Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 42

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 42
    Investigation of Regenerative and Recuperative Burners for Different Sizes of Reheating Furnaces

    This research aims to analyze the regenerative burner and the recuperative burner for the different reheating furnaces in the steel industry. The warm air temperatures of the burners are determined to suit with the sizes of the reheating furnaces by considering the air temperature, the fuel cost and the investment cost. The calculations of the payback period and the net present value are studied to compare the burners for the different reheating furnaces. The energy balance is utilized to calculate and compare the energy used in the different sizes of reheating furnaces for each burner. It is found that the warm air temperature is different if the sizes of reheating furnaces are varied. Based on the considerations of the net present value and the payback period, the regenerative burner is suitable for all plants at the same life of the burner. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of all factors has been discussed in this research.

    Profit Optimization for Solar Plant Electricity Production

    In this paper a stochastic scenario-based model predictive control applied to molten salt storage systems in concentrated solar tower power plant is presented. The main goal of this study is to build up a tool to analyze current and expected future resources for evaluating the weekly power to be advertised on electricity secondary market. This tool will allow plant operator to maximize profits while hedging the impact on the system of stochastic variables such as resources or sunlight shortage.

    Solving the problem first requires a mixed logic dynamic modeling of the plant. The two stochastic variables, respectively the sunlight incoming energy and electricity demands from secondary market, are modeled by least square regression. Robustness is achieved by drawing a certain number of random variables realizations and applying the most restrictive one to the system. This scenario approach control technique provides the plant operator a confidence interval containing a given percentage of possible stochastic variable realizations in such a way that robust control is always achieved within its bounds. The results obtained from many trajectory simulations show the existence of a ‘’reliable’’ interval, which experimentally confirms the algorithm robustness.

    Scheduling Maintenance Actions for Gas Turbines Aircraft Engines

    This paper considers the problem of scheduling maintenance actions for identical aircraft gas turbine engines. Each one of the turbines consists of parts which frequently require replacement. A finite inventory of spare parts is available and all parts are ready for replacement at any time. The inventory consists of both new and refurbished parts. Hence, these parts have different field lives. The goal is to find a replacement part sequencing that maximizes the time that the aircraft will keep functioning before the inventory is replenished. The problem is formulated as an identical parallel machine scheduling problem where the minimum completion time has to be maximized. Two models have been developed. The first one is an optimization model which is based on a 0-1 linear programming formulation, while the second one is an approximate procedure which consists in decomposing the problem into several two-machine subproblems. Each subproblem is optimally solved using the first model. Both models have been implemented using Lingo and have been tested on two sets of randomly generated data with up to 150 parts and 10 turbines. Experimental results show that the optimization model is able to solve only instances with no more than 4 turbines, while the decomposition procedure often provides near-optimal solutions within a maximum CPU time of 3 seconds.

    Estimation of Missing or Incomplete Data in Road Performance Measurement Systems

    Modern management in most fields is performance based; both planning and implementation of maintenance and operational activities are driven by appropriately defined performance indicators. Continuous real-time data collection for management is becoming feasible due to technological advancements. Outdated and insufficient input data may result in incorrect decisions. When using deterministic models the uncertainty of the object state is not visible thus applying the deterministic models are more likely to give false diagnosis. Constructing structured probabilistic models of the performance indicators taking into consideration the surrounding indicator environment enables to estimate the trustworthiness of the indicator values. It also assists to fill gaps in data to improve the quality of the performance analysis and management decisions. In this paper authors discuss the application of probabilistic graphical models in the road performance measurement and propose a high-level conceptual model that enables analyzing and predicting more precisely future pavement deterioration based on road utilization.

    Influence of After Body Shape on the Performance of Blunt Shaped Bodies as Vortex Shedders

    The present study explores flow visualization experiments with various blunt shaped bluff bodies placed inside a circular pipe. The bodies mainly comprise of modifications of trapezoidal cylinder, most widely used in practical applications, such as vortex flowmeters. The present configuration possesses the feature of both internal and external flows with low aspect ratio. The vortex dynamics of bluff bodies in such configuration is seldom reported in the literature. Dye injection technique is employed to visualize the complex vortex formation mechanism behind the bluff bodies. The influence of orientation, slit and after body shape is studied in an attempt to obtain better understanding of the vortex formation mechanism. Various wake parameters like Strouhal number, vortex formation length and wake width are documented for these shapes. Vortex formation both with and without shear layer interaction is observed for most of the shapes.

