Sensitizing Rules for Fuzzy Control Charts
Quality control charts indicate out of control
conditions if any nonrandom pattern of the points is observed or any
point is plotted beyond the control limits. Nonrandom patterns of
Shewhart control charts are tested with sensitizing rules. When the
processes are defined with fuzzy set theory, traditional sensitizing
rules are insufficient for defining all out of control conditions. This is
due to the fact that fuzzy numbers increase the number of out of
control conditions. The purpose of the study is to develop a set of
fuzzy sensitizing rules, which increase the flexibility and sensitivity
of fuzzy control charts. Fuzzy sensitizing rules simplify the
identification of out of control situations that results in a decrease in
the calculation time and number of evaluations in fuzzy control chart
Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake
The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.
Krylov Model Order Reduction of a Thermal Subsea Model
A subsea hydrocarbon production system can undergo planned and unplanned shutdowns during the life of the field. The thermal FEA is used to simulate the cool down to verify the insulation design of the subsea equipment, but it is also used to derive an acceptable insulation design for the cold spots. The driving factors of subsea analyses require fast responding and accurate models of the equipment cool down. This paper presents cool down analysis carried out by a Krylov subspace reduction method, and compares this approach to the commonly used FEA solvers. The model considered represents a typical component of a subsea production system, a closed valve on a dead leg. The results from the Krylov reduction method exhibits the least error and requires the shortest computational time to reach the solution. These findings make the Krylov model order reduction method very suitable for the above mentioned subsea applications.
Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft
In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system
having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After
neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk
system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are
still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural
frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural
frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural
frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed
changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the
beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam
lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency
stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb
until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and
remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to
the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral
natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and
stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes
and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor
Automated Process Quality Monitoring with Prediction of Fault Condition Using Measurement Data
Detection of incipient abnormal events is important to
improve safety and reliability of machine operations and reduce losses
caused by failures. Improper set-ups or aligning of parts often leads to
severe problems in many machines. The construction of prediction
models for predicting faulty conditions is quite essential in making
decisions on when to perform machine maintenance. This paper
presents a multivariate calibration monitoring approach based on the
statistical analysis of machine measurement data. The calibration
model is used to predict two faulty conditions from historical reference
data. This approach utilizes genetic algorithms (GA) based variable
selection, and we evaluate the predictive performance of several
prediction methods using real data. The results shows that the
calibration model based on supervised probabilistic principal
component analysis (SPPCA) yielded best performance in this work.
By adopting a proper variable selection scheme in calibration models,
the prediction performance can be improved by excluding
non-informative variables from their model building steps.
Cost Based Warranty Optimisation Using Genetic Algorithm
Warranty is a powerful marketing tool for the
manufacturer and a good protection for both the manufacturer and the
customer. However, warranty always involves additional costs to the
manufacturer, which depend on product reliability characteristics and
warranty parameters. This paper presents an approach to optimisation
of warranty parameters for known product failure distribution to
reduce the warranty costs to the manufacturer while retaining the
promotional function of the warranty. Combination free replacement
and pro-rata warranty policy is chosen as a model and the length of
free replacement period and pro-rata policy period are varied, as well
as the coefficients that define the pro-rata cost function. Multiparametric
warranty optimisation is done by using genetic algorithm.
Obtained results are guideline for the manufacturer to choose the
warranty policy that minimises the costs and maximises the profit.
Verification of a Locked CFD Approach to Cool Down Modeling
Increasing demand on the performance of Subsea
Production Systems (SPS) suggests a need for more detailed
investigation of fluid behavior taking place in subsea equipment.
Complete CFD cool down analyses of subsea equipment are very
time demanding. The objective of this paper is to investigate a
Locked CFD approach, which enables significant reduction of the
computational time and at the same time maintains sufficient
accuracy during thermal cool down simulations. The result
comparison of a dead leg simulation using the Full CFD and the three
LCFD-methods confirms the validity of the locked flow field
assumption for the selected case. For the tested case the LCFD
simulation speed up by factor of 200 results in the absolute thermal
error of 0.5 °C (3% relative error), speed up by factor of 10 keeps the
LCFD results within 0.1 °C (0.5 % relative error) comparing to the
The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body
The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.
