequisites in PV industry should be identified. The objective of this paper is to present holistic views on the industry trends, general automation status and existing challenges facing lightweight robotic material handling in PV Silicon Wafer and Thin Film technologies. The results of this study show that currently no uniform pick and place solution prevails among PV Silicon Wafer manufacturers and the industry calls for a new robot solution to satisfy its needs in new directions.

    Optimization of New 25A-size Metal Gasket Design Based on Contact Width Considering Forming and Contact Stress Effect
    At the previous study of new metal gasket, contact width and contact stress were important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. However, the range of contact stress had not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we conducted a gasket design optimization based on an elastic and plastic contact stress analysis considering forming effect using FEM. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. Final evaluation was determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of both type of gaskets. The helium leak test shows that a gasket based on the plastic contact stress design better than based on elastic stress design.
    Stability Analysis of a Tricore

    The application of stability theory has led to detailed studies of different types of vessels; however, the shortage of information relating to multihull vessels demanded further investigation. This study shows that the position of the hulls has a very influential effect on both the transverse and longitudinal stability of the tricore. HSC stability code is applied for the optimisation of the hull configurations. Such optimization criteria would undoubtedly aid the performance of the vessel for both commercial or leisure purposes

    Examination of Pre-Tender Budgeting Techniques for Mechanical and Electrical Services in Malaysia

    The procurement and cost management approach adopted for mechanical and electrical (M&E) services in Malaysian construction industry have been criticized for its inefficiency. The study examined early cost estimating practices adopted for mechanical and electrical services (M&E) in Malaysia so as to understand the level of compliance of the current techniques with best practices. The methodology adopted for the study is a review of bidding documents used on both completed and on – going building projects awarded between 2008 – 2010 under 9th Malaysian Plan. The analysis revealed that, M&E services cost cannot be reliably estimated at pre-contract stage; the bidding techniques adopted for M&E services failed to provide uniform basis for contractors to submit tender; detailed measurement of items were not made which could complicate post contract cost control and financial management. The paper concluded that, there is need to follow a structured approach in determining the pre-contract cost estimate for M&E services which will serve as a virile tool for post contract cost control.

    Development of a Thrust Measurement System
    KSLV-I(Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I) is designed as a launch vehicle to enter a 100 kg-class satellite to the LEO(Low Earth Orbit). Attitude angles of the upper-stage, including roll, pitch and yaw are controlled by the cold gas thruster system using nitrogen gas. The cold gas thruster is an actuator in the RCS(Reaction Control System). To design an attitude controller for the upper-stage, thrust measurement in vacuum condition is required. In this paper, the new thrust measurement system and calibration mechanism are developed and measurement errors and signal processing method are presented.
    Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamic Loads acting on top of the SMART Centre for PV Applications
    The flow filed around a flatted-roof compound has been investigated by means of 2D and 3D numerical simulations. A constant wind velocity profile, based both on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for a 50- year return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated in order to determine the wind-induced loads on top of the roof. After determining the influence of the incoming wind directions on the induced roof loads, a 2D analysis of the most severe load condition has been performed, achieving a numerical quantification of the expected wind-induced forces on the PV panels on top of the roof.
    Fabrication of High Aluminum Content Mg alloys using a Horizontal Twin Roll Caster
    This study was aimed for investigating of manufacturing high aluminum content Mg alloys using a horizontal twin roll caster. Recently, weight saving has been key issues for lighter transport equipments as well as electronic component parts. As alternative materials to aluminum alloys, developing magnesium alloy with higher strength has been expected. Normally high Aluminum content Mg alloy has poor ductility and is difficult to be rolled because of its high strength. However, twin roll casting process is suitable for manufacturing wrought Mg alloys because materials can be cast directly from molten metal. In this study, manufacturing of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheet using the roll casting process has been carried out. Effects of manufacturing parameter, such as roll velocity, pouring temperature and roll gap, on casting was investigated. A microscopic observation of the crystals of cross section of as cast strip as well as rolled strip was conducted.
    A New Empirical Expression of the Breakdown Voltage for Combined Variations of Temperature and Pressure
    In aircraft applications, according to the nature of electrical equipment its location may be in unpressurized area or very close to the engine; thus, the environmental conditions may change from atmospheric pressure to less than 100 mbar, and the temperature may be higher than the ambient one as in most real working conditions of electrical equipment. Then, the classical Paschen curve has to be replotted since these parameters may affect the discharge ignition voltage. In this paper, we firstly investigate the domain of validity of two corrective expressions on the Paschen-s law found in the literature, in case of changing the air environment and known as Peek and Dunbar corrections. Results show that these corrections are no longer valid for combined variation of temperature and pressure. After that, a new empirical expression for breakdown voltage is proposed and is validated in the case of combined variations of temperature and pressure.
    Numerical Analysis of Laminar to Turbulent Transition on the DU91-W2-250 Airfoil

    This paper presents a study of laminar to turbulent transition on a profile specifically designed for wind turbine blades, the DU91-W2-250, which belongs to a class of wind turbine dedicated airfoils, developed by Delft University of Technology. A comparison between the experimental behavior of the airfoil studied at Delft wind tunnel and the numerical predictions of the commercial CFD solver ANSYS FLUENT® has been performed. The prediction capabilities of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and of the γ-θ Transitional model have been tested. A sensitivity analysis of the numerical results to the spatial domain discretization has also been performed using four different computational grids, which have been created using the mesher GAMBIT®. The comparison between experimental measurements and CFD results have allowed to determine the importance of the numerical prediction of the laminar to turbulent transition, in order not to overestimate airfoil friction drag due to a fully turbulent-regime flow computation.