    Heat Transfer Characteristics and Fluid Flow past Staggered Flat-Tube Bank Using CFD

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD-Fluent 6.2) for two-dimensional fluid flow is applied to predict the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of laminar and turbulent flow past staggered flat-tube bank. Effect of aspect ratio ((H/D)/(L/D)) on pressure drop, temperature, and velocity contour for laminar and turbulent flow over staggered flat-tube bank is studied. The theoretical results of the present models are compared with previously published experimental data of different authors. Satisfactory agreement is demonstrated. Also, the comparison between the present study and others analytical methods for the Re number with Nu number is done. The results show as the Reynolds number increases the maximum velocity in the passage between the upper and lower tubes increases. The comparisons show a fair agreement especially in the turbulent flow region. The good agreement of the data of this work with these recommended analytical methods validates the current study.

    Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy and Genetic Algorithm

    The stiffness of the workpiece is very important to reduce the errors in manufacturing process. The high stiffness of the workpiece can be achieved by optimal positioning of fixture elements in the fixture. The minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface is used as objective function in previous research. The deflection in other direction has been neglected. The 3-2-1 fixturing principle is not valid for metal sheets due to its flexible nature. We propose a new fixture layout optimization method N-3-2-1 for metal sheets that uses the strain energy of the finite elements. This method combines the genetic algorithm and finite element analysis. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of all the element strain energy. By using the concept of element strain energy, the deformations in all the directions have been considered. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. So, lower the value of strain energy, higher will be the stiffness. Two different kinds of case studies are presented. The case studies are solved for both objective functions; element strain energy and nodal deflection. The result are compared to verify the propose method.

    Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air

    Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.

    Simulation Model of an Ultra-Light Overhead Conveyor System; Analysis of the Process in the Warehouse

    Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems are rope-based conveying systems with individually driven vehicles. The vehicles can move automatically on the rope and this can be realized by energy and signals. The ultra-light overhead conveyor systems always must be integrated with a logistical process by finding a best way for a cheaper material flow in order to guarantee precise and fast workflows. This paper analyzes the process of an ultra-light overhead conveyor system using necessary assumptions. The analysis consists of three scenarios. These scenarios are based on raising the vehicle speeds with equal increments at each case. The correlation between the vehicle speed and system throughput is investigated. A discrete-event simulation model of an ultra-light overhead conveyor system is constructed using DOSIMIS-3 software to implement three scenarios. According to simulation results; the optimal scenario, hence the optimal vehicle speed, is found out among three scenarios. This simulation model demonstrates the effect of increased speed on the system throughput.

    Pricing Strategy Selection Using Fuzzy Linear Programming

    Marketing establishes a communication network between producers and consumers. Nowadays, marketing approach is customer-focused and products are directly oriented to meet customer needs. Marketing, which is a long process, needs organization and management. Therefore strategic marketing planning becomes more and more important in today’s competitive conditions. Main focus of this paper is to evaluate pricing strategies and select the best pricing strategy solution while considering internal and external factors influencing the company’s pricing decisions associated with new product development. To reflect the decision maker’s subjective preference information and to determine the weight vector of factors (attributes), the fuzzy linear programming technique for multidimensional analysis of preference (LINMAP) under intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) environments is used.

    Creative Teaching of New Product Development to Operations Managers

    New Product Development (NPD) has got its roots on an Engineering background. Thus, one might wonder about the interest, opportunity, contents and delivery process, if students from soft sciences were involved. This paper addressed «What to teach?» and «How to do it?», as the preliminary research questions that originated the introduced propositions. The curriculum-developer model that was purposefully chosen to adapt the coursebook by pursuing macro/micro strategies was found significant by an exploratory qualitative case study. Moreover, learning was developed and value created by implementing the institutional curriculum through a creative, hands-on, experiencing, problem-solving, problem-based but organized teamwork approach. Product design of an orange squeezer complying with ill-defined requirements, including drafts, sketches, prototypes, CAD simulations and a business plan, plus a website, written reports and presentations were the deliverables that confirmed an innovative contribution towards research and practice of teaching and learning of engineering subjects to non-specialist operations managers candidates.

