|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 16 |
Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid
The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques
for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to
natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems
are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental
engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and
transformation processes during transportation is important for the
sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline
systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system
of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing
natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical
approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong
interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are
characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and
their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically
gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently,
stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques
have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the
hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation
a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous
Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of
our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are
presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous
and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is
carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical
schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems
of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the
comparative numerical study.
Solving Process Planning, Weighted Earliest Due Date Scheduling and Weighted Due Date Assignment Using Simulated Annealing and Evolutionary Strategies
Traditionally, three important manufacturing functions which are process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. Although there are numerous works on the integration of process planning and scheduling and plenty of works focusing on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on integrated process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment. Although due-dates are determined without taking into account of weights of the customers in the literature, here weighted due-date assignment is employed to get better performance. Jobs are scheduled according to weighted earliest due date dispatching rule and due dates are determined according to some popular due date assignment methods by taking into account of the weights of each job. Simulated Annealing, Evolutionary Strategies, Random Search, hybrid of Random Search and Simulated Annealing, and hybrid of Random Search and Evolutionary Strategies, are applied as solution techniques. Three important manufacturing functions are integrated step-by-step and higher integration levels are found better. Search meta-heuristics are found to be very useful while improving performance measure.
The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling
Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.
Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production
A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.
Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity
Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution characteristics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different; the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of the FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault PGV.
Umbrella Wheel: A Stair-Climbing and Obstacle-Handling Wheel Design Concept
This paper presents a design for stair-climbing using a
wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount
other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being
able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground.
Using this change of configuration, staircases with a wide range of
dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named
Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired,
and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments
has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific situation.
Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends
stairs is given and the results are analyzed.
Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices
This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.
Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves
The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce
friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to
control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip.
Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common
method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study
utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric
micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed
parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of
micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves
sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that
the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces
less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which
means requiring less power for pumps.
Aeroelastic Analysis of Engine Nacelle Strake Considering Geometric Nonlinear Behavior
The aeroelastic behavior of engine nacelle strake when subjected to unsteady aerodynamic flows is investigated in this paper. Geometric nonlinear characteristics and modal parameters of nacelle strake are studied when it is under dynamic loading condition. Here, an N-S based Finite Volume solver is coupled with Finite Element (FE) based nonlinear structural solver to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of nacelle strake over a range of dynamic pressures at various phases of flight like takeoff, climb, and cruise conditions. The combination of high fidelity models for both aerodynamics and structural dynamics is used to predict the nonlinearities of strake (chine). The methodology adopted for present aeroelastic analysis is partitioned-based time domain coupled CFD and CSD solvers and it is validated by the consideration of experimental and numerical comparison of aeroelastic data for a cropped delta wing model which has a proven record. The present strake geometry is derived from theoretical formulation. The amplitude and frequency obtained from the coupled solver at various dynamic pressures is discussed, which gives a better understanding of its impact on aerodynamic design-sizing of strake.
Nonlinear Estimation Model for Rail Track Deterioration
Rail transport authorities around the world have been facing a significant challenge when predicting rail infrastructure maintenance work for a long period of time. Generally, maintenance monitoring and prediction is conducted manually. With the restrictions in economy, the rail transport authorities are in pursuit of improved modern methods, which can provide precise prediction of rail maintenance time and location. The expectation from such a method is to develop models to minimize the human error that is strongly related to manual prediction. Such models will help them in understanding how the track degradation occurs overtime under the change in different conditions (e.g. rail load, rail type, rail profile). They need a well-structured technique to identify the precise time that rail tracks fail in order to minimize the maintenance cost/time and secure the vehicles. The rail track characteristics that have been collected over the years will be used in developing rail track degradation prediction models. Since these data have been collected in large volumes and the data collection is done both electronically and manually, it is possible to have some errors. Sometimes these errors make it impossible to use them in prediction model development. This is one of the major drawbacks in rail track degradation prediction. An accurate model can play a key role in the estimation of the long-term behavior of rail tracks. Accurate models increase the track safety and decrease the cost of maintenance in long term. In this research, a short review of rail track degradation prediction models has been discussed before estimating rail track degradation for the curve sections of Melbourne tram track system using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model.
Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger
Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.
Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder
In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.
Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend
This study investigates experimentally the effects
of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator
operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental
apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests
in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted
of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that
was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to
determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer
coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a
digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel
consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust
gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was
installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature.
In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data
acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL
optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized
with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure
consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold
at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel
mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15,
20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen
addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased
and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases
of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test
results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function
of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon
dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned
hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased.
On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due
to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There
was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release
rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller
due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen
promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can
be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.
Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator
Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.
Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle
Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported. Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.