    Simulation and Experimentation of Multibody Mechanical Systems with Clearance Revolute Joints
    Clearance in the joints of multibody mechanical systems such as linkage mechanisms and robots is a main source of vibration, and noise of the whole system, and wear of the joints themselves. This clearance is an inevitable matter and cannot be eliminated, since it allows the relative motion between joint components and make them assemblage. This paper presents an experimental verification of the obtained simulation results of a slider – crank mechanism of one clearance revolute joint. The simulation results are obtained with the aid of CAD and dynamic simulation softwares, which is an effective method of simulation multibody systems with clearance joints and have many advantages. The comparison between both simulation and experimental results shows that the simulation results are so close to the experimental ones which proves the accuracy and efficiency of this method of modeling and simulation of mechanical systems with clearance joints.
    Development of Cooling Load Demand Program for Building in Malaysia
    Air conditioning is mainly to be used as human comfort medium. It has been use more often in country in which the daily temperatures are high. In scientific, air conditioning is defined as a process of controlling the moisture, cooling, heating and cleaning air. Without proper estimation of cooling load, big amount of waste energy been used because of unsuitable of air conditioning system are not considering to overcoming heat gains from surrounding. This is due to the size of the room is too big and the air conditioning has to use more energy to cool the room and the air conditioning is too small for the room. The studies are basically to develop a program to calculate cooling load. Through this study it is easy to calculate cooling load estimation. Furthermore it-s help to compare the cooling load estimation by hourly and yearly. Base on the last study that been done, the developed software are not user-friendly. For individual without proper knowledge of calculating cooling load estimation might be problem. Easy excess and user-friendly should be the main objective to design something. This program will allow cooling load able be estimate by any users rather than estimation by using rule of thumb. Several of limitation of case study is judged to sure it-s meeting to Malaysia building specification. Finally validation is done by comparison manual calculation and by developed program.
    Ground Heat Exchanger Modeling Developed for Energy Flows of an Incompressible Fluid
    Ground-source heat pumps achieve higher efficiencies than conventional air-source heat pumps because they exchange heat with the ground that is cooler in summer and hotter in winter than the air environment. Earth heat exchangers are essential parts of the ground-source heat pumps and the accurate prediction of their performance is of fundamental importance. This paper presents the development and validation of a numerical model through an incompressible fluid flow, for the simulation of energy and temperature changes in and around a U-tube borehole heat exchanger. The FlexPDE software is used to solve the resulting simultaneous equations that model the heat exchanger. The validated model (through a comparison with experimental data) is then used to extract conclusions on how various parameters like the U-tube diameter, the variation of the ground thermal conductivity and specific heat and the borehole filling material affect the temperature of the fluid.
    FEA Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining of Al6063/SiC Composites
    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are generating extensive interest in diverse fields like defense, aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. In this present investigation, material removal rate (MRR) modeling has been carried out using an axisymmetric model of Al-SiC composite during electrical discharge machining (EDM). A FEA model of single spark EDM was developed to calculate the temperature distribution.Further, single spark model was extended to simulate the second discharge. For multi-discharge machining material removal was calculated by calculating the number of pulses. Validation of model has been done by comparing the experimental results obtained under the same process parameters with the analytical results. A good agreement was found between the experimental results and the theoretical value.
    Machining Parameters Optimization of Developed Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramic Inserts While Machining AISI 4340 Steel
    An attempt has been made to investigate the machinability of zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) inserts while turning AISI 4340 steel. The insert was prepared by powder metallurgy process route and the machining experiments were performed based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design called Central Composite Design (CCD). The mathematical model of flank wear, cutting force and surface roughness have been developed using second order regression analysis. The adequacy of model has been carried out based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. It can be concluded that cutting speed and feed rate are the two most influential factor for flank wear and cutting force prediction. For surface roughness determination, the cutting speed & depth of cut both have significant contribution. Key parameters effect on each response has also been presented in graphical contours for choosing the operating parameter preciously. 83% desirability level has been achieved using this optimized condition.
    Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study
    This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating balance method. The findings showed how the maximum heat energy which produced from the boiler increases the boiler efficiency through increasing the temperature of the feed water, and decreasing the exhaust temperature along with humidity levels of the of fuel used within the boiler.