    The Influence of Internal and External Damping on Turbocharger Stability

    This paper presents the mathematical description of the high-speed rotating system taking into account the influence of internal and external damping. The mathematical model is obtained by using the finite element method. The analyzed system is an automotive turbocharger understood as a rotor-bearing system. The circular cross-section shaft is equipped with one compressor wheel, one turbine wheel and is supported by two floating ring bearings. Based on the model, the dynamical analysis of a turbocharger is performed and stability conditions are evaluated.

    Comparison of Welding Fumes Exposure during Standing and Sitting Welder’s Position

    Experimental study was conducted to assess personal welding fumes exposure toward welders during an aluminum metal inert gas (MIG) process. The welding process was carried out by a welding machine attached to a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) workbench. A dummy welder was used to replicate welder during welding works and was attached with sampling pumps and filter cassettes for welding fumes sampling. Direct reading instruments to measure air velocity, humidity, temperature and particulate matter with diameter size 10µm or less (PM10) were located behind the dummy welder and parallel to the neck collar level to make sure the measured welding fumes exposure were not being influenced by other factors. Welding fumes exposure during standing and sitting position with and without the usage of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was investigated. Welding fume samples were then digested and analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) according to ASTM D7439-08 method. The results of the study showed the welding fume exposure during sitting was lower compared to standing position. LEV helped reduce aluminum and lead exposure to acceptable levels during standing position. However during sitting position reduction of exposure was smaller. It can be concluded that welder position and the correct positioning of LEV should be implemented for effective exposure reduction. 

    A High Thermal Dissipation Performance Polyethyleneterephthalate Heat Pipe

    A high thermal dissipation performance polyethylene terephthalate heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in this research. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used as the container material instead of copper. Copper mesh and methanol are sealed in the middle of two PET films as the wick structure and working fluid. Although the thermal conductivity of PET (0.15-0.24 W/m·K) is much smaller than copper (401 W/m·K), the experiment results reveal that the PET heat pipe can reach a minimum thermal resistance of 0.146 (oC/W) and maximum effective thermal conductivity of 18,310 (W/m·K) with 36.9 vol% at 26 W input power. However, when the input power is larger than 30 W, the laminated PET will debond due to the high vapor pressure of methanol.

    Future Logistics - Challenges, Requirements and Solutions for Logistics Networks

    The importance of logistics has changed enormously in the last few decades. While logistics was formerly one of the core functions of most companies, logistics or at least parts of their functions are nowadays outsourced to external logistic service providers in terms of contracts. As a result of this shift new business models like the fourth party logistics provider emerged, which designs, plans and monitors the resulting logistics networks. This new business model and topics such as Synchromodality or Big Data impose new requirements on the underlying IT, which cannot be met with conventional concepts and approaches. In this paper, the challenges of logistics network monitoring are outlined by using a scenario. The most common layers in a logical multilayered architecture for an information system are used to point out the arising challenges for IT. In addition, first appropriate solution approaches are introduced.


    Integration of Inter-Organisational Learning with Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review

    This paper subsidises to the discussion of inter-organisational learning. This study has a main aim which is to examine the inter-organisational learning from a supply chain perspective. The integration and importance of supply chain with inter-organisational learning till date is discussed. The steps that are involved in the consideration of inter-organisational learning are looked throughout with emphasis done to supply chain management. The paper studies the impact of absorptive capacity, the supply chain orientation and design as well as discusses on fostering the inter-organisational learning.

    An Integrated Operational Research and System Dynamics Approach for Planning Decisions in Container Terminals

    This paper focuses on the operational and strategic planning decisions related to the quayside of container terminals. We introduce an integrated operational research (OR) and system dynamics (SD) approach to solve the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP) and the Quay Crane Assignment Problem (QCAP). A BAP-QCAP optimization modeling approach which considers practical aspects not studied before in the integration of BAP and QCAP is discussed. A conceptual SD model is developed to determine the long-term effect of optimization on the system behavior factors like resource utilization, attractiveness to port, number of incoming vessels to port and port profits. The framework can be used for improving the operational efficiency of container terminals and providing a strategic view after applying optimization.

