|Commenced in January 1999||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 26|
In this paper, we investigate the strategic stochastic air traffic flow management problem which seeks to balance airspace capacity and demand under weather disruptions. The goal is to reduce the need for myopic tactical decisions that do not account for probabilistic knowledge about the NAS near-future states. We present and discuss a scenario-based modeling approach based on a time-space stochastic process to depict weather disruption occurrences in the NAS. A solution framework is also proposed along with a distributed implementation aimed at overcoming scalability problems. Issues related to this implementation are also discussed.
Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of 40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the supersonic aerospace vehicles.
This paper presents the exergy analysis of a desalination unit using humidification-dehumidification process. Here, this unit is considered as a thermal system with three main components, which are the heating unit by using a solar collector, the evaporator or the humidifier, and the condenser or the dehumidifier. In these components the exergy is a measure of the quality or grade of energy and it can be destroyed in them. According to the second law of thermodynamics this destroyed part is due to irreversibilities which must be determined to obtain the exergetic efficiency of the system. In the current paper a computer program has been developed using visual basic to determine the exergy destruction and the exergetic efficiencies of the components of the desalination unit at variable operation conditions such as feed water temperature, outlet air temperature, air to feed water mass ratio and salinity, in addition to cooling water mass flow rate and inlet temperature, as well as quantity of solar irradiance. The results obtained indicate that the exergy efficiency of the humidifier increases by increasing the mass ratio and decreasing the outlet air temperature. In the other hand the exergy efficiency of the condenser increases with the increase of this ratio and also with the increase of the outlet air temperature.
Effectiveness and efficiency of food distribution is necessary to maintain food security in a region. Food supply varies among regions depending on their production capacity; therefore, it is necessary to regulate food distribution. Sea transportation could play a great role in the food distribution system. To play this role and to support transportation needs in the Eastern Indonesia, sea transportation shall be supported by fleet which is adequate and reliable, both in terms of load and worthiness. This research uses Linear Programming (LP) method to analyze food distribution pattern in order to determine the optimal distribution system. In this research, transshipment points have been selected for regions in one province. Comparison between result of modeling and existing shipping route reveals that from 369 existing routes, 54 routes are used for transporting rice, corn, green bean, peanut, soybean, sweet potato, and cassava.
Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is one of the essential problems of several types of manufacturing and service sector. It is an optimization problem on which the main objective is to obtain the efficient locations, arrangement and order of the facilities. In the literature, there are numerous facility layout problem research presented and have used meta-heuristic approaches to achieve optimal facility layout design. This paper presented genetic algorithm to solve facility layout problem; to minimize total cost function. The performance of the proposed approach was verified and compared using problems in the literature.
The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.
Currently, the demand for marine and fisheries commodity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia continues to increase. The existing condition shows that the aquaculture supply cannot be supplied by Yogyakarta region itself, but still need to be supported by regions outside Yogyakarta. The effort to optimize the market is initiated by reviewing and designing the supply chain of production and trade of aquaculture commodity in order to create the implementation of aquaculture production and trade commodity optimally. This formulated supply chain model indicates 4 performance indicators of measurable success in terms of: (1) efficiency; (2) flexibility; (3) responsiveness; and (4) quality. These indicators had been exercised as the success benchmarks for priority marketing management in local level as well as national level. The result of this research indicates that if the catfish fishery system is managed as business as usual then the catfish demand in Yogyakarta region will experience to increase in the future. The increase of demand is inline with the increase of number of people in Yogyakarta and also the fluctuation of catfish consumption per capita. The highest production of catfish will experience in the third year approximately 30,118 tons. Other result of the research indicates that the catfish demand in Yogyakarta region cannot be supplied yet from the local region. Therefore, to fulfill the supply from outside Yogyakarta region, the local farmers should improve the supply through land extension. The fluctuation of commodity price will experience in the future annually and the catfish supply from outside Yogyakarta region will be lowering the price in the market.
