Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 37

Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • 37
    Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver for Hydrous Methanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

    Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Ignition technology has been around for a long time, but has recently received renewed attention and enthusiasm. This paper deals with experimental investigations of HCCI engine using hydrous methanol as a primary fuel and Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver. A regular diesel engine has been modified to work as HCCI engine for this investigation. The hydrous methanol is inducted and DME is injected into a single cylinder engine. Hence, hydrous methanol is used with 15% water content in HCCI engine and its performance and emission behavior is documented. The auto-ignition of Methanol is enabled by DME. The quantity of DME varies with respect to the load. In this study, the experiments are conducted independently and the effect of the hydrous methanol on the engine operating limit, heat release rate and exhaust emissions at different load conditions are investigated. The investigation also proves that the Hydrous Methanol with DME operation reduces the oxides of Nitrogen and smoke to an extreme low level which is not possible by the direct injection CI engine. Therefore, it is beneficial to use hydrous methanol-DME HCCI mode while using hydrous methanol in internal Combustion Engines.

    Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled with Water: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from  to  and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.


    Mechanical Properties of Pea Pods (Pisium sativum Var. Shamshiri)

    Knowing pea pods mechanical resistance against dynamic forces are important for design of combine harvester. In pea combine harvesters, threshing is accomplished by two mechanical actions of impact and friction forces. In this research, the effects of initial moisture content and needed impact and friction energy on threshing of pea pods were studied. An impact device was built based on pendulum mechanism. The experiments were done at three initial moisture content levels of 12.1, 23.5 and 39.5 (%w.b.) for both impact and friction methods. Three energy levels of 0.088, 0.126 and 0.202 J were used for impact method and for friction method three energy levels of 0.784, 0.930 and 1.351 J. The threshing percentage was measured in each method. By using a frictional device, kinetic friction coefficients at above moisture contents were measured 0.257, 0.303 and 0.336, respectively. The results of variance analysis of the two methods showed that moisture content and energy have significant effects on the threshing percentage.

    Finite Element Analysis of Composite Frames in Wheelchair under Upward Loading

    The finite element analysis is adopted in this primary study. Using the Tsai-Wu criterion and delamination criterion, the stacking sequence [45/04/-454/904]s is the final optimal design for the wheelchair frame. On the contrary, the uni-directional laminates, i.e. [9013]s, [4513]s and [-4513]s, are bad designs due to the higher failure indexes.

    Resistance Analysis for a Trimaran

    Although a lot of importance has been given to resistance analysis for various vessel types, explicit guidelines applied to multihull vessels have not been clearly defined.  The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the importance of the vessel’s layout in terms of three axes, the transverse (separation), the longitudinal (stagger) and the vertical (draught) with respect to resistance analysis. When a vessel has the potential to experience less resistance at a particular range of speeds a vast selection of opportunities are made available for both the commercial and leisure market.

    Robust Control Design and Analysis Using SCILAB for a Mass-Spring-Damper System

    This paper introduces an open-source software package SCILAB [1], an alternative of MATLAB [2], which can be used for robust control design and analysis of a typical mass-spring-damper (MSD) system. Using the previously published ideas in [3,4], this popular mechanical system is considered to provide another example of usefulness of SCILAB for advanced control design.

    Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 oC temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5- 4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000 -24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.  

    Finite Element Analysis of Crack Welding Process

    The numerical simulation of the crack welding process is reported in this paper. The thermo-electro-structural coupled-field finite element analysis is adopted to investigate the welding process of crack surfaces. In the simulation, the pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical contact conditions are considered. From the results, the crack surfaces can melt and weld together under the compressive load and electric current. The contact pressure effect must be considered in the finite element analysis to obtain more practical results.

    A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

    A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, convertingand storing solar energy as heat. In thispaper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transferbehaviour of salinity gradient solar pond. MATLAB codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results arefound to be in good agreement.

    A Human Activity Recognition System Based On Sensory Data Related to Object Usage

    Sensor-based Activity Recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.