    An Effective Genetic Algorithm for a Complex Real-World Scheduling Problem

    We address a complex scheduling problem arising in the wood panel industry with the objective of minimizing a quadratic function of job tardiness. The proposed solution strategy, which is based on an effective genetic algorithm, has been coded and implemented within a major Tunisian company, leader in the wood panel manufacturing. Preliminary experimental results indicate significant decrease of delivery times.

    Kano’s Model for Clinical Laboratory

    The clinical laboratory has received considerable recognition globally due to the rapid development of advanced technology, economic demands and its role in a patient’s treatment cycle. Although various cross-domain experiments and practices with respect to clinical laboratory projects are ready for the full swing, the customer needs are still ambiguous and debatable. The purpose of this study is to apply Kano’s model and customer satisfaction matrix to categorize service quality attributes in order to see how well these attributes are able to satisfy customer needs. The result reveals that ten of the 26 service quality attributes have greater impacts on highly increasing customer’s satisfaction and should be taken in consideration firstly.

    Numerical Investigation of Non-Newtonians Fluids Flows between Two Rotating Cylinders Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    A numerical investigation is performed for non Newtonian fluids flow between two concentric cylinders. The D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatangar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying to the power-law model. The inner and outer cylinders rotate in the same and the opposite direction while the end walls are maintained at rest. The combined effects of the Reynolds number (Re) of the inner and outer cylinders, the radius ratio (η) as well as the power-law index (n) on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of a finite aspect ratio (Γ). Two flow modes are obtained: a primary mode (laminar stable regime) and a secondary mode (laminar unstable regime). The so obtained flow structures are different from one mode to another. The transition critical Reynolds number Rec from the primary to the secondary mode is analyzed for the co-courant and counter-courant flows. This critical value increases as n increases. The prediction of the swirling flow of non Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries is shown in the present work.

    Investigation of Hydraulic and Thermal Performances of Fin Array at Different Shield Positions without By-Pass

    In heat sinks, the flow within the core exhibits separation and hence does not lend itself to simple analytical boundary layer or duct flow analysis of the wall friction. In this paper, we present some findings from an experimental and numerical study aimed to obtain physical insight into the influence of the presence of the shield and its position on the hydraulic and thermal performance of square pin fin heat sink without top by-pass. The variations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained under varied parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the shield position. The numerical code is validated by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. It is shown that, there is a good agreement between the temperature predictions based on the model and the experimental data. Results show that, as the presence of the shield, the heat transfer of fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance increased. The surface temperature distribution of the heat sink base is more uniform when the dimensionless shield position equals to 1/3 or 2/3. The comprehensive performance evaluation approach based on identical pumping power criteria is adopted and shows that the optimum shield position is at x/l=0.43.

    Identifying Interactions in a Feeding System

    In production processes, assembly conceals a considerable potential for increased efficiency in terms of lowering production costs. Due to the individualisation of customer requirements, product variants have increased in recent years. Simultaneously, the portion of automated production systems has increased. A challenge is to adapt the flexibility and adaptability of automated systems to these changes. The Institute for Production Systems and Logistics developed an aerodynamic orientation system for feeding technology. When changing to other components, only four parameters must be adjusted. The expenditure of time for setting parameters is high. An objective therefore is developing an optimisation algorithm for automatic parameter configuration. Know how regarding the interaction of the four parameters and their effect on the sizes to be optimised is required in order to be able to develop a more efficient algorithm. This article introduces an analysis of the interactions between parameters and their influence on the quality of feeding.

    Weakened Vortex Shedding from a Rotating Cylinder

    An experimental study of the turbulent near wake of a rotating circular cylinder was made at a Reynolds number of 2000 for velocity ratios, λ between 0 and 2.7. Particle image velocimetry data are analyzed to study the effects of rotation on the flow structures behind the cylinder. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant changes in the vortex formation. Kármán vortex shedding pattern of alternating vortices gives rise to strong periodic fluctuations of a vortex street for λ < 2.0. Alternate vortex shedding is weak and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0 resulting a distorted street with vortices of alternating sense subsequently being found on opposite sides. Only part of the circulation is shed due to the interference in the separation point, mixing in the base region, re-attachment, and vortex cut-off phenomenon. Alternating vortex shedding pattern diminishes and completely disappears when the velocity ratio is 2.7. The shed vortices are insignificant in size and forming a single line of vortex street. It is clear that flow asymmetries will deteriorate vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are large enough, total inhibition of a periodic street occurs.

