Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 9

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 9
    The Role of Velocity Map Quality in Estimation of Intravascular Pressure Distribution
    Phase-Contrast MR imaging methods are widely used for measurement of blood flow velocity components. Also there are some other tools such as CT and Ultrasound for velocity map detection in intravascular studies. These data are used in deriving flow characteristics. Some clinical applications are investigated which use pressure distribution in diagnosis of intravascular disorders such as vascular stenosis. In this paper an approach to the problem of measurement of intravascular pressure field by using velocity field obtained from flow images is proposed. The method presented in this paper uses an algorithm to calculate nonlinear equations of Navier- Stokes, assuming blood as an incompressible and Newtonian fluid. Flow images usually suffer the lack of spatial resolution. Our attempt is to consider the effect of spatial resolution on the pressure distribution estimated from this method. In order to achieve this aim, velocity map of a numerical phantom is derived at six different spatial resolutions. To determine the effects of vascular stenoses on pressure distribution, a stenotic phantom geometry is considered. A comparison between the pressure distribution obtained from the phantom and the pressure resulted from the algorithm is presented. In this regard we also compared the effects of collocated and staggered computational grids on the pressure distribution resulted from this algorithm.
    Respirator System For Total Liquid Ventilation

    Total liquid ventilation can support gas exchange in animal models of lung injury. Clinical application awaits further technical improvements and performance verification. Our aim was to develop a liquid ventilator, able to deliver accurate tidal volumes, and a computerized system for measuring lung mechanics. The computer-assisted, piston-driven respirator controlled ventilatory parameters that were displayed and modified on a real-time basis. Pressure and temperature transducers along with a lineal displacement controller provided the necessary signals to calculate lung mechanics. Ten newborn lambs (<6 days old) with respiratory failure induced by lung lavage, were monitored using the system. Electromechanical, hydraulic and data acquisition/analysis components of the ventilator were developed and tested in animals with respiratory failure. All pulmonary signals were collected synchronized in time, displayed in real-time, and archived on digital media. The total mean error (due to transducers, A/D conversion, amplifiers, etc.) was less than 5% compared to calibrated signals. Improvements in gas exchange and lung mechanics were observed during liquid ventilation, without impairment of cardiovascular profiles. The total liquid ventilator maintained accurate control of tidal volumes and the sequencing of inspiration/expiration. The computerized system demonstrated its ability to monitor in vivo lung mechanics, providing valuable data for early decision-making.

    Modeling the Symptom-Disease Relationship by Using Rough Set Theory and Formal Concept Analysis

    Medical Decision Support Systems (MDSSs) are sophisticated, intelligent systems that can provide inference due to lack of information and uncertainty. In such systems, to model the uncertainty various soft computing methods such as Bayesian networks, rough sets, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, inductive logic programming and genetic algorithms and hybrid methods that formed from the combination of the few mentioned methods are used. In this study, symptom-disease relationships are presented by a framework which is modeled with a formal concept analysis and theory, as diseases, objects and attributes of symptoms. After a concept lattice is formed, Bayes theorem can be used to determine the relationships between attributes and objects. A discernibility relation that forms the base of the rough sets can be applied to attribute data sets in order to reduce attributes and decrease the complexity of computation.

