Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 20

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 20
    Mathematical Analysis of EEG of Patients with Non-fatal Nonspecific Diffuse Encephalitis

    Diffuse viral encephalitis may lack fever and other cardinal signs of infection and hence its distinction from other acute encephalopathic illnesses is challenging. Often, the EEG changes seen routinely are nonspecific and reflect diffuse encephalopathic changes only. The aim of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic mathematical techniques for analyzing the EEG data in order to look for any characteristic diagnostic patterns in diffuse forms of encephalitis.It was diagnosed on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid criteria in three young male patients. Metabolic and toxic encephalopathies were ruled out through appropriate investigations. Digital EEGs were done on the 3rd to 5th day of onset. The digital EEGs of 5 male and 5 female age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as controls.Two sample t-test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the average values in amplitude between the two groups. However, the standard deviation (or variance) of the EEG signals at FP1-F7 and FP2-F8 are significantly higher for the patients than the normal subjects. The regularisation dimension is significantly less for the patients (average between 1.24-1.43) when compared to the normal persons (average between 1.41-1.63) for the EEG signals from all locations except for the Fz-Cz signal. Similarly the wavelet dimension is significantly less (P = 0.05*) for the patients (1.122) when compared to the normal person (1.458). EEGs are subdued in the case of the patients with presence of uniform patterns, manifested in the values of regularisation and wavelet dimensions, when compared to the normal person, indicating a decrease in chaotic nature.

    Superior Performances of the Neural Network on the Masses Lesions Classification through Morphological Lesion Differences

    Purpose of this work is to develop an automatic classification system that could be useful for radiologists in the breast cancer investigation. The software has been designed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 collaboration. In an automatic classification system the suspicious regions with high probability to include a lesion are extracted from the image as regions of interest (ROIs). Each ROI is characterized by some features based generally on morphological lesion differences. A study in the space features representation is made and some classifiers are tested to distinguish the pathological regions from the healthy ones. The results provided in terms of sensitivity and specificity will be presented through the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves. In particular the best performances are obtained with the Neural Networks in comparison with the K-Nearest Neighbours and the Support Vector Machine: The Radial Basis Function supply the best results with 0.89 ± 0.01 of area under ROC curve but similar results are obtained with the Probabilistic Neural Network and a Multi Layer Perceptron.

    Relationship between Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Risk Factors: A Biomechanical Analysis

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. Emotional stress and obesity have been associated with increased reporting of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the relationship between FGID and risk factors (emotional stress or obesity) is unclear. Our aim was to assess the changes of the mechanical characteristics on the gastrointestinal tracts of the mentally fatigued obese and normal rat models. Finally, using the physical characteristics with micro-indentation test, we made a close investigation into the relation between FGID and risk factors quantitatively.

    Pattern Recognition Techniques Applied to Biomedical Patterns

    Pattern recognition is the research area of Artificial Intelligence that studies the operation and design of systems that recognize patterns in the data. Important application areas are image analysis, character recognition, fingerprint classification, speech analysis, DNA sequence identification, man and machine diagnostics, person identification and industrial inspection. The interest in improving the classification systems of data analysis is independent from the context of applications. In fact, in many studies it is often the case to have to recognize and to distinguish groups of various objects, which requires the need for valid instruments capable to perform this task. The objective of this article is to show several methodologies of Artificial Intelligence for data classification applied to biomedical patterns. In particular, this work deals with the realization of a Computer-Aided Detection system (CADe) that is able to assist the radiologist in identifying types of mammary tumor lesions. As an additional biomedical application of the classification systems, we present a study conducted on blood samples which shows how these methods may help to distinguish between carriers of Thalassemia (or Mediterranean Anaemia) and healthy subjects.

    Tuning Neurons to Interaural Intensity Differences Using Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    Mammals are known to use Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) to determine azimuthal position of high frequency sounds. In the Lateral Superior Olive (LSO) neurons have firing behaviours which vary systematicaly with IID. Those neurons receive excitatory inputs from the ipsilateral ear and inhibitory inputs from the contralateral one. The IID sensitivity of a LSO neuron is thought to be due to delay differences between both ears, delays due to different synaptic delays and to intensity-dependent delays. In this paper we model the auditory pathway until the LSO. Inputs to LSO neurons are at first numerous and differ in their relative delays. Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity is then used to prune those connections. We compare the pruned neuron responses with physiological data and analyse the relationship between IID-s of teacher stimuli and IID sensitivities of trained LSO neurons.