In rapidly changing market environment, firms are investing a lot of time and resources into new product development (NPD) projects to make profit and to obtain competitive advantage. However, failure rate of NPD projects is becoming high due to various internal and external risks which hinder successful NPD projects. To reduce the failure rate, it is critical that risks have to be managed effectively and efficiently through good strategy, and treated by optimal responses to minimize risk cost. Four strategies are adopted to handle the risks in this study. The optimal responses are characterized by high reduction of risk costs with high efficiency. This study suggests a framework to decide the optimal responses considering the core risks, risk costs, response efficiency and response costs for successful NPD projects. Both binary particles warm optimization (BPSO) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) methods are mainly used in the framework. Although several limitations exist in use for real industries, the frame work shows good strength for handling the risks with highly scientific ways through an example.
The paper presented a transient population dynamics of phase singularities in 2D Beeler-Reuter model. Two stochastic modelings are examined: (i) the Master equation approach with the transition rate (i.e., λ(n, t) = λ(t)n and μ(n, t) = μ(t)n) and (ii) the nonlinear Langevin equation approach with a multiplicative noise. The exact general solution of the Master equation with arbitrary time-dependent transition rate is given. Then, the exact solution of the mean field equation for the nonlinear Langevin equation is also given. It is demonstrated that transient population dynamics is successfully identified by the generalized Logistic equation with fractional higher order nonlinear term. It is also demonstrated the necessity of introducing time-dependent transition rate in the master equation approach to incorporate the effect of nonlinearity.
Turbulent heat transfer to fluid flow through channel with triangular ribs of different angles are presented in this paper. Ansys 14 ICEM and Ansys 14 Fluent are used for meshing process and solving Navier stokes equations respectively. In this investigation three angles of triangular ribs with the range of Reynolds number varied from 20000 to 60000 at constant surface temperature are considered. The results show that the Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number for all cases at constant surface temperature. According to the profile of local Nusselt number on ribs walled of channel, the peak is at the midpoint between the two ribs. The maximum value of average Nusselt number is obtained for triangular ribs of angel 60°and at Reynolds number of 60000 compared to the Nusselt number for the ribs of angel 90° and 45° and at same Reynolds number. The recirculation regions generated by the ribs corresponding to the velocity streamline show the largest recirculation region at triangular ribs of angle 60° which also provides the highest enhancement of heat transfer.
The current trend of increasing quality and demands of the final product is affected by time analysis of the entire manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition. These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing systems. The intelligent manufacturing paradigm includes a new approach to production system structure design. Intelligent behaviors are based on the monitoring of important parameters of system and its environment. The flexible reaction to changes. The realization and utilization of this design paradigm as an "intelligent manufacturing system" enables the flexible system reaction to production requirement as soon as environmental changes too. Results of these flexible reactions are a smaller layout space, be decreasing of production and investment costs and be increasing of productivity. Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in interaction with the surroundings.
Currently is characterized production engineering together with the integration of industrial automation and robotics such very quick view of to manufacture the products. The production range is continuously changing, expanding and producers have to be flexible in this regard. It means that need to offer production possibilities, which can respond to the quick change. Engineering product development is focused on supporting CAD software, such systems are mainly used for product design. That manufacturers are competitive, it should be kept procured machines made available capable of responding to output flexibility. In response to that problem is the development of flexible manufacturing systems, consisting of various automated systems. The integration of flexible manufacturing systems and subunits together with product design and of engineering is a possible solution for this issue. Integration is possible through the implementation of CIM systems. Such a solution and finding a hyphen between CAD and procurement system ICIM 3000 from Festo Co. is engaged in the research project and this contribution. This can be designed the products in CAD systems and watch the manufacturing process from order to shipping by the development of methods and processes of integration, This can be modeled in CAD systems products and watch the manufacturing process from order to shipping to develop methods and processes of integration, which will improve support for product design parameters by monitoring of the production process, by creating of programs for production using the CAD and therefore accelerates the a total of process from design to implementation.