    Role of Process Parameters on Pocket Milling with Abrasive Water Jet Machining Technique

    Abrasive Water Jet Machining is an unconventional machining process well known for machining hard to cut materials. The primary research focus on the process was for through cutting and a very limited literature is available on pocket milling using AWJM. The present work is an attempt to use this process for milling applications considering a set of various process parameters. Four different input parameters, which were considered by researchers for part separation, are selected for the above application, i.e., abrasive size, flow rate, standoff distance and traverse speed. Pockets of definite size are machined to investigate surface roughness, material removal rate and pocket depth. Based on the data available through experiments on SS304 material, it is observed that higher traverse speeds gives a better finish because of reduction in the particle energy density and lower depth is also observed. Increase in the standoff distance and abrasive flow rate reduces the rate of material removal as the jet loses its focus and occurrence of collisions within the particles. ANOVA for individual output parameter has been studied to know the significant process parameters.

    Investigation on Nanoparticle Velocity in Two Phase Approach

    Numerical investigation on the generality of nanoparticle velocity equation had been done on the previous published work. The three dimensional governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) were solved using finite volume method (FVM). Parametric study of thermal performance between pure water-cooled and nanofluid-cooled are evaluated for volume fraction in the range of 1% to 4%, and nanofluid type of gamma-Al2O3 at Reynolds number range of 67.41 to 286.77. The nanofluid is modeled using single and two phase approach. Three different existing Brownian motion velocities are applied in comparing the generality of the equation for a wide parametric condition. Deviation in between the Brownian motion velocity is identified to be due to the different means of mean free path and constant value used in diffusion equation.

    LQG Flight Control of VTAV for Enhanced Situational Awareness

    This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) flight control procedure for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This LQG control for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and landing maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast flight stabilization of model, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

    Changeability of Business Organizations

    Nowadays companies are facing an increasing turbulent environment. It is more and more important to react fast on changes to stay competitive. But not only the technology has to be adaptable; also the frame conditions for the production have to adapt as fast as the other elements of a manufacturing company. Therefore, the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics of the Leibniz University of Hanover has implemented a research project to describe and develop changeable organizational structures. The results of the analysis, which design principles can be used to evolve an organizational structure of a factory regarding their changeability will be presented in this paper.

    A Balanced Scorecard for Identifying Factors of Strategic Fit of National R&D Program on the Creative Economy Policy

    As creative economy is important theme for national policy, many countries have been raising investments through national R&D programs. Since not all of programs are aligned with the ultimate vision and R&D investment is one of the most decisive elements, the strategic fit of national R&D programs should be evaluated for effective resource allocation. This study aims at identifying the factors of strategic fit of national R&D program on the creative economy policy. For this purpose, the balanced scorecard (BSC) model for R&D is utilized to translate national strategic objectives into a set of coherent performance factors.

    Dynamic Safety-Stock Calculation

    In order to ensure a high service level industrial enterprises have to maintain safety-stock that directly influences the economic efficiency at the same time. This paper analyses established mathematical methods to calculate safety-stock. Therefore, the performance measured in stock and service level is appraised and the limits of several methods are depicted. Afterwards, a new dynamic approach is presented to gain an extensive method to calculate safety-stock that also takes the knowledge of future volatility into account.

    Heat Generation Rate and Computational Simulation for Li-Ion Battery Module

    In recent years Li-Ion batteries getting more attention among the Electrical Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) energy storage. Li-Ion has shown extended power density and light weight compared to other batteries readily available in the market. One of the major drawbacks in Li-Ion batteries is their sensitivity to the temperature. If the working temperature is beyond the limit, that could affect seriously on the durability and performance of Li-Ion battery. Thus Battery Thermal Management (BTM) is the most essential in adapting Li-Ion battery to the EVs and HEVs.

    Logistic Changeability - Application of a Methodological Framework for Designing Logistic Changeability

    In the past decades, the environment of production companies showed a permanent increase in dynamic and volatility in the form of demand fluctuations, new technologies or global crises. As a reaction to these new requirements, changeability of production systems came into attention. A changeable production system can adapt to these changes quickly and with little effort. Even though demand for changeable production exists for some time, the practical application is still insufficient.