Deformation Mechanisms at Elevated Temperatures: Influence of Momenta and Energy in the Single Impact Test
Within this work High Temperature Single Impact
Studies were performed to evaluate deformation mechanisms at
different energy and momentum levels. To show the influence of
different microstructures and hardness levels and their response to
single impacts four different materials were tested at various
temperatures up to 700°C. One carbide reinforced NiCrBSi based
Metal Matrix Composite and three different steels were tested. The
aim of this work is to determine critical energies for fracture
appearance and the materials response at different energy and
momenta levels. Critical impact loadings were examined at elevated
temperatures to limit operating conditions in impact dominated
regimes at elevated temperatures. The investigations on the
mechanisms were performed using different means of microscopy at
the surface and in metallographic cross sections. Results indicate
temperature dependence of the occurrence of cracks in hardphase
rich materials, such as Metal Matrix Composites High Speed Steels
and the influence of different impact momenta at constant energies
on the deformation of different steels.
Analysis of the Communication Methods of an iCIM 3000 System within the Frame of Research Purpose
Current trends in manufacturing are characterized by
production broadening, innovation cycle shortening, and the products
having a new shape, material and functions. The production strategy
focused on time needed change from the traditional functional
production structure to flexible manufacturing cells and lines.
Production by automated manufacturing system (AMS) is one of the
most important manufacturing philosophies in the last years. The
main goals of the project we are involved in lies on building a
laboratory in which will be located a flexible manufacturing system
consisting of at least two production machines with NC control
(milling machines, lathe). These machines will be linked to a
transport system and they will be served by industrial robots. Within
this flexible manufacturing system a station for the quality control
consisting of a camera system and rack warehouse will be also
located. The design, analysis and improvement of this manufacturing
system, specially with a special focus on the communication among
devices constitute the main aims of this paper. The key determining
factors for the manufacturing system design are: the product, the
production volume, the used machines, the disposable manpower, the
disposable infrastructure and the legislative frame for the specific
On the Coupled Electromechanical Behavior of Artificial Materials with Chiral-Shell Elements
In the present work we investigate both the elastic and
electric properties of a chiral material. We consider a composite
structure made from a polymer matrix and anisotropic inclusions of
GaAs taking into account piezoelectric and dielectric properties of
the composite material. The principal task of the work is the
estimation of the functional properties of the composite material.
General Process Control for Intelligent Systems
Development of intelligent assembly cell conception includes new solution kind of how to create structures of automated and flexible assembly system. The current trend of the final product quality increasing is affected by time analysis of the entire manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition. These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing systems. Intelligent behavior of the system as the control system will repose on monitoring of important parameters of the system in the real time. Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in interaction with the surroundings.
Verification Process of Cylindrical Contact Force Models for Internal Contact Modeling
In the numerical solution of the forward dynamics of a
multibody system, the positions and velocities of the bodies in the
system are obtained first. With the information of the system state
variables at each time step, the internal and external forces acting on
the system are obtained by appropriate contact force models if the
continuous contact method is used instead of a discrete contact
method. The local deformation of the bodies in contact, represented
by penetration, is used to compute the contact force. The ability and
suitability with current cylindrical contact force models to describe
the contact between bodies with cylindrical geometries with
particular focus on internal contacting geometries involving low
clearances and high loads simultaneously is discussed in this paper.
A comparative assessment of the performance of each model under
analysis for different contact conditions, in particular for very
different penetration and clearance values, is presented. It is
demonstrated that some models represent a rough approximation to
describe the conformal contact between cylindrical geometries
because contact forces are underestimated.
Numerical Investigation of Flow Patterns and Thermal Comfort in Air-Conditioned Lecture Rooms
The present paper was concerned primarily with the
analysis, simulation of the air flow and thermal patterns in a lecture
room. The paper is devoted to numerically investigate the influence
of location and number of ventilation and air conditioning supply and
extracts openings on air flow properties in a lecture room. The work
focuses on air flow patterns, thermal behaviour in lecture room where
large number of students. The effectiveness of an air flow system is
commonly assessed by the successful removal of sensible and latent
loads from occupants with additional of attaining air pollutant at a
prescribed level to attain the human thermal comfort conditions and
to improve the indoor air quality; this is the main target during the
present paper. The study is carried out using computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques as embedded in the
commercially available CFD code (FLUENT 6.2). The CFD
modelling techniques solved the continuity, momentum and energy
conservation equations in addition to standard k – ε model equations
for turbulence closure.
Throughout the investigations, numerical validation is carried out by
way of comparisons of numerical and experimental results. Good
agreement is found among both predictions.
Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor UAV with Aerodynamic Concepts
This paper presents preliminary results on modeling
and control of a quadrotor UAV. With aerodynamic concepts, a
mathematical model is firstly proposed to describe the dynamics
of the quadrotor UAV. Parameters of this model are identified by
experiments with Matlab Identify Toolbox. A group of PID controllers
are then designed based on the developed model. To verify
the developed model and controllers, simulations and experiments for
altitude control, position control and trajectory tracking are carried
out. The results show that the quadrotor UAV well follows the
referenced commands, which clearly demonstrates the effectiveness
of the proposed approach.