    Computer Software Applicable in Rehabilitation, Cardiology and Molecular Biology
    We have developed a computer program consisting of 6 subtests assessing the children hand dexterity applicable in the rehabilitation medicine. We have carried out a normative study on a representative sample of 285 children aged from 7 to 15 (mean age 11.3) and we have proposed clinical standards for three age groups (7-9, 9-11, 12-15 years). We have shown statistical significance of differences among the corresponding mean values of the task time completion. We have also found a strong correlation between the task time completion and the age of the subjects, as well as we have performed the test-retest reliability checks in the sample of 84 children, giving the high values of the Pearson coefficients for the dominant and non-dominant hand in the range 0.740.97 and 0.620.93, respectively. A new MATLAB-based programming tool aiming at analysis of cardiologic RR intervals and blood pressure descriptors, is worked out, too. For each set of data, ten different parameters are extracted: 2 in time domain, 4 in frequency domain and 4 in Poincaré plot analysis. In addition twelve different parameters of baroreflex sensitivity are calculated. All these data sets can be visualized in time domain together with their power spectra and Poincaré plots. If available, the respiratory oscillation curves can be also plotted for comparison. Another application processes biological data obtained from BLAST analysis.
    Fractal Analysis on Human Colonic Pressure Activities based on the Box-counting Method
    The colonic tissue is a complicated dynamic system and the colonic activities it generates are composed of irregular segmental waves, which are referred to as erratic fluctuations or spikes. They are also highly irregular with subunit fractal structure. The traditional time-frequency domain statistics like the averaged amplitude, the motility index and the power spectrum, etc. are insufficient to describe such fluctuations. Thus the fractal box-counting dimension is proposed and the fractal scaling behaviors of the human colonic pressure activities under the physiological conditions are studied. It is shown that the dimension of the resting activity is smaller than that of the normal one, whereas the clipped version, which corresponds to the activity of the constipation patient, shows with higher fractal dimension. It may indicate a practical application to assess the colonic motility, which is often indicated by the colonic pressure activity.
    Analysis of Medical Data using Data Mining and Formal Concept Analysis

    This paper focuses on analyzing medical diagnostic data using classification rules in data mining and context reduction in formal concept analysis. It helps in finding redundancies among the various medical examination tests used in diagnosis of a disease. Classification rules have been derived from positive and negative association rules using the Concept lattice structure of the Formal Concept Analysis. Context reduction technique given in Formal Concept Analysis along with classification rules has been used to find redundancies among the various medical examination tests. Also it finds out whether expensive medical tests can be replaced by some cheaper tests.

    The Development of Taiwanese Electronic Medical Record Systems Evaluation Instrument
    This study used Item Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Reliability Analysis (Cronbach-s α value) to exam the Questions which selected by the Delphi method based on the issue of “Socio-technical system (STS)" and user-centered perspective. A structure questionnaire with seventy-four questions which could be categorized into nine dimensions (healthcare environment, organization behaviour, system quality, medical data quality, service quality, safety quality, user usage, user satisfaction, and organization net benefits) was provided to evaluate EMR of the Taiwanese healthcare environment.
    Removing Ocular Artifacts from EEG Signals using Adaptive Filtering and ARMAX Modeling
    EEG signal is one of the oldest measures of brain activity that has been used vastly for clinical diagnoses and biomedical researches. However, EEG signals are highly contaminated with various artifacts, both from the subject and from equipment interferences. Among these various kinds of artifacts, ocular noise is the most important one. Since many applications such as BCI require online and real-time processing of EEG signal, it is ideal if the removal of artifacts is performed in an online fashion. Recently, some methods for online ocular artifact removing have been proposed. One of these methods is ARMAX modeling of EEG signal. This method assumes that the recorded EEG signal is a combination of EOG artifacts and the background EEG. Then the background EEG is estimated via estimation of ARMAX parameters. The other recently proposed method is based on adaptive filtering. This method uses EOG signal as the reference input and subtracts EOG artifacts from recorded EEG signals. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of each method for removing of EOG artifacts. A comparison is made between these two methods. Our undertaken conclusion from this comparison is that adaptive filtering method has better results compared with the results achieved by ARMAX modeling.
    Person Identification by Using AR Model for EEG Signals
    A direct connection between ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) and the genetic information of individuals has been investigated by neurophysiologists and psychiatrists since 1960-s; and it opens a new research area in the science. This paper focuses on the person identification based on feature extracted from the EEG which can show a direct connection between EEG and the genetic information of subjects. In this work the full EO EEG signal of healthy individuals are estimated by an autoregressive (AR) model and the AR parameters are extracted as features. Here for feature vector constitution, two methods have been proposed; in the first method the extracted parameters of each channel are used as a feature vector in the classification step which employs a competitive neural network and in the second method a combination of different channel parameters are used as a feature vector. Correct classification scores at the range of 80% to 100% reveal the potential of our approach for person classification/identification and are in agreement to the previous researches showing evidence that the EEG signal carries genetic information. The novelty of this work is in the combination of AR parameters and the network type (competitive network) that we have used. A comparison between the first and the second approach imply preference of the second one.