    To overcome this deficit, a three year research project at the Department of Production Systems and Logistics at the Leibniz University of Hanover/ Germany was initiated. As a result of this project, different concepts have been developed to design production changeable. An excerpt of the results will be presented in this paper. An eight step procedure will be presented to design the changeability of production logistics. This procedure has been applied at a German manufacturer of high demanding weighing machines. The developed procedure, their application in industry, as well as the major results of the application will be presented.

    Assessing and Improving Ramp-Up Capability

    In times when product life cycles are decreasing, while market demands are increasing, manufacturing enterprises are confronted with the challenge of more frequent and more complex ramp-ups. Thus it becomes obvious that ramp-up management is going to be a topic enterprises have to focus on in the future. Since each ramp-up is unique concerning the product, the process, the technology, the circumstances and the coaction of these four factors, the knowledge of the ramp-up situation and the current ramp-up capability of the enterprise are fundamental requirements for the subsequent improvement of the ramp-up capability of the production system.

    In this article a methodology is going to be presented which can be used to define typical production ramp-up situations, to identify the current ramp-up capability of a production system and to improve it with respect to a specific situation. Additionally there will be a description of the functionality of a software-tool developed based on this methodology.

    Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer Enhancement in 2D Corrugated Channels

    Present study numerically investigates the flow field and heat transfer of water in two dimensional sinusoidal and rectangular corrugated wall channels. Simulations are performed for fully developed flow conditions at inlet sections of the channels that have 12 waves. The temperature of the input fluid is taken to be less than that temperature of wavy walls. The governing continuity, momentum and energy equations are numerically solved using finite volume method based on SIMPLE technique. The investigation covers Reynolds number in the rage of 100-1000. The effects of the distance between upper and lower corrugated walls are studied by varying Hmin/Hmax ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 for keeping wave length and wave amplitude values fixed for both geometries. The effects of the wall geometry, Reynolds number and the distance between walls on the flow characteristics, the local Nusselt number and heat transfer are studied. It is found that heat transfer enhancement increases by usage of corrugated horizontal walls in an appropriate Reynolds number regime and channel height.

    Six Sigma in Mexican Manufacturing Companies

    This work is about Six Sigma (SS) implementation in Mexico by using an empirical study. Main goals are to analyze the degree of importance of the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of SS and to examine if these factors are grouped in some way. A literature research and a survey were conducted to capture SS practitioner’s viewpoint about CSFs in SS implementation and their impact on the performance within manufacturing companies located in Baja California, Mexico. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis showed that nine critical success factors could be grouped in three components, which are: management vision, implementation strategy, and collaborative team. In the other hand, SS’s success is represented by cost reduction, variation reduction, experience and self-esteem of the workers, and quality improvement. Concluding remarks arising from the study are that CSFs are changing through time and paying attention to these nine factors can increase SS’s success likelihood.

    Capacity Flexibility within Production

    Due to high dynamics in current markets the expectations regarding logistics increase steadily. However, the complexity and variety of products and production make it difficult to understand the interdependencies between logistical objectives and their determining factors. Therefore specific models are needed to meet this challenge. The Logistic Operating Curves Theory is such a model. With its aid the basic correlations between the logistic objectives can be described. Within this model the capacity flexibility represents an important parameter. However, a proper mathematical description for this parameter is still missing. Within this paper such a description will be developed in order to make the Logistic Operating Curves Theory more accurate.

    Determination of Alkali Treatment Conditions Effects Which Influence the Variability of Kenaf Fiber Mean Cross Sectional Area

    Fiber cross sectional area value is a crucial factor in determining the strength properties of natural fiber. Furthermore, unlike synthetic fiber, a diameter and cross sectional area of natural fiber has a large variation along and between the fibers. This study aims to determine the main and interaction effects of alkali treatment conditions which influence kenaf bast fiber mean cross sectional area. Three alkali treatment conditions at two different levels were selected. The conditions setting were alkali concentrations at 2 and 10 w/v %; fiber immersed temperature at room temperature and 1000C; and fiber immersed duration for 30 and 480 minutes. Untreated kenaf fiber was used as a control unit. Kenaf bast fiber bundle mounting tab was prepared according to ASTM C1557-03. Cross sectional area was measured using a Leica video analyzer. The study result showed that kenaf fiber bundle mean cross sectional area was reduced 6.77% to 29.88% after alkali treatment. From analysis of variance, it shows that interaction of alkali concentration and immersed time has a higher magnitude at 0.1619 compared to alkali concentration and immersed temperature interaction which was 0.0896. For the main effect, alkali concentration factor contributes to the higher magnitude at 0.1372 which indicated are decrease pattern of variability when the level was change from lower to higher level. Then, it was followed by immersed temperature at 0.1261 and immersed time at 0.0696 magnitudes.