    How Virtualization, Decentralization and Network Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective

    The German manufacturing industry has to withstand an increasing global competition on product quality and production costs. As labor costs are high, several industries have suffered severely under the relocation of production facilities towards aspiring countries, which have managed to close the productivity and quality gap substantially. Established manufacturing companies have recognized that customers are not willing to pay large price premiums for incremental quality improvements. As a consequence, many companies from the German manufacturing industry adjust their production focusing on customized products and fast time to market. Leveraging the advantages of novel production strategies such as Agile Manufacturing and Mass Customization, manufacturing companies transform into integrated networks, in which companies unite their core competencies. Hereby, virtualization of the process- and supply-chain ensures smooth inter-company operations providing real-time access to relevant product and production information for all participating entities. Boundaries of companies deteriorate, as autonomous systems exchange data, gained by embedded systems throughout the entire value chain. By including Cyber-Physical-Systems, advanced communication between machines is tantamount to their dialogue with humans. The increasing utilization of information and communication technology allows digital engineering of products and production processes alike. Modular simulation and modeling techniques allow decentralized units to flexibly alter products and thereby enable rapid product innovation. The present article describes the developments of Industry 4.0 within the literature and reviews the associated research streams. Hereby, we analyze eight scientific journals with regards to the following research fields: Individualized production, end-to-end engineering in a virtual process chain and production networks. We employ cluster analysis to assign sub-topics into the respective research field. To assess the practical implications, we conducted face-to-face interviews with managers from the industry as well as from the consulting business using a structured interview guideline. The results reveal reasons for the adaption and refusal of Industry 4.0 practices from a managerial point of view. Our findings contribute to the upcoming research stream of Industry 4.0 and support decision-makers to assess their need for transformation towards Industry 4.0 practices. 

    WEMax: Virtual Manned Assembly Line Generation

    Presented in this paper is a framework of a software ‘WEMax’. The WEMax is invented for analysis and simulation for manned assembly lines to sustain and improve performance of manufacturing systems. In a manufacturing system, performance, such as productivity, is a key of competitiveness for output products. However, the manned assembly lines are difficult to forecast performance, because human labors are not expectable factors by computer simulation models or mathematical models. Existing approaches to performance forecasting of the manned assembly lines are limited to matters of the human itself, such as ergonomic and workload design, and non-human-factor-relevant simulation. Consequently, an approach for the forecasting and improvement of manned assembly line performance is needed to research. As a solution of the current problem, this study proposes a framework that is for generation and simulation of virtual manned assembly lines, and the framework has been implemented as a software.

    A Study of Lean Principles Implementation in the Libyan Healthcare and Industry Sectors

    Lean technique is very important in the service and industrial fields. It is defined as an effective tool to eliminate the wastes. In lean the wastes are defined as anything which does not add value to the end product. There are wastes that can be avoided, but some are unavoidable for many reasons.    

    The present study aims to apply the principles of lean in two different sectors, healthcare and industry. Two case studies have been selected to apply the experimental work. The first case was Al-Jalaa Hospital, while the second case study was the Technical Company of Aluminum Sections in Benghazi, LIBYA. In both case studies the Value Stream Map (VSM) of the current state has been constructed. The proposed plans have been implemented by merging or eliminating procedures or processes.

    The results obtained from both case studies showed improvement in Capacity, Idle time and Utilized time.

    A Simple Low-Cost 2-D Optical Measurement System for Linear Guideways

    In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway.

    The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.

    Slug Initiation Evaluation in Long Horizontal Channels Experimentally

    In this paper, the effect of gas and liquid superficial inlet velocities and for the first time the effect of liquid holdup on slug initiation position are studied experimentally. Empirical correlations are also presented based on the obtained results. The tests are conducted for three liquid holdups in a long horizontal channel with dimensions of 5cm10cm and 36m length. Usl and Usg rated as to 0.11m/s to 0.56m/s and 1.88m/s to 13m/s, respectively. The obtained results show that as αl=0.25, slug initiation position is increasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. During αl=0.50, slug initiation position is almost constant. For αl=0.75, slug initiation position is decreasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. In the case of equal void fraction of phases, generated slugs are weakly (low pressure). However, for the unequal void fraction of phases strong slugs (high pressure) are formed.

    Fuzzy Logic Based Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Stewart Platform

    This paper demonstrates the potential of applying PD-like fuzzy logic controller for active vibration control of piezoelectric Stewart platforms. Through simulation, the control authority of the piezo stack actuators for effectively damping the Stewart platform vibration can be evaluated for further implementation of the system. Each leg of the piezoelectric Stewart platform consists of a linear piezo stack actuator, a collocated velocity sensor, a collocated displacement sensor and flexible tips for the connections with the two end plates. The piezoelectric stack is modeled as a bar element and the electro-mechanical coupling property is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Then, the open loop and closed loop dynamic responses are performed for the system to characterize the effect of the control on the vibration of the piezoelectric Stewart platform. A significant improvement in the damping of the structure can be observed by using the PD-like fuzzy controller.