The flow field within the combustor of scramjet engine is very complex and poses a considerable challenge in the design and development of a supersonic combustor with an optimized geometry. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on flow field characteristics of different cavity based scramjet combustors with transverse injection of hydrogen have been carried out for both non-reacting and reacting flows. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated 2D unsteady, density based 1st-order implicit k-omega turbulence model with multi-component finite rate reacting species. The results show a wide variety of flow features resulting from the interactions between the injector flows, shock waves, boundary layers, and cavity flows. We conjectured that an optimized cavity is a good choice to stabilize the flame in the hypersonic flow, and it generates a recirculation zone in the scramjet combustor. We comprehended that the cavity based scramjet combustors having a bearing on the source of disturbance for the transverse jet oscillation, fuel/air mixing enhancement, and flameholding improvement. We concluded that cavity shape with backward facing step and 45o forward ramp is a good choice to get higher temperatures at the exit compared to other four models of scramjet combustors considered in this study.
Aim of this study is to evaluate a new three-equation turbulence model applied to flow and heat transfer through a pipe. Uncertainty is approximated by comparing with published direct numerical simulation results for fully-developed flow. Error in the mean axial velocity, temperature, friction, and heat transfer is found to be negligible.
Overhead conveyor systems are in use in many installations around the world, meeting the widest range of applications possible. Overhead conveyor systems are particularly preferred in automotive industry but also at post offices. Overhead conveyor systems must always be integrated with a logistical process by finding the best way for a cheaper material flow in order to guarantee precise and fast workflows. With their help, any transport can take place without wasting ground and space, without excessive company capacity, lost or damaged products, erroneous delivery, endless travels and without wasting time. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems are rope-based conveying systems with individually driven vehicles. The vehicles can move automatically on the rope and this can be realized by energy and signals. Crossings are realized by switches. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems provide optimal material flow, which produces profit and saves time. This article introduces two new ultra-light overhead conveyor designs in logistics and explains their components. According to the explanation of the components, scenarios are created by means of their technical characteristics. The scenarios are visualized with the help of CAD software. After that, assumptions are made for application area. According to these assumptions scenarios are visualized. These scenarios help logistics companies achieve lower development costs as well as quicker market maturity.
To offer a large variety of products while maintaining low costs, high speed, and high quality in a mass customization product development environment, platform based product development has much benefit and usefulness in many industry fields. This paper proposes a product configuration strategy by similarity measure, incorporating the knowledge engineering principles such as product information model, ontology engineering, and formal concept analysis.
In this experimental study, performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) with threads cut on its inner surface was investigated experimentally (pitch is 1 and 2 mm). The inner diameter of the vortex tube used was D=9 mm and the ratio of the tube’s length to diameter was L/D=12. The experimental system was a thermodynamic open system. Flow was controlled by a valve on the hot outlet side, where the valve was changed from a nearly closed position to its nearly open position. Fraction of cold flow (ξ) = 0.1-0.9, was determined under 300 and 350 kPa pressurized air. All experimental data were compared with each other, the maximum heating performance of the RHVT system was found to be 38.2 oC and the maximum cooling performance of the RHVT in this study was found to be -30.9 oC at pitch 1 mm.
There are several ways of improving the performance of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Use of an ejector as expansion device is one of the alternative ways. The present paper aims at evaluate the performance improvement of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle under a wide range of operating conditions. A numerical model is developed and a parametric study of important parameters such as condensation (30-50°C) and evaporation temperatures (-20-5°C), nozzle and diffuser efficiencies (0.75-0.95), subcooling and superheating degrees (0-15K) are investigated. The model verification gives a good agreement with the literature data. The simulation results revealed that condensation temperature has the highest effect (129%) on the performance improvement ratio while superheating has the lowest one (6.2%). Among ejector efficiencies, the diffuser efficiency has a significant effect on the COP of ejector expansion refrigeration cycle. The COP improvement percentage decreases from 10.9% to 4.6% as subcooling degrees increases by 15K.