    TPM in Large Enterprises: Study Results

    Having regard to the necessity of maintaining the technical infrastructure in a proper condition that ensures production continuity, companies decide to implement modern methods of technological machines park management. These methods include TPM, RCM and outsourcing. Large companies, in particular, are ready to invest in the implementation of these methods because of a great number of machines and a wide range of tasks of their technical service. Methodology of implementing these methods is well known. The aim of the studies, of which the results are presented in this publication, was the identification of real actions that are conducted in enterprises within the application of the TPM method. The studies were carried out in large manufacturing companies of different industries located on a certain area. The study’s results point to the actions actually performed within TPM as well as to the effects of those actions achieved by the studied enterprises.

    Development of Basic Patternmaking Using Parametric Modelling and AutoLISP

    This study is aimed towards the automisation of basic patternmaking for traditional clothes for the purpose of mass production using AutoCAD to apply AutoLISP feature under software Hazi Attire. A standard dress form (industrial form) with the size of small (S), medium (M) and large (L) size is measured using full body scanning machine. Later, the pattern for the clothes is designed parametrically based on the measured dress form. Hazi Attire program is used within the framework of AutoCAD to generate the basic pattern of front bodice, back bodice, front skirt, back skirt and sleeve block (sloper). The generation of pattern is based on the parameters inputted by user, whereby in this study, the parameters were determined based on the measured size of dress form. The finalized pattern parameter shows that the pattern fit perfectly on the dress form. Since the pattern is generated almost instantly, these proved that using the AutoLISP programming, the manufacturing lead time for the mass production of the traditional clothes can be decreased.

    Facility Location Problem in Emergency Logistic

    Facility location is one of the important problems affecting the relief operations. The location model in this paper is motivated by arranging the flow of relief materials from the main warehouse to continent warehouse and further to regional warehouse and from these to the disaster area. This flow makes the relief organization always ready to deal with the disaster situation during shortest possible time. The main purpose of this paper is merge the concept of just in time and the campaign system in emergency supply chain,so that when the disaster happens the affected country can request help from the nearest regional warehouse, which will supply the relief material and the required stuff to support and assist the victims in the disaster area. Furthermore, the regional warehouse places an order to the continent warehouse to replenish the material that is distributed to the disaster area. This way they will always be ready to respond to any type of disaster.

    Manufacturing Process and Cost Estimation through Process Detection by Applying Image Processing Technique

    In order to reduce the transportation time and cost for direct interface between customer and manufacturer, the image processing technique has been introduced in this research where designing part and defining manufacturing process can be performed quickly. A3D virtual model is directly generated from a series of multi-view images of an object, and it can be modified, analyzed, and improved the structure, or function for the further implementations, such as computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). To estimate and quote the production cost, the user-friendly platform has been developed in this research where the appropriate manufacturing parameters and process detections have been identified and planned by CAM simulation.

    Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

    The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

    Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hard Material Machining

    Machining of hard materials is a recent technology for direct production of work-pieces. The primary challenge in machining these materials is selection of cutting tool inserts which facilitates an extended tool life and high-precision machining of the component. These materials are widely for making precision parts for the aerospace industry. Nickel-based alloys are typically used in extreme environment applications where a combination of strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance material characteristics are required. The present paper reports the theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the influence of machining parameters on the response parameters. Considering the basic machining parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) a study has been conducted to observe their influence on material removal rate, surface roughness, cutting forces and corresponding tool wear. Experiments are designed and conducted with the help of Central Composite Rotatable Design technique. The results reveals that for a given range of process parameters, material removal rate is favorable for higher depths of cut and low feed rate for cutting forces. Low feed rates and high values of rotational speeds are suitable for better finish and higher tool life.