    Process Parameter Optimization in Resistance Spot Welding of Dissimilar Thickness Materials

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) has been used widely to join sheet metals. It has been a challenge to get required weld quality in spot welding of dissimilar thickness materials. Weld parameters are not generally available in standards for thickness beyond 4mm. This paper presents the welding process design and parameter optimization of RSW used in joining of low carbon steel sheet of thickness 0.8 mm and metal strips of cross section 10 x 5mm for electrical motor applications. Taguchi quality design was adopted for weld current and time optimization using L9 orthogonal array. Optimum process parameters (current- 3.5kA and time- 10 cycles) were obtained from the Taguchi analysis and shear test results. Confirmation experiment result revealed that the weld quality was within acceptable interval. Further, numerical simulation of RSW process was carried out with selected weld parameters to quantify the temperature at faying surface and check for formation of appropriate nugget. The nugget geometry measured after peel test and predicted from numerical validation method were similar and in accordance with the standards.

    Application of Digital Image Correlation Technique on Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process and Performance Evaluation of the Produced Materials

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) is a promising manufacture process for making large and complex fiber reinforced composite structures. However, the complexity of the flow of the resin in the infusion stage usually leads to nonuniform property distribution of the produced composite part. In order to control the flow of the resin, the situation of flow should be mastered. For the safety of the usage of the produced composite in practice, the understanding of the property distribution is essential. In this paper, we did some trials on monitoring the resin infusion stage and evaluation for the fiber volume fraction distribution of the VARTM produced composite using the digital image correlation methods. The results showthat3D-DIC is valid on monitoring the resin infusion stage and it is possible to use 2D-DIC to estimate the distribution of the fiber volume fraction on a FRP plate.

    Supply Air Pressure Control of HVAC System Using MPC Controller

    In this paper, supply air pressure of HVAC system has been modeled with second-order transfer function plus dead-time. In HVAC system, the desired input has step changes, and the output of proposed control system should be able to follow the input reference, so the idea of using model based predictive control is proceeded and designed in this paper. The closed loop control system is implemented in MATLAB software and the simulation results are provided. The simulation results show that the model based predictive control is able to control the plant properly.

    Performance Evaluation and Cost Analysis of Standby Systems

    Pumping systems are an integral part of water desalination plants, their effective functioning is vital for the operation of a plant. In this research work, the reliability and availability of pressurized pumps in a reverse osmosis desalination plant are studied with the objective of finding configurations that provides optimal performance. Six configurations of a series system with different number of warm and cold standby components were examined. Closed form expressions for the mean time to failure (MTTF) and the long run availability are derived and compared under the assumption that the time between failures and repair times of the primary and standby components are exponentially distributed. Moreover, a cost/ benefit analysis is conducted in order to identify a configuration with the best performance and least cost. It is concluded that configurations with cold standby components are preferable especially when the pumps are of the size.

    Stress Evaluation of Rotary Injector Pump Parts in MF285 Tractor Using Finite Element Method

    Since fuel must be injected with appropriate pressure and time for accurate performance of diesel engines, then proper function of engine is influenced by accurate function of injector pump. At first total pump was designed by SolidWorks 2012 software. Then the total relationship of rotor, roller, internal cam ring, pole shoe and plunger in injector pump in MF285 tractor and their performance was shown. During suction state rollers connect with dents in internal cam ring and in pressure course pole shoes have drawer move in rotor and perform tappet action between rollers and plungers. The maximum stress was obtained by using analysis of finite element method. The maximum stress in contact surface of roller and internal cam ring and on roller surface. The maximum amount of this stress is 288.12 MPa. According to conducted analyses, the minimum value for safety factor is related to roller surface and it equals to 2.0477.

    Friction Stir Welded Joint Aluminum Alloy H20-H20 with Different Type of Tools Mechanical Properties

    In this project three type of tools, straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and triangular tool all made of High speed steel (Wc-Co) used for the friction stir welding (FSW) aluminum alloy H20–H20 and the mechanical properties of the welded joint tested by tensile test and vicker hardness test. Besides, mentioned mechanical properties compared with each other to make conclusion. The result helped design of welding parameter optimization for different types of friction stir process like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. Previous investigations in different types of materials work pieces; joint type, machining parameter and preheating temperature take placed. In this investigation 3 mentioned tool types that are popular in FSW tested and the results completed other aspects of the process. Hope this paper can open a new horizon in experimental investigation of mechanical properties for friction stir welded joint with other different type of tools like oval shape probe, paddle shape probe, three flat sided probe, and three sided re-entrant probe and other materials and alloys like titanium or steel in near future.