Numerical Simulation of a Pressure Regulated Valve to Find Out the Characteristics of Passive Control Circuit
The objective of the present paper is a numerical
analysis of the flow forces acting on spool surfaces of a pressure
regulated valve. The transient, compressible and turbulent flow
structures inside the valve are simulated using ANSYS FLUENT
coupled with a special UDF. Here, valve inlet pressure is varied in a
stepwise manner. For every value of inlet pressure, transient analysis
leads to a quasi-static flow through the valve. Spool forces are
calculated based on different pressures at inlet. From this information
of spool forces, pressure characteristic of the passive control circuit
has been derived.
Analytical Approach of the In-Pipe Robot on Branched Pipe Navigation and Its Solution
This paper determines most common model of in-pipe
robots to derive its degree of freedom in order to compare with the
necessary degree of freedom required for a system to move inside
pipelines freely in order to derive analytical reason for losing control
of in-pipe robots at branched pipe. DOF of most common mechanism
in in-pipe robots can be calculated by considering the robot as a
parallel manipulator. A new design based on previously researched
in-pipe robot PAROYS has been suggested, and its possibility to
overcome branched section has been simulated.
Topology Optimization of Aircraft Fuselage Structure
Topology Optimization is a defined as the method of
determining optimal distribution of material for the assumed design
space with functionality, loads and boundary conditions .
Topology optimization can be used to optimize shape for the
purposes of weight reduction, minimizing material requirements or
selecting cost effective materials . Topology optimization has been
implemented through the use of finite element methods for the
analysis, and optimization techniques based on the method of moving
asymptotes, genetic algorithms, optimality criteria method, level sets
and topological derivatives. Case study of Typical “Fuselage design"
is considered for this paper to explain the benefits of Topology
Optimization in the design cycle. A cylindrical shell is assumed as
the design space and aerospace standard pay loads were applied on
the fuselage with wing attachments as constraints. Then topological
optimization is done using Finite Element (FE) based software. This
optimization results in the structural concept design which satisfies
all the design constraints using minimum material.
Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Methanol Diesel Blends
Combustion, emission and performance
characterization of a single cylinder diesel engine using methanol
diesel blends was carried out. The blends were 5% (v/v) methanol in
diesel (MD05) and 10% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD10). The
problem of solubility of methanol and diesel was addressed by an
agitator placed inside the fuel tank to prevent phase separation. The
results indicated that total combustion duration was reduced by15.8%
for MD05 and 31.27% for MD10compared to the baseline data.
Ignition delay was increased with increasing methanol volume
fraction in the test fuel. Total cyclic heat release was reduced by
1.5% for MD05 and 6.7% for MD10 as compared to diesel baseline.
Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons along with smoke were
reduced and that of nitrogen oxides were increased with rising
methanol contents in the test fuel. Full load brake thermal efficiency
was marginally reduced with increased methanol composition in the
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Semi-Cylindrical Obstacle Located in a Channel
In this study, a semi-cylinder obstacle placed in a
channel is handled to determine the effect of flow and heat transfer
around the obstacle. Both faces of the semi-cylinder are used in the
numerical analysis. First, the front face of the semi-cylinder is stated
perpendicular to flow, than the rear face is placed. The study is
carried out numerically, by using commercial software ANSYS 11.0.
The well-known κ-ε model is applied as the turbulence model.
Reynolds number is in the range of 104 to 105 and air is assumed as
the flowing fluid. The results showed that, heat transfer increased
approximately 15 % in the front faze case, while it enhanced up to 28
% in the rear face case.
Two Phase Frictional Pressure Drop of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Micro Tubes
Two-phase frictional pressure drop data were
obtained for condensation of carbon dioxide in single horizontal
micro tube of inner diameter ranged from 0.6 mm up to 1.6 mm over
mass flow rates from 2.5*10-5 to 17*10-5 kg/s and vapor qualities
from 0.0 to 1.0. The inlet condensing pressure is changed from 33.5
to 45 bars. The saturation temperature ranged from -1.5 oC up to 10
oC. These data have then been compared against three (two-phase)
frictional pressure drop prediction methods. The first method is by
Muller-Steinhagen and Heck (Muller-Steinhagen H, Heck K. A
simple friction pressure drop correlation for two-phase flow in pipes.
Chem. Eng. Process 1986;20:297–308) and that by Gronnerud R.