    Ranking Genes from DNA Microarray Data of Cervical Cancer by a local Tree Comparison

    The major objective of this paper is to introduce a new method to select genes from DNA microarray data. As criterion to select genes we suggest to measure the local changes in the correlation graph of each gene and to select those genes whose local changes are largest. More precisely, we calculate the correlation networks from DNA microarray data of cervical cancer whereas each network represents a tissue of a certain tumor stage and each node in the network represents a gene. From these networks we extract one tree for each gene by a local decomposition of the correlation network. The interpretation of a tree is that it represents the n-nearest neighbor genes on the n-th level of a tree, measured by the Dijkstra distance, and, hence, gives the local embedding of a gene within the correlation network. For the obtained trees we measure the pairwise similarity between trees rooted by the same gene from normal to cancerous tissues. This evaluates the modification of the tree topology due to tumor progression. Finally, we rank the obtained similarity values from all tissue comparisons and select the top ranked genes. For these genes the local neighborhood in the correlation networks changes most between normal and cancerous tissues. As a result we find that the top ranked genes are candidates suspected to be involved in tumor growth. This indicates that our method captures essential information from the underlying DNA microarray data of cervical cancer.

    Burst on Hurst Algorithm for Detecting Activity Patterns in Networks of Cortical Neurons

    Electrophysiological signals were recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons coupled to Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs). The neuronal discharge patterns may change under varying physiological and pathological conditions. For this reason, we developed a new burst detection method able to identify bursts with peculiar features in different experimental conditions (i.e. spontaneous activity and under the effect of specific drugs). The main feature of our algorithm (i.e. Burst On Hurst), based on the auto-similarity or fractal property of the recorded signal, is the independence from the chosen spike detection method since it works directly on the raw data.

    Object Localization in Medical Images Using Genetic Algorithms

    We present a genetic algorithm application to the problem of object registration (i.e., object detection, localization and recognition) in a class of medical images containing various types of blood cells. The genetic algorithm approach taken here is seen to be most appropriate for this type of image, due to the characteristics of the objects. Successful cell registration results on real life microscope images of blood cells show the potential of the proposed approach.

    Statistics over Lyapunov Exponents for Feature Extraction: Electroencephalographic Changes Detection Case

    A new approach based on the consideration that electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are chaotic signals was presented for automated diagnosis of electroencephalographic changes. This consideration was tested successfully using the nonlinear dynamics tools, like the computation of Lyapunov exponents. This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the Lyapunov exponents in order to reduce the dimensionality of the extracted feature vectors. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of electroencephalographic changes. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signals recorded from healthy volunteers with eyes open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures) were classified. The selected Lyapunov exponents of the EEG signals were used as inputs of the MLPNN trained with Levenberg- Marquardt algorithm. The classification results confirmed that the proposed MLPNN has potential in detecting the electroencephalographic changes.

    Long-Term Simulation of Digestive Sound Signals by CEPSTRAL Technique

    In this study, an investigation over digestive diseases has been done in which the sound acts as a detector medium. Pursue to the preprocessing the extracted signal in cepstrum domain is registered. After classification of digestive diseases, the system selects random samples based on their features and generates the interest nonstationary, long-term signals via inverse transform in cepstral domain which is presented in digital and sonic form as the output. This structure is updatable or on the other word, by receiving a new signal the corresponding disease classification is updated in the feature domain.

    Wavelet Compression of ECG Signals Using SPIHT Algorithm

    In this paper we present a novel approach for wavelet compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals based on the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) coding algorithm. SPIHT algorithm has achieved prominent success in image compression. Here we use a modified version of SPIHT for one dimensional signals. We applied wavelet transform with SPIHT coding algorithm on different records of MIT-BIH database. The results show the high efficiency of this method in ECG compression.

    Bridging the Mental Gap between Convolution Approach and Compartmental Modeling in Functional Imaging: Typical Embedding of an Open Two-Compartment Model into the Systems Theory Approach of Indicator Dilution Theory

    Functional imaging procedures for the non-invasive assessment of tissue microcirculation are highly requested, but require a mathematical approach describing the trans- and intercapillary passage of tracer particles. Up to now, two theoretical, for the moment different concepts have been established for tracer kinetic modeling of contrast agent transport in tissues: pharmacokinetic compartment models, which are usually written as coupled differential equations, and the indicator dilution theory, which can be generalized in accordance with the theory of lineartime- invariant (LTI) systems by using a convolution approach. Based on mathematical considerations, it can be shown that also in the case of an open two-compartment model well-known from functional imaging, the concentration-time course in tissue is given by a convolution, which allows a separation of the arterial input function from a system function being the impulse response function, summarizing the available information on tissue microcirculation. Due to this reason, it is possible to integrate the open two-compartment model into the system-theoretic concept of indicator dilution theory (IDT) and thus results known from IDT remain valid for the compartment approach. According to the long number of applications of compartmental analysis, even for a more general context similar solutions of the so-called forward problem can already be found in the extensively available appropriate literature of the seventies and early eighties. Nevertheless, to this day, within the field of biomedical imaging – not from the mathematical point of view – there seems to be a trench between both approaches, which the author would like to get over by exemplary analysis of the well-known model.

    Extracting Tongue Shape Dynamics from Magnetic Resonance Image Sequences

    An important problem in speech research is the automatic extraction of information about the shape and dimensions of the vocal tract during real-time speech production. We have previously developed Southampton dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (SDMRI) as an approach to the solution of this problem.However, the SDMRI images are very noisy so that shape extraction is a major challenge. In this paper, we address the problem of tongue shape extraction, which poses difficulties because this is a highly deforming non-parametric shape. We show that combining active shape models with the dynamic Hough transform allows the tongue shape to be reliably tracked in the image sequence.