    Proposal for Cost Calculation of Warehouse Processes and Its Usage for Setting Standards for Performance Evaluation

    This paper describes a proposal for cost calculation of warehouse processes and its usage for setting standards for performance evaluation. One of the most common options of monitoring process performance is benchmarking. The typical outcome is whether the monitored object is better or worse than an average or standard. Traditional approaches, however, cannot find any specific opportunities to improve performance or eliminate inefficiencies in processes. Higher process efficiency can be achieved for example by cost reduction assuming that the same output is generated. However, costs can be reduced only if we know their structure and we are able to calculate them accurately. In the warehouse process area it is rather difficult because in most cases we have available only aggregated values with low explanatory ability. The aim of this paper is to create a suitable method for calculating the storage costs. At the end is shown a practical example of process calculation.

    Statistical Analysis and Predictive Learning of Mechanical Parameters for TiO2 Filled GFRP Composite

    The new, polymer composites consisting of e-glass fiber reinforcement with titanium oxide filler in the double bonded unsaturated polyester resin matrix were made. The glass fiber and titanium oxide reinforcement composites were made in three different fiber lengths (3cm, 5cm, and 7cm), filler content (2 wt%, 4 wt%, and 6 wt%) and fiber content (20 wt%, 40 wt%, and 60 wt%). 27 different compositions were fabricated and a sequence of experiments were carried out to determine tensile strength and impact strength. The vital influencing factors fiber length, fiber content and filler content were chosen as 3 factors in 3 levels of Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The influences of parameters were determined for tensile strength and impact strength by Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and S/N ratio. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) an expert system was devised to predict the properties of hybrid reinforcement GFRP composites. The predict models were experimentally proved with the maximum coincidence.

    Detecting Cavitation in a Vertical Sea water Centrifugal Lift Pump Related to Iran Oil Industry Cooling Water Circulation System

    Cavitation is one of the most well-known process faults that may occur in different industrial equipment especially centrifugal pumps. Cavitation also may happen in water pumps and turbines. Sometimes cavitation has been severe enough to wear holes in the impeller and damage the vanes to such a degree that the impeller becomes very ineffective. More commonly, the pump efficiency will decrease significantly during cavitation and continue to decrease as damage to the impeller increases. Typically, when cavitation occurs, an audible sound similar to ‘marbles’ or ‘crackling’ is reported to be emitted from the pump. In this paper, the most effective monitoring items and techniques in detecting cavitation discussed in details. Besides, some successful solutions for solving this problem for sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pump discussed through a case history related to Iran oil industry. Furthermore, balance line modification, strainer choking and random resonance in sea water pumps discussed. In addition, a new Method for diagnosing mechanical conditions of sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pumps introduced. This method involves disaggregating bus current by device into disaggregated currents having correspondences with operating currents in response to measured bus current. Moreover, some new patents and innovations in mechanical sea water pumping and cooling systems discussed in this paper.

    ANN Based Model Development for Material Removal Rate in Dry Turning in Indian Context

    This paper is intended to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based model of material removal rate (MRR) in the turning of ferrous and nonferrous material in a Indian small-scale industry. MRR of the formulated model was proved with the testing data and artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis and prediction of the relationship between inputs and output parameters during the turning of ferrous and nonferrous materials. The input parameters of this model are operator, work-piece, cutting process, cutting tool, machine and the environment.

    The ANN model consists of a three layered feedforward back propagation neural network. The network is trained with pairs of independent/dependent datasets generated when machining ferrous and nonferrous material. A very good performance of the neural network, in terms of contract with experimental data, was achieved. The model may be used for the testing and forecast of the complex relationship between dependent and the independent parameters in turning operations.

    Applying Branch-and-Bound and Petri Net Methods in Solving the Two-Sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem

    This paper combines the branch-and-bound method and the petri net to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem, thus facilitating effective branching and pruning of tasks. By integrating features of the petri net, such as reachability graph and incidence matrix, the propose method can support the branch-and-bound to effectively reduce poor branches with systematic graphs. Test results suggest that using petri net in the branching process can effectively guide the system trigger process, and thus, lead to consistent results.