Fine alignment of main ship power plants mechanisms and shaft lines provides long-term and failure-free performance of propulsion system while fast and high-quality installation of mechanisms and shaft lines decreases common labor intensity. For checking shaft line allowed stress and setting its alignment it is required to perform calculations considering various stages of life cycle. In 2012 JSC SSTC developed special software complex “Shaftline” for calculation of alignment of having its own I/O interface and display of shaft line 3D model. Alignment of shaft line as per bearing loads is rather labor-intensive procedure. In order to decrease its duration, JSC SSTC developed automated alignment system from ship power plants mechanisms. System operation principle is based on automatic simulation of design load on bearings. Initial data for shaft line alignment can be exported to automated alignment system from PC “Shaft line”.
Heat transfer and laminar air flow over a double backward-facing step numerically studied in this paper. The simulations was performed by using ANSYS ICEM for meshing process and using ANSYS fluent 14 (CFD) for solving. The k-ɛ standard model adopted with Reynolds number varied between 98.5 to 512 and three step height at constant heat flux (q=2000 W/m2). The top of wall and bottom of upstream are insulated with bottom of downstream is heated. The results show increase in Nusselt number with increases of Reynolds number for all cases and the maximum of Nusselt number happens at the first step in compared to the second step. Due to increase of cross section area of downstream to generate sudden expansion then Nusselt number decrease but the profile of Nusselt number keep same trend for all cases where increase after the first and second steps. Recirculation region after the first and second steps are denoted by contour of streamline velocity. The higher augmentation of heat transfer rate observed for case 1 at Reynolds number of 512 and heat flux q=2000 W/m2.
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2) gases. Detonative mixtures of oxyhydrogens with various combinations of these two gases were used in Gas Detonation Forming (GDF) to form sheets of mild steel. In die forming experiments, three types of conical dies with apex angles of 60, 90 and 120 degrees were used. Pressure of mixtures inside the chamber before detonation was varied from 3 Bar to 5 Bar to investigate the effect of pre-detonation pressure in the forming process. On each conical die, several experiments with different percentages of Hydrogen were carried out to determine the optimum gaseous mixture. According to our results the best forming process occurred when approximately 50-70%. Hydrogen was employed in the mixture. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to the ones from FEM analysis. The FEM simulation results of thickness strain, hoop strain, thickness variation and deformed geometry are promising.
Polybag and mulch film in agricultural field are used plastics which caused environmental problems after transplantation and planting processes due to the discarded wastes. Thus a degradable polybag was designed in this study to replace non degradable polybag with natural biodegradable resin that is widely available, namely sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hybrid blend consists of SS, PVA and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was compounded at different ratios. The thermal and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. Hybrid films underwent landfill degradation tests for up to 2 months. The films showed gelation and melting transition existed for all three systems with significant melting peaks by LLDPE and PVA. All hybrid blends loses its LLDPE semi crystalline characteristics as PVA and SS systems had disrupted crystallinity and enhanced the amorphosity of the hybrid system. Generally, blending SS with PVA improves the mechanical properties of the SS based materials. Tensile strength of each film was also decreased with the increase of SS contents while its modulus had increased with SS content.
In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained and literature was reviewed. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control. The frame consists of two columns and two semi-cylinders with circumstantial wires. A computational algorithm has been presented based on the governing equations and relations on stress-strain behavior of the whole system of the frame. Then a case study was studied to calculate the frame dimensions and wire winding procedure.
In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control and wire winding process. The hot isostatic press and wire winding process introduce. With use the equilibrium term in the pressure vessel and frame, stresses in the frame wires analyzed. A case study frame was studied to control axial force in the hot isostatic press. Frame and them wires simulated then friction effect and wires effect in elastic yoke in the simulation model considered. Then theoretical and simulate resulted compare and vessel pressure import to frame because we assurance wire wounded not received to yielding point.