Investigation of liquid hold-up, flow-resistance and heat transfer in
circulation type evaporators, part IV: two-phase flow resistance in
boiling refrigerants, Annexe 1972. Then the method used by
FriedelL. Improved friction pressures drop in horizontal and vertical
two-phase pipe flow. European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting,
Paper E2; 1979 June, Ispra, Italy. The methods are used by M.B Ould
Didi et al (2001) “Prediction of two-phase pressure gradients of
refrigerant in horizontal tubes". Int.J.of Refrigeration 25(2002) 935-
947. The best available method for annular flow was that of Muller-
Steinhagen and Heck. It was observed that the peak in the two-phase
frictional pressure gradient is at high vapor qualities.
Tuning of Thermal FEA Using Krylov Parametric MOR for Subsea Application
A dead leg is a typical subsea production system
component. CFD is required to model heat transfer within the dead
leg. Unfortunately its solution is time demanding and thus not
suitable for fast prediction or repeated simulations. Therefore there is
a need to create a thermal FEA model, mimicking the heat flows and
temperatures seen in CFD cool down simulations.
This paper describes the conventional way of tuning and a new
automated way using parametric model order reduction (PMOR)
together with an optimization algorithm. The tuned FE analyses
replicate the steady state CFD parameters within a maximum error in
heat flow of 6 % and 3 % using manual and PMOR method
respectively. During cool down, the relative error of the tuned FEA
models with respect to temperature is below 5% comparing to the
CFD. In addition, the PMOR method obtained the correct FEA setup
five times faster than the manually tuned FEA.
Performance and Emission Study of Linseed Oilas a Fuel for CI Engine
Increased energy demand and the concern about
environment friendly technology, renewable bio-fuels are better
alternative to petroleum products. In the present study linseed oil was
used as alternative source for diesel engine fuel and the results were
compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Performance parameters
such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) and emissions parameters such as CO,
unburned hydro carbon (UBHC), NOx, CO2 and exhaust temperature
were compared. BTE of the engine was lower and BSFC was higher
when the engine was fueled with Linseed oil compared to diesel fuel.
Emission characteristics are better than diesel fuel. NOx formation by
using linseed oil during the experiment was lower than diesel fuel.
Linseed oil is non edible oil, so it can be used as an extender of diesel
fuel energy source for small and medium energy needs.
Optimization Based Tuning of Autopilot Gains for a Fixed Wing UAV
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained tremendous importance, in both Military and Civil, during first decade of this century. In a UAV, onboard computer (autopilot) autonomously controls the flight and navigation of the aircraft. Based on the aircraft role and flight envelope, basic to complex and sophisticated controllers are used to stabilize the aircraft flight parameters. These controllers constitute the autopilot system for UAVs. The autopilot systems, most commonly, provide lateral and longitudinal control through Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers or Phase-lead or Lag Compensators. Various techniques are commonly used to ‘tune’ gains of these controllers. Some techniques used are, in-flight step-by-step tuning, software-in-loop or hardware-in-loop tuning methods. Subsequently, numerous in-flight tests are required to actually ‘fine-tune’ these gains. However, an optimization-based tuning of these PID controllers or compensators, as presented in this paper, can greatly minimize the requirement of in-flight ‘tuning’ and substantially reduce the risks and cost involved in flight-testing.
Selection and Design of an Axial Flow Fan
This work presents a methodology for the selection
and design of propeller oriented to the experimental verification of
theoretical results. The problem of propeller selection and design
usually present itself in the following manner: a certain air volume
and static pressure are required for a certain system. Once the
necessity of fan design on a theoretical basis has been recognized, it
is possible to determinate the dimensions for a fan unit so that it will
perform in accordance with a certain set of specifications. The same
procedures in this work then can be applied in other propeller
Flight Control of Vectored Thrust Aerial Vehicle by Neural Network Predictive Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness
This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a flight control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.
Benefits from a SMED Application in a Punching Machine
This paper presents an application of the Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) methodology to a turret punching machine in an elevators company, in Portugal. The work was developed during five months, in the ambit of a master thesis in Industrial Engineering and Management. The Lean Production tool SMED was applied to reduce setup times in order to improve the production flexibility of the machine. The main results obtained were a reduction of 64% in setup time (from 15.1 to 5.4min), 50% in work-in-process amount (from 12.8 to 6.4 days) and 99% in the distance traveled by the operator during the internal period (from 136.7 to 1.7m). These improvements correspond to gains of about €7,315.38 per year.
Experimental Study on Quasi-Static Response of Multi-layer Sandwich Composite Structures
In this paper the effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and core- types in top and bottom cores on quasi- static loading are studied experimentally. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Quasi- static tests were done by ZWICK testing machine on fully backed specimens with two foam cores, Poly Urethane Rigid (PUR) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). It was found that the core material type has made significant role on improving the sandwich panel’s behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location.
Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis
This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.
Flexure of Cantilever Thick Beams Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory
A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick cantilever isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the. Results obtained are discussed critically with those of other theories.