    Vibration Characteristics of Functionally Graded Material Skew Plate in Thermal Environment

    In the present investigation, free vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) skew plates under thermal environment is studied. Kinematics equations are based on the Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory and a nine noded isoparametric Lagrangian element is adopted to mesh the plate geometry. The issue of C1 continuity requirement related to the assumed displacement field has been circumvented effectively to develop C0 finite element formulation. Effective mechanical properties of the constituents of the plate are considered to be as position and temperature dependent and assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The displacement components of a rectangular plate are mapped into skew plate geometry by means of suitable transformation rule. One dimensional Fourier heat conduction equation is used to ascertain the temperature profile of the plate along thickness direction. Influence of different parameters such as volume fraction index, boundary condition, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and temperature field on frequency parameter of the FGM skew plate is demonstrated by performing various examples and the related findings are discussed briefly. New results are generated for vibration of the FGM skew plate under thermal environment, for the first time, which may be implemented in the future research involving similar kind of problems.

    Fuzzy Logic Control of a Semi-Active Quarter Car System

    The development of vehicles having best ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers is of great interest for automotive manufacturers. The effect of transmitted vibrations from car body to passenger seat is required to be controlled for achieving the same. The application of magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber in suspension system has been considered to achieve significant benefits in this regard. This paper introduces a secondary suspension controlled semi-active quarter car system using MR shock absorber for effective vibration control. Fuzzy logic control system is used for design of controller for actual damping force generation by MR shock absorber. Performance evaluations are done related to passenger seat acceleration and displacement in time and frequency domains, in order to see the effectiveness of the proposed semi-active suspension system. Simulation results show that the semi-active suspension system provides better results compared to passive suspension system in terms of passenger ride comfort improvement.

    Impact Behavior of Cryogenically Treated En 52 and 21-4N Valve Steels

    Cryogenic treatment is the process of cooling a material to extremely low temperatures to generate enhanced mechanical and physical properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment on the impact behavior of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels. The valve steels are subjected to shallow (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (85 K), and the impact behavior is compared with the valve steel materials subjected to conventional heat treatment. The impact test is carried out in accordance with the ASTM E 23-02a standard. The results show an improvement of 23 % in the impact energy for the En 52 deep cryo-treated samples when compared to that of the conventionally heat treated samples. It is revealed that during cryogenic treatment fine platelets of martensite are formed from the retained austenite, and these platelets promote the precipitation of fine carbides by a diffusion mechanism during tempering.

    Accurate Modeling and Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Flexible-Link Manipulator

    Accurate dynamic modeling and analysis of flexible link manipulator (FLM) with non linear dynamics is very difficult due to distributed link flexibility and few studies have been conducted based on assumed modes method (AMM) and finite element models. In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model with first two elastic modes is derived using combined Euler/Lagrange and AMM approaches. Significant dynamics associated with the system such as hub inertia, payload, structural damping, friction at joints, combined link and joint flexibility are incorporated to obtain the complete and accurate dynamic model. The response of the FLM to the applied bang-bang torque input is compared against the models derived from LS-DYNA finite element discretization approach and linear finite element models. Dynamic analysis is conducted using LS-DYNA finite element model which uses the explicit time integration scheme to simulate the system. Parametric study is conducted to show the impact payload mass. A numerical result shows that the LS-DYNA model gives the smooth hub-angle profile.


    Experimental Investigation of Karanja Oil as a Fuel for Diesel Engine-Using Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    This paper presents experimental investigation carried out on an unmodified four stroke diesel engine running with preheated straight vegetable oil (SVO) of Karanja. The viscosity of straight karanja oil was reduced by preheating the oil up to 1600C under different load condition. The preheating was done with the help of a Shell and Tube heat exchanger equipment without using any external power source. The heat exchanger was designed in the lab and the heating source was by waste exhaust gas from engine. The experimental results data were analyzed by using 20% blends of svo of Karanja with 80% diesel by volume and 100% preheated svo of karanja for various parameters like specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and emission of exhaust gas like CO, CO2, HC and NOx. The results indicated that by using straight karanja oil, the emission parameter increases as compared to diesel but regarding engine performance it was found to be very close to that of diesel. All total it can be a replacement of diesel with a small efficiency drop.