    New Graph Similarity Measurements based on Isomorphic and Nonisomorphic Data Fusion and their Use in the Prediction of the Pharmacological Behavior of Drugs

    New graph similarity methods have been proposed in this work with the aim to refining the chemical information extracted from molecules matching. For this purpose, data fusion of the isomorphic and nonisomorphic subgraphs into a new similarity measure, the Approximate Similarity, was carried out by several approaches. The application of the proposed method to the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) has provided reliable tools for predicting several pharmacological parameters: binding of steroids to the globulin-corticosteroid receptor, the activity of benzodiazepine receptor compounds, and the blood brain barrier permeability. Acceptable results were obtained for the models presented here.

    Comparison of Fricative Vocal Tract Transfer Functions Derived using Two Different Segmentation Techniques

    The acoustic and articulatory properties of fricative speech sounds are being studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic recordings from a single subject. Area functions were derived from a complete set of axial and coronal MR slices using two different methods: the Mermelstein technique and the Blum transform. Area functions derived from the two techniques were shown to differ significantly in some cases. Such differences will lead to different acoustic predictions and it is important to know which is the more accurate. The vocal tract acoustic transfer function (VTTF) was derived from these area functions for each fricative and compared with measured speech signals for the same fricative and same subject. The VTTFs for /f/ in two vowel contexts and the corresponding acoustic spectra are derived here; the Blum transform appears to show a better match between prediction and measurement than the Mermelstein technique.

    Application of Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) for Removal of Ocular Artifacts from Electroencephalogram

    The electrical potentials generated during eye movements and blinks are one of the main sources of artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and can propagate much across the scalp, masking and distorting brain signals. In recent times, signal separation algorithms are used widely for removing artifacts from the observed EEG data. In this paper, a recently introduced signal separation algorithm Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) is employed to separate ocular artifacts from EEG. The aim of MILCA is to minimize the Mutual Information (MI) between the independent components (estimated sources) under a pure rotation. Performance of this algorithm is compared with eleven popular algorithms (Infomax, Extended Infomax, Fast ICA, SOBI, TDSEP, JADE, OGWE, MS-ICA, SHIBBS, Kernel-ICA, and RADICAL) for the actual independence and uniqueness of the estimated source components obtained for different sets of EEG data with ocular artifacts by using a reliable MI Estimator. Results show that MILCA is best in separating the ocular artifacts and EEG and is recommended for further analysis.

    Classification Control for Discrimination between Interictal Epileptic and Non – Epileptic Pathological EEG Events

    In this study, the problem of discriminating between interictal epileptic and non- epileptic pathological EEG cases, which present episodic loss of consciousness, investigated. We verify the accuracy of the feature extraction method of autocross-correlated coefficients which extracted and studied in previous study. For this purpose we used in one hand a suitable constructed artificial supervised LVQ1 neural network and in other a cross-correlation technique. To enforce the above verification we used a statistical procedure which based on a chi- square control. The classification and the statistical results showed that the proposed feature extraction is a significant accurate method for diagnostic discrimination cases between interictal and non-interictal EEG events and specifically the classification procedure showed that the LVQ neural method is superior than the cross-correlation one.

    Effect of Non-Newtonian Behaviour of Blood on Pulsatile Flows in Stenotic Arteries

    In this paper, we study the pulsatile flow of blood through stenotic arteries. The inner layer of arterial walls is modeled as a porous medium and human blood is assumed as an incompressible fluid. A numerical algorithm based on the finite element method is developed to simulate the blood flow through both the lumen region and the porous wall. The algorithm is then applied to study the flow behaviour and to investigate the significance of the non-Newtonian effect.

    Quality-Controlled Compression Method using Wavelet Transform for Electrocardiogram Signals

    This paper presents a new Quality-Controlled, wavelet based, compression method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Initially, an ECG signal is decomposed using the wavelet transform. Then, the resulting coefficients are iteratively thresholded to guarantee that a predefined goal percent root mean square difference (GPRD) is matched within tolerable boundaries. The quantization strategy of extracted non-zero wavelet coefficients (NZWC), according to the combination of RLE, HUFFMAN and arithmetic encoding of the NZWC and a resulting look up table, allow the accomplishment of high compression ratios with good quality reconstructed signals.

    Efficient Method for ECG Compression Using Two Dimensional Multiwavelet Transform

    In this paper we introduce an effective ECG compression algorithm based on two dimensional multiwavelet transform. Multiwavelets offer simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry and short support, which is not possible with scalar two-channel wavelet systems. These features are known to be important in signal processing. Thus multiwavelet offers the possibility of superior performance for image processing applications. The SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding. We suggested applying SPIHT algorithm to 2-D multiwavelet transform of2-D arranged ECG signals. Experiments on selected records of ECG from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the proposed algorithm is significantly more efficient in comparison with previously proposed ECG compression schemes.