    Dynamics of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator: A Lagrange-Euler (L-E) Approach

    Excavators are high power machines used in the mining, agricultural and construction industry whose principal functions are digging (material removing), ground leveling and material transport operations. During the digging task there are certain unknown forces exerted by the bucket on the soil and the digging operation is repetitive in nature. Automation of the digging task can be performed by an automatically controlled excavator system, which is not only control the forces but also follow the planned digging trajectories. To develop such a controller for automated excavation, it is required to develop a dynamic model to describe the behavior of the control system during digging operation and motion of excavator with time. The presented work described a dynamic model needed for controller design and which is derived by applying Lagrange-Euler approach. The developed dynamic model is intended for further development of an automated excavation control system for light duty construction work and can be applied for heavy duty or all types of backhoe excavators.

    Analysis of Motor Cycle Helmet under Static and Dynamic Loading

    Each year nearly nine hundred persons die in head injuries and over fifty thousand persons are severely injured due to non wearing of helmets. In motor cycle accidents, the human head is exposed to heavy impact loading against natural protection. In this work, an attempt has been made for analyzing the helmet with all the standard data. The simulation software ‘ANSYS’ is used to analyze the helmet with different conditions such as bottom fixed-load on top surface, bottom fixed -load on top line, side fixed –load on opposite surface, side fixed-load on opposite line and dynamic analysis. The maximum force of 19.5 kN is applied on the helmet to study the model in static and dynamic conditions. The simulation has been carried out for the static condition for the parameters like total deformation, strain energy, von-Mises stress for different cases. The dynamic analysis has been performed for the parameter like total deformation and equivalent elastic strain. The result shows that these values are concentrated in the retention portion of the helmet. These results have been compared with the standard experimental data proposed by the BIS and well within the acceptable limit.

    A TIPSO-SVM Expert System for Efficient Classification of TSTO Surrogates

    Fully reusable spaceplanes do not exist as yet. This implies that design-qualification for optimized highly-integrated forebody-inlet configuration of booster-stage vehicle cannot be based on archival data of other spaceplanes. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel TIPSO-SVM expert system methodology. A non-trivial problem related to optimization and classification of hypersonic forebody-inlet configuration in conjunction with mass-model of the two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle is solved. The hybrid-heuristic machine learning methodology is based on two-step improved particle swarm optimizer (TIPSO) algorithm and two-step support vector machine (SVM) data classification method. The efficacy of method is tested by first evolving an optimal configuration for hypersonic compression system using TIPSO algorithm; thereafter, classifying the results using two-step SVM method. In the first step extensive but non-classified mass-model training data for multiple optimized configurations is segregated and pre-classified for learning of SVM algorithm. In second step the TIPSO optimized mass-model data is classified using the SVM classification. Results showed remarkable improvement in configuration and mass-model along with sizing parameters.

    Turbine Compressor Vibration Analysis and Rotor Movement Evaluation by Shaft Center Line Method (The Case History Related to Main Turbine Compressor of an Olefin Plant in Iran Oil Industries)

    Vibration monitoring methods of most critical equipment like main turbine and compressors always plays important role in preventive maintenance and management consideration in big industrial plants. There are a number of traditional methods like monitoring the overall vibration data from Bently Nevada panel and the time wave form (TWF) or fast Fourier transform (FFT) monitoring. Besides, Shaft centerline monitoring method developed too much in recent years. There are a number of arguments both in favor of and against this method between people who work in preventive maintenance and condition monitoring systems (vibration analysts). In this paper basic principal of Turbine compressor vibration analysis and rotor movement evaluation by shaft centerline method discussed in details through a case history. This case history is related to main turbine compressor of an olefin plant in Iran oil industry. In addition, some common mistakes that may occur by vibration analyst during the process discussed in details. It is worthy to know that, these mistakes may one of the reasons that sometimes this method seems to be not effective. Furthermore, recent patent and innovation in shaft position and movement evaluation are discussed in this paper.

    Factors Contributing Towards Technology Development in Small Firms

    The importance of MSMEs in India became crucial in rural areas because it promoted economic growth. MSMEs play a significant role in the economic growth of the country owing to production, exports and employment. Technology development reflect a critical way in which organization respond to either technological or market challenges. The present survey examines the characteristics of technology development in MSMEs. The results show that Indian MSMEs do not co-operate with universities and R&D institutes. Government policies also affect the technology development activities. The awareness about the R&D infrastructure is very low as shown by the results in the study. There is a need to understand and assess the real needs of the MSMEs and accordingly devise approaches that ensure their